Review of the book "Introverts - how to use the features of his character," or why you should not watch porn in the workplace
Author of the book - Susan Kane , for many years has studied the phenomenon of introversion. For the first time about her, I learned from the blog of my colleague, Olga Romanova . The book that has proved so useful that I now just can not share it. And read it or not is up to you.
Who are introverts
Conventionally, all people can be divided into two groups, introverts and extroverts. Introvert - a man who knows how to communicate one-on-one better than in a group. It is better to work alone, it is better to express thoughts in writing. They like to dive deep into the work, do not cope with the need to perform multiple tasks simultaneously and strongly loses its rhythm when they are distracted. Introverts do not like to discuss the matter until their completion, do not like direct conflict, much to risk. With extroverts, respectively, all strictly opposite. But we must remember that introverts and extroverts net is very small.
Considered and scattered in the book at least the following myths:
Introverts - unsociable people. Outgoing. They just prefer to communicate face to face. Communication in a large group, even in the positive, benevolent atmosphere drinks are all forces. Sorry for the picture with text in JPEG. It is not quite true, but the point passes. I>
Introverts are not suitable for executive positions. Oddly enough, fit but the ideal would be a combination of either "extroverted leaders - employees introverts" or "head of the introvert - extrovert employees." In the first case, the main thing that their leaders have learned to listen and not just talk. The leaders extroverts like their ideas much more. The head of the introvert is enough to be oneself, to listen to ideas, to weigh the pros and cons. Keep the handle of whom did not have, and extroverts themselves quite energetic. But negotiating with other managers or customers it will be a bit more complicated.
The usefulness of brainstorming sessions. The book will be a lot of references to studies that can be reduced to one: brainstorms are not working. Yes, the group may generate a bunch of ideas, but with increasing number of participants, and, more importantly, the quality falls ideas. The introduction of various rules like "not to judge other people's ideas" does not help. The fact that no one commented on the idea right here and now, does not mean that none of it is bad not to think and not to discuss it later, or remind you of it. And since man a social being, he will still think "and how would react to my idea".
The funny thing is that the discussion of ideas and the resolution does not help in this situation. As an example - the story of one of the experiments to fear of condemnation Assembled a group of students were asked to check her eyesight. 3 shows images of sections of different lengths, were asked to name which of the 3 is longer than the other two, as well as which one is 4MU, reference. 95% answered correctly After the group included people who said a deliberate lie. Now correct answers given Only 25% Students! Moreover, the study of brain scans showed that this was not an agreement with the lie, no, changed the very opinion & quot; Based on the results of these experiments, the group has on the human brain is the same effect as psychotropic substances. i> & quot; (quote from the book).
Considered and such a phenomenon as краудсорсинг. Painfully often like to cite as an example the success of Wikipedia and Linux, but at the same time somehow forget that all participants in these projects were herded into one openspeys, they work individually, at their own situation, corresponding non-real time, and through mail or conference / mailing. Introverts work effectively for the common cause, doing their part alone.
Introverts smarter than extroverts. No. According to studies, the obvious differences in the level of IQ is not observed. Moreover, extroverts even better cope with the problems that have to be done in a hurry or under social pressure; they show better results while performing multiple tasks simultaneously. However, introverts are much better able to cope with the problems, the solution of which plays an important role persistence.
quote from the book. Perseverance - not such be approved quality. If genius - is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration, in our culture, the importance of this one percent is too exaggerated. We like its tinsel. But the remaining ninety-nine percent of a much larger potential.
In the first chapter the basic physiological characteristics of extroverts and introverts. The first key point lies in the area of the brain called "миндалевидное body ". Namely, it receives information from the senses, and then transmits the information to the nervous system about how to react. Do introverts it reacts stronger than extroverts, these people are united by the term "highly reactive" or "highly sensitive". Such people grow cautious, careful, serious. It is understandable, if any stimulus is perceived by you urgently, then you begin to worry.
Of course, just this reason no bearing on who you become, introvert or extrovert, more important role playing experience that lays the character. In one situation can no longer affect temperament, a different environment. As always in psychophysiology, the reasons are always more than one.
But not a single amygdala. There is also the префронтальная bark , helps us, among other things, to overcome unfounded fears. Nevertheless, the prefrontal cortex does not control the amygdala, namely that "damps signals". Therefore, in a stressful situation long forgotten fear of heights or statements can return because the prefrontal cortex is busy with more important things.
The second key difference between extroverts from introverts - the level of activity in the brain's structure, which is often termed « promotion system ». In introverts, it is less active as a result they are less amenable to "overexcitation in anticipation of the reward." And pay attention, they are not less sensitive to reward, just better able to control the cravings and wonder "and whether I need this carrot?".
quote from the book (about porn ... erotica). Studies have shown that men who have shown erotic pictures to gamble risk more than those who have shown neutral images, such as tables and chairs . It turns out that the anticipation of any reward, not even related to the photos in question, activate the reward system, involving dopamine functioning, and causes us to act more recklessly. (Perhaps this is the only convincing argument in favor of the prohibition of pornographic images in the workplace.)
World extroverts (but not quite)
Later in the book considered the indisputable fact that extraversion in American society is the ideal of conduct. And not only in the US, we have all the same.
quote from the book. In our society governed by the system of values, which I call "The Perfect extrovert" or omnipresent belief that the ideal "I" must be sociable, dominant and confident feel in the spotlight. An extrovert prefers action thinking, risk - diligence and self - doubt. It is leaning towards a quick solution despite the high probability of their fallibility , works well in a team and does not have problems with socialization. We like to think that we value individuality, whereas in most cases, only one type of personality is our admiration - a man who is used to overcome the difficulties that toiling at work in order to achieve their goals.
Of course, we allow all gifted eccentrics to single, to create a company in the garage, to show their identity as they please, but it is rather an exception to the rule - our tolerance extends usually on those who manage fabulously rich, or at least a those who submit to this hope.
But society needs both extroverts and introverts so. Extroverts often do not hear what they say introverts (and they do not speak idly), extroverts also forced his idea, even if it is not good enough. Harvard - environment for extroverts. From there come the people who subsequently occupy high positions and decide our fate. An entire chapter is dedicated to Susan at the crash on Wall Street in 2008. In the hands of aggressive people who are able to take risks, it proved to be too much power. Diligence is not solved, but they are not as affected.
An interesting point is the fact that Asia is the opposite - the ideal is introverted thinker, activity and habit of speaking confidently, carelessly, is a sign of narrow-minded, empty.
In general, various tips are scattered throughout the book, but mixed in a pile of arguments and examples. However, some of the chapters give a very direct, specific advice.
The fifth chapter, for example, is subtitled "outside of temperament (the secret of public appearances for introverts) & quot ;. Although the "secret" considered somewhere near the end of the chapter, and it is absolutely not a secret ... But I will not quote it. Another reason to read the book itself, believe me, it will be interesting. ;)
The last part of the book (in the amount of three chapters) called "How to love, how to work" and provides answers to questions such as "how to communicate with an extrovert introvert (and vice versa)." If the 14 words, the introvert will have to switch to pseudo-extrovert and extrovert - ensure, that, and not as a says his companion and to take into account that negotiations tete-a-tete will greatly benefit for both of them.
The latest chapter is devoted entirely to the issue of "how to raise a child, an introvert," and I think any parents it will be useful. Still, how we work in schools with introverts? Entries like "Lena had little contact with other students! This is a serious problem! "- Everyday business. Parents hold the same logic of violence on the psyche of the child, which is fundamentally wrong. But through the whole book, the red line is the idea that introversion - not a disease, not an aberration and not a vice, it's just a different way to perceive the world and interact with it.
However, before the introduction to this remarkable book is to learn about some of its shortcomings.
Firstly, it is written in a very American style. That is, any thought will be chewed up the subatomic level, from the start this was physically tired. There is a feeling that not even 10 * , and the 15% -20% can be thrown out without prejudice. On the other hand, it is just my opinion.
* This is the council of Stephen King's book "On Writing," "clean copy = draft - 10%." Great book, I recommend as a bonus've read here. I>
Secondly, in some places a few tongue-tied style, maybe this is the wine interpreter. While most of the book is still quite readable.
Third and most importantly, fans of DC Comics indignant, looking at here is a quote from the book: "... equivalent to Batman loneliness, the last son of Krypton ...". No, maybe it was meant to mixing of the two franchises as a joke, but still more like a joint. I do not deny it, and the possible amateur translators.
Who this book is worth reading
Everyone, without exception.
Introverts - it will help to overcome the problems of identity, to draw conclusions, do what like, change jobs or style of work organization, to understand the relationship. The book goes both in terms of practical tips and motivational plan will be something to think about. After all, throughout the book is the idea that introversion - not a vice and the lack, so you just need to learn how to use their strengths. Even if someone will make in the book is only the thought - a victory.
Extroverts - because, according to studies, introverts make up between a third and half of the population. Among your colleagues certainly have introverts, even if some of them and has the behavior of pseudo-extrovert. No need to play the role they could work comfortably, so - effective. Would you agree to live in a world without Newton or Einstein, Linus Torvalds and Bill Gates?
Even lovers to prove "that the author is not right, all the above nonsense" - in the book are many, many references to the sources used, and studies of the bibliographic envy another PhD thesis.
So now you just have no excuse! Moreover, I could not in such a short article to list all that is in this book. Read, meditate, and make this world at least a little better.
P.S. Thank Olga Romanova , for what led me to this book, and Igor Lukanin , for the fact that this post helped to become more intuitive and less tedious.