The Russian people is sharp on the tongue. For short, as they say, in the pocket will not climb. However, taking again expletive of "lexical pocket" is not superfluous to learn about its original meaning. Why is it, in fact, become abusive?
Perhaps the most common (along with the "female" option - a fool) of domestic expletives. I must say that "fools" in Russia appeared relatively recently: in wide use that word entered in the second half of the XVII century with a light hand Avvakum. The leader of the Old Believers in the hearts of fans referred to as "devilish wisdom": rhetoric, philosophy, logic, etc. Interestingly, the champions of the old faith then became known as "fools" the defenders of correcting the liturgical books at the time of the reforms of Patriarch Nikon.
It is interesting that Habakkuk spied the word of skomorosheskoy culture: probably it was the name of one of the gang of buffoons. Linguists believe that the "fool" is derived from the Indo-dur (bite, sting) and literally translates as "bitten", "stung". Perhaps the "title" fool was associated with ritual initiation into buffoons - according to one version a person must have survived the bite of a viper. By the way, on the basis of this hypothesis, saying "fool flock together", most likely originally had to do it to the buffoons. Fools in the current semantic meaning, hardly able to identify their own kind.
The word comes from the verb "to drag", "drag". Initially, "bastard" meant "svolochёnny anywhere trash." Then it began to move to the concept of tramps and other "useless people."
This is a curse we have learned from the Lithuanians, who used the term "base" for people with low-born origin. In the XVIII century the word "vile people" was the official term, which in the state document represents the so-called "irregular" citizens, not part of the middle class. As a rule, they were laborers, migrant workers from the countryside who live in a semi-legal status (such as "limitchikov" of the Soviet era). Only at the end of the XVIII century the word "bastard", "bitch" joined Dictionary philistine intolerance