The metabolic flexibility (metabolic fitness) - the ability to switch from one "fuel" source to another. Due to the possible changes in the requirements and the energy entering the human body should be capable of use as fuel and fats, and carbohydrates, as well as to make a transition from one power source to another. Healthy body condition presupposes this ability, called metabolic flexibility.
Options fuel for humans:
stocked carbohydrates (glycogen),
The use of protein as an energy source is very limited if you are not in extreme conditions. As a result, we come to the two major sources of energy - fats (lipids) and carbohydrates
As already discussed, the metabolic flexibility - the ability to switch from one power source to another, that is, with fats and carbohydrates to carbohydrates on fats. Metabolic "rigidity" - the opposite concept is not (or disabilities) switching from one energy source to another. For the person who keeps track of their physical condition, it's terrible - in fact as difficult to drive away from itself fat, if you can not burn it?
Weak metabolic flexibility (stiffness) means that every time a drop in blood sugar level, you feel fatigue, reduced activity in the brain. Do you feel "hungry" for carbohydrates, because they supply the sugar. In this state, weight loss is difficult, but with time increasing the risk of diabetes. It is assumed that the metabolic "rigidity" may also play a role in various pathological processes, such as metabolic syndrome, so along with the improvement of the physical condition of the body, metabolic flexibility is also a positive impact on your overall health!
So, a group of scientists led by Dr. Kelly presented the data about the subjects with type 2 diabetes, showing that they are so inflexible as metabolically as people with a clinical diagnosis of obesity. At rest, they received considerably less energy from the oxidation of lipids (fat burning). In addition, compared with the first group, the second (lean subjects) showed greater podaveniya lipid in a high level of insulin (insulin increased their metabolism changed with zhirogo carbohydrate, it is important and a good thing).
If metabolic flexibility you have to be good, the use of from time to time harmful "bad" food is not a problem for you, because your body without any side effects will convert everything into fuel for energy.
Moreover, the high metabolic flexibility, which allows the body to easily switch to burning fat - one of the most important skills to maintain a slim figure. The body's ability to burn fat quickly, so-called metabolic flexibility, has numerous advantages compared to the burning of sugar - such as health promotion, improving brain function and increasing productivity.
How does metabolic flexibility?
To further explore the themes of today, we have to consider two basic conditions: the power and the intervals between meals. In time intervals metabolically flexible people can easily switch to fat. But the bottom line is that people who have this same metabolic flexibility do not have, can also do this, so that fasting becomes a way to increase the rate of metabolism.
With enough power insulin levels will be much higher due to the incoming energy in the form of food. Although the deployment of insulin threads beyond the objectives of this article, a simplified mention the most important moments: any food product results in the release of insulin, insulin - the switch of fuel, when insulin levels are low, the body is in a fat burning mode when high insulin metabolism shifts towards carbohydrates, including the regime of accumulation and preservation of fat.
The key to understanding metabolic flexibility - awareness of the vital role of the hormone insulin. In good condition, with the normal metabolism of insulin, a person can effectively switch from a predominantly fat metabolism to carbohydrate metabolism, and vice versa.
The good news is that muscle plays a very important role in the energy balance due to its high metabolic activity, the ability to store glycogen and lipid effects on insulin sensitivity. More muscle allows your body to consume more fat and carbohydrates, as muscle tissue is very demanding in terms of metabolism.
How to evaluate the metabolic flexibility?
One way to evaluate the metabolic flexibility is the introduction of a variety of substances, changing metabolic "environment" of the body.
Condition 1: High insulin. Reception drink of whey protein with a considerable amount of simple carbohydrates on an empty stomach - a very effective way to raise the level of insulin (and nothing else is not!). I recommend people to try it for breakfast several times a week and watch her reaction. If you feel that a person literally fall into your drink, it is likely you have a problem of high levels of insulin and, as a result, developed a similar condition. If you feel fine, do not worry
Condition 2: low insulin. I recommend you starve a little for this test. Remember that any food intake causes the release of insulin, and the amount of insulin secretion depends on many factors. In the fasting state of food to stimulate an increase in insulin levels, no. If you find that it is difficult not to eat more than two or three hours, it is likely that you are not very flexible in terms of burning fat. This poor condition. If you can not easily have 5-6 hours, then it is much better.
Metabolic flexible people can easily starve for 24 hours, which means that its lowest point insulin levels reached only after a 24-hour mark. Do not worry about the terrible consequences of catabolism - the value of the catabolic breakdown of muscle proteins during starvation insignificant, to raise cortisol levels also do not worry.
Try to simulate high and low insulin levels. If you feel like a rag after a protein-carbohydrate drink, you are no longer tolerant to high levels of insulin. This means that it is time to add some cardio exercises of low intensity or even slightly starve as etouluchshaet insulin sensitivity
If you can not spend more than three hours without eating, it means your body's ability to burn fat is reduced, so the work on the gradual increase in the intervals between meals. I like to work with clients who practice 24-hour fasting once a week, especially if their goal is to drive away the fat and increase the metabolic rate.
Standard tests for insulin sensitivity + fasting FFA. Remember that "metabolic flexibility" - the ability of skeletal muscle (. And other tissues) to adapt to the dominant substrate associated with normal insulin sensitivity. The mean value of serum FFA concentrations in fasted healthy volunteers - 7, 5 nmol / L (regardless of the age and gender). After a night (fasting) levels of free fatty acids significantly increased by 1, 5 nmol / L. Violation FFA regulation - a key event at insulinorezistetnosti (IR). Repeatedly and reliably shown - the majority of persons suffering from the metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes and / or obesity, FFA levels are elevated, which results in many TS tissues (muscle, liver, adipose, and endothelial cells).
Why you high metabolic flexibility?
The reason №1. It is easier to lose weight
Excellent burn fat - the natural state for human beings. We can go without food, while maintaining the necessary energy for a long time, due to the oxidation of fat stores in the body. However, if a substantial part of the diet are carbohydrates, the body for energy mainly burns glucose (or sugar). Consuming carbohydrates every few hours, we constantly raise the level of insulin and do not give the body to switch to a more powerful fat burning. This condition is poor metabolic flexibility hinders weight loss process, because as soon as the fall in the level of blood sugar, there is an acute sense of hunger that provokes the consumption of large quantities of food. This hunger is extremely difficult to attempt to maintain a calorie deficit.
On the other hand, if the limit amount of carbohydrates to protein and fat, it is possible to cause the body to burn fat for energy. A short hunger strike or simple exclusion of snacks can also increase the body's ability to burn fat throughout the day. The high metabolic flexibility avoids acute hunger, and better transfer of energy deficit, thereby facilitating weight loss process.
Reason №2. Improves quality of sleep
If you have sleep disorders, the reason may be the inability of the body to burn fat. In the body with high metabolic flexibility after meal blood sugar and insulin in blood drops is released hormone leptin, which reduces appetite and triggers the production of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones increase the body temperature to keep warm at night, and the switch body in fat burning mode. The level of the hormone melatonin increases, preparing the body for sleep. As soon as you go to sleep, to increase the burning of fat for energy, the body produces prolactin and growth hormone. These hormones also involved in the elimination of inflammation and recovery of brain neurons.
On the other hand, people with reduced metabolic flexibility usually observed sleep disorders due to a low blood sugar levels and alterations of the circadian rhythms. Low blood sugar is literally awakens, causing the feeling of hunger during the night. If you succumb to hunger and bite something high carbohydrate, the night hormone cascade reaction of leptin, melatonin, thyroid hormones and other hormones will be broken.
Reason №3. Improves conclusion
Output from the body of foreign substances is vital for health and harmony, and the ability to metabolize fat effectively plays a major role in this process. There are two types of "toxic" substances that the body needs to maintain a display of excellent health: fat soluble and water soluble. The water-soluble substance is easily excreted by the kidneys, but the fat soluble is stored in the fat reserves and bring them much more difficult. These include products of human activities, such as pesticides, preservatives, plastics and other contaminants, such as the estrogen component.
If fat burning mechanism is faulty, the output of these foreign substances can be difficult, which increases the "toxic" strain on the body. Over time, this process can lead to cancer, neuropathy, fatigue and other health problems, which create much more trouble than you need.
Reason №4. Slow down aging and increase life expectancy
The process of burning fat, "more pure" than the process of burning carbohydrates, it produces fewer free radicals that circulate in the body and cause oxidative stress and aging. Referring to basic biology, the mitochondria in the cell converts ATP to glucose to gain energy for cell viability. A side product of this process - the free radicals that damage genes, DNA and degrade cell condition. When the body burns glucose instead of fatty acids produce less free radicals and oxidative stress, which causes inflammation decreases, slowing down aging.
Reason №5. Improved cognitive function
Fat burning creates protection for the brain neurons, which leads to improvement of cognitive function and brain health. You may have heard that "the brain needs at least 130 grams of carbohydrates each day," which is why low-carb diets are ineffective. This statement is true only in the case of carbohydrate nutrition and poor metabolic flexibility. If you restrict access to carbohydrates, the liver glycogen (carbohydrate reserves in the liver) will provide the brain with glucose. However, glycogen stores in the liver are small and once they are depleted in the course are ketone bodies. When the body starts to burn fat, the liver produces ketones, which can supply the brain with energy.
One of the scientists - developers ketone diet at Johns Hopkins University wrote that "ketones - a more efficient energy source for the brain" than carbohydrates. Consequently, burning ketones preferred for the brain, as this maintains stability of cognitive function without causing hyperactivity of neurones which die. It also protects the brain at the time of injury, seizures, Alzheimer's disease and similar disorders.
For example, as a result of a study on the elderly with little deterioration in cognitive function in a group of participants who adhered to a low-carbohydrate diet improved the production of ketones. The results of memory tests in this group were higher compared with the control group, which adhered to its usual high carbohydrate diet. The level of ketones is positively correlated with memory function.
Reason №6. Reducing hunger and improving the stability of mood
Acute hunger is a result of low blood sugar or high levels of stress. If you have high levels of fat burning, when the level of sugar falls, the body switches to burning fat, to improve the burning of ketones from fat. You may feel slight hunger after a while, but uncontrolled, destructive hunger is no longer a problem.
On the other hand, if you have never developed a metabolic fat burning mechanism, your energy level and mood plummet as soon as you do not get a portion of carbohydrates every few hours. You become a slave to sugar from carbohydrates to maintain energy, and have enhanced irritability.
Reason №7. Increase vital energy level
Fat - is an exceptional source of energy for vynoslivostnyh sports, because it can be stored in the body. On the contrary, the only kind of carbohydrates, which can store up - this glycogen in the muscles and in the liver, but glycogen accounts for only 5 percent of the energy reserves, and it is not enough to overpower the 2-hour marathon. The reserves of body fat are almost unlimited source of energy that can support physical activity for several days. Yes, fat burning involves physical activity lower than the maximum that can be achieved by burning carbohydrates, however, life is not to live at a constant maximum force. On the contrary, most of the daily activities carried out just at the intensity level that is available on the fat burning. Our cells literally come to life when we burn fat, they regenerate.
In addition, if the body's high metabolic flexibility is in the early stages of competitions vynoslivostnyh you spend less glycogen than those who burn their glycogen at once. Thus, an additional supply of glycogen is stored for later stages of lengthy events when fatigue increases.
Reason №8. Increased sensitivity to insulin and improve metabolism
The adaptation of the body to burn fat has many positive additional effects for the metabolism, including the restoration of sensitivity to insulin and improve the metabolic health markers. For example, when fat burning is enhanced, reduced blood triglyceride levels dangerous to cause blockage of the arteries. In addition, the burning of fat cells is particularly useful for health. Our body undergoes genetic reactions, an important part of which - the process of cell recovery. This recovery process, called autophagy, begins within the constraints of access to food, when the body is forced to turn to fat reserves. It can also speed on a low-carb diet ketone, which requires a high level of metabolic flexibility.
Reason №9. Reducing the risk of cancer development.
One interesting fact about the metabolism of cancer cells is that most of them rely solely on blood glucose as an energy source. This is called the Warburg effect. Normal cells in the body have a certain metabolic flexibility. Если уровень инсулина низок, они могут начать использовать жирные кислоты или кетоновые тела, чтобы обеспечить себя энергией. Большинство раковых клеток не в состоянии сделать это. Они нуждаются в глюкозе. В онкологии под эффектом Варбурга понимают тенденцию большинства раковых клеток производить энергию преимущественно с помощью очень активного гликолиза с последующим образованием молочной кислоты, а не посредством медленного гликолиза и окисления пирувата в митохондриях с использованием кислорода как в большинстве нормальных клеток. В клетках быстро растущей злокачественной опухоли уровень гликолиза почти в 200 раз выше, чем в нормальных тканях. При этом гликолиз остаётся предпочтительным даже в условиях, когда кислород в избытке. Было показано in vitro, что высокий уровень глюкозы ускоряет распространения раковых клеток, в то время как её нехватка приводит к апоптозу. Эти результаты инициировали дальнейшее изучение влияния содержания глюкозы на рост опухоли. Клинические данные показывают, что снижение уровня глюкозы в крови на поздней стадии рака коррелирует с лучшей выживаемостью пациентов. Метаболическое перепрограммирование наблюдается и при нейродегенеративных заболеваниях, болезни Альцгеймера и Паркинсона. Оно заключается в усилении окислительного фосфорилирования — так называемый инверсивный эффект Варбурга.
Заключение и базовые советы.
Есть два основных способа улучшить метаболическую гибкость:
1) снизить общее количество потребляемых углеводов в пользу белков и жира, которые, как уже было показано, ускоряют сжигание жира у здоровых людей,
2) увеличить интенсивность тренировок (аэробных и интервальных), это ускоряет сжигание жира как у стройных людей, так и у страдающих ожирением.
Для людей с избыточным весов и ведущих сидячий образ жизни, тренировка — это катализатор усиления метаболической гибкости даже в том случае, если смена диеты не привела к результатам в короткий промежуток времени. Данные исследования показывают, что высокоинтенсивные интервальные тренировки могут усилить сжигание жира как у стройных людей, так и у людей с ожирением. Сочетание диеты с тренировками поможет достичь оптимальной адаптации для сохранения стройной фигуры и здоровья. По данным одного исследования на людях, страдающих ожирением, выполнение аэробных упражнений усиливает сжигание жира, тогда как одним только ограничением углеводов и увеличением количества жира в рационе этого не добиться. Ученые считают упражнения катализатором повышения метаболической гибкости у людей с ожирением.
Перед сном иногда потребляйте «полезный» жир, если у вас трудности с засыпанием (мучает голод). Если уровень сахара в крови низкий и во время сна уровень сжигания жира также низкий, то потребление «полезного» жира, такого как кокосовое масло, может помочь. Такой подход помогает избегать пиков инсулина и ухудшения выработки лептина. Вдобавок повышается способность организма сжигать жир ночью.
Разумеется, соблюдайте чистые перерывы между приемами пищи (никаких перекусов). Ограничение приема пищи до 8-12 часов в день может повысить сжигание жира и привести к снижению веса. Этот способ предполагает воздержание от пищи за пределами «пищевого окна», что позволяет улучшить сжигание жира.
Автор: Андрей Беловешкин