Social and market relations
a Few years ago AARP (American organization that cares about pensioners and their rights) sent letters to lawyers with the request to provide services to the elderly poor at subsidized prices – $30 per hour (typical lawyer takes for the work is $150-$300 per hour). Almost all lawyers have said "no". Then Association of retired persons changed tactics. They repeated the list, but this time the question was different – could you help and advice free of charge to needy elderly?
At this time, the majority of lawyers agreed.
Although from an economic point of view, the situation may seem crazy – why give up $ 30 per hour, but to agree to work for free psychologists this result will not surprise. In fact, the lawyers showed themselves as it is written in the textbooks on the theory of decision-making.
The fact that man functions in two systems. One of them is the market. In such situations, people always think about their benefits.
For example, when you buy something, or when I work. But there is also a social system, when one operates in accordance with social norms.
We do not translate grandmothers across the street for the money and not expect us to open the door someone give the ruble.
From MIT Professor Dan Ariely has conducted a series of experiments, which show excellent how to change human behavior, if it is to move from a market system to the social and back.
Ariel wrote a simple computer program. Left on the screen was a circle, right – square. The circle had the mouse to drag the square, then both figures disappeared, then appeared again, and the operation had to be repeated.
Dan gathered students and said that they will participate in a psychological experiment, they will need to drag the pieces for five minutes, and the computer will keep track of. But the experiment consisted in the following – the first group of students were asked five dollars. A good amount for five minutes "work". The second group was offered fifty cents. That is obvious penny. The third group generally money is not offered. Drag the circles into squares – lesson superskunk and uninteresting that it was an important moment.
The group average was dragged 159 circles in five minutes. Group number two with a meager pay – 101.The third group (free) – 168.
It is obvious that the first two groups were placed in the market conditions – they were offered money for the work. And if five dollars is good money for students, fifty cents is an obvious change. Therefore, this part of students are not particularly bothered.The third group was placed in the market conditions. Perhaps they believed that can help to make a scientific discovery, therefore, worked even harder, although they money is not offered to all.
So, by the way, and behaved lawyers. They were willing to work for their usual fee, like to help for free out of compassion, but an offer to work for $30 per hour is clearly not caused in them enthusiasm as the students of group number two.
But back to our Professor. He decided to repeat the experiment. But this time the situation was different. The first group received for attending five dollars, and Godiva chocolates, which cost exactly five dollars. The second group received a Snickers bar, the cost of which, again, was 50 cents. The third group is again not received anything.
What were the results this time? All three groups showed approximately the same productivity – 169, 162, 168. It is obvious that the offer of chocolate instead of money pulled people out of the market type of thinking.
But the scientist couldn't stop. He again decided to repeat the experiment with chocolate, but now he not only offered chocolate, he also pointed to its price – Godiva, $5; Snickers — $0.50.
What happened? The results were identical with the first experiment, the students from group 2 dramatically I don't want to work for sneakers that cost fifty cents, although it worked fine for Snickers, the price of which was not specified.
The work of Dan Ariely is very important for understanding how people work. Once you start pricing, then you put the person in the market situation and it radically changes his behavior.Moreover, nothing to pay person sometimes more profitable than to offer a minimum wage job – it can turn against you.
And finally, the research Ariely explain why friendship or other informal (for example, love) relations can quickly deteriorate, as soon as there are financial relationships between two people.It's not because people are spoiled, but because these actions move the person from social norms into market relations, and in these two worlds people to think in completely different ways.
If you don't believe – offer your wife the money for the relationship, and see how rapidly you will begin to change your life.published
P. S. And remember, just changing your mind — together we change the world! ©