The word "immunity" I know everything, but what it stands for, is usually known only to experts. Why he rises from the intake of vitamin C and reduced if you live in a room polluted with toxic fumes? Why fish oil helps to ensure that the child is not ill with otitis media? The immune system
The immune system is a protective system of the body. It is designed to protect us from viral, bacterial or fungal infection of the surrounding world and from the cells of its own body who have violated the organization and that can turn into cancer. And, of course, from all foreign, that is not a part of us.
The immune response can be of two types:
ТН1 cells responsible for cellular immunity, ТН2 for humoral. The immune response involves lymphocytes which are of two types: T and B. T lymphocytes is represented by several species (T-helpers, T-suppressors, T-killers) and are responsible for cellular immunity, that is involved in the case that the virus inside the cell and are inaccessible to antibodies. If this is an extracellular microbe, then cope with it b-lymphocytes which produce immunoglobulins (antibodies) of five species.
When the balance between TH1 and TH2, which have to be full parts of the immune systems biased towards humoral, and cell, "killing" of intracellular microbes is not enough, there is a tendency to chronic inflammation, including the intestinal mucosa, on the one hand, and an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, when a "stranger" are taken, quite healthy cells. To autoimmune diseases include:
lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, syndrome Rayno, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, various myopathies, nerve/muscle degenerative processes, and a number of other complex and virtually untreatable diseases.
In immunology while a lot of white spots, so doctors are urged to be careful with uncontrolled intake of Immunostimulants even of vegetable origin (a type of Echinacea). The use of adjuvants is not the best solution, because it can change the ratio between ТН1 and ТН2 cells and contribute to the development of infections.Antigenic viral load
Antigenic viral load — this means that any virus entering the human body, carries a foreign antigen to which the immune system must respond with antibody production is built on this principle of the effects of many vaccinations.
Sometimes this answer is insufficient — is a defeat of the virus cells of the body, sometimes the answer to excess — and then the immune system fails to recognize the intruder and attacks its own cells.Autoimmune disorders
Cells-helper cells (the defenders) and killer cells (killer) can usually distinguish between what is his and others. All alien they will attack and destroy it. Defenders recognize belonging to their for protein markers on the surface of each cell.
Other cells or particles do not have these marks on the surface, so the immune defenders attack them. If the immune system is all right, it's supposed to work that way. But sometimes protein of the label change, and the immune system begins to fail. Losing the ability to know their defenders will attack cells of your own body, as if they are alien.
When this happens, develop autoimmune (directed at your own body) disease. The immune system diseases of this type include: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, syndrome Rayno, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, various myopathies and nerve/muscle degenerative processes.
For the prevention of autoimmune diseases it is recommended to take essential fatty acids and antioxidants, which include vitamins C, E, selenium etc.
The miracle of the human immune system
For anybody not a secret that every country allocates the lion's share of its budget on defense. The state must always be ready to internal or external threats, war, acts of terrorism, sabotage. Army, air and Navy should be equipped and constantly upgraded with the latest weaponry.
The human body is also surrounded by many enemies and is constantly under threat of aggression. These enemies are bacteria, viruses and other microbes. They can be everywhere in our environment — from the inhaled air to drinking water.
However, most people do not know that the human body has a powerful army opposing the enemy — protective or otherwise — immune system. It's a real army of "soldiers" and "officers" of different corps, specially trained and uses all the latest technology up to chemical weapons.
Every day and even every second of this army reflects the onslaught of the enemy forces, being on guard of our health. The war between them may be local skirmishes and all-out war. This total war we call disease.
The essence of this war almost never changes. The aggressor, invading a sovereign body, attempts to disguise and to mislead the enemy's defenses. Defense sends in a team to find the enemy, and, according to the obtained data, starts the production of the corresponding weapons.
After that, the army enters the hot battle, defeated the enemy, declares a cease-fire that cleanses the battlefield and, in case of a repeated aggression of the enemy, prudently starts the case with information about it...
Let's look at this interesting war closer.The besieged fortress: the human body
The human body is like a fortress under siege. Enemies are constantly looking for a weak spot, a gap in this fortress. The wall of this fortress is the human skin. Contained in the cells of human skin keratin is a impassable barrier for bacteria and fungi.
Foreign agents on the skin surface are unable to overcome this barrier and to penetrate into the body. Besides, the outer layer of skin that contains keratin is continuously updated to peel off and the underlying layer of the skin. Thus, these uninvited guests, being sandwiched between the layers of skin are removed from the body together with dead skin as it updates. To enter the body, they can only through a wound on the skin.At the forefront
Gateway viruses are often the respiratory tract. The enemies are trying to enter the body through the air we breathe. However, they are met elements of the mucus in the nose and special cells in the lungs (phagocytes) devour the enemy. In most cases, they just cope with them and take the situation under control. And the microbes that prefer to enter the body with food, neutralizing the hydrochloric acid in the stomach and enzymes in the intestine.The struggle between enemies
In various parts of the human body (skin, skin folds, mouth and nasal cavity, eyes, upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitals) there are certain microbes that do not cause us disease.
During the aggression these microbes get up to fight "foreign" microbes, because of the occupation exposed and their own "possession". We can define them as "mercenaries" working for our body. Pursuing their interests, they guard the territory they occupy. Thus, the regular army of the body abut and these "microporosity".
The first line of defense of our body is skin. Light a cut or wound on the skin meant that over the body is already in danger because viruses and bacteria can easily penetrate through them. In this case, the enemies of bacteria and viruses — phagocytes — rush to the scene, ready to absorb dangerous germs.
On the other hand, the body, wasting no time, begins to repair the wound to prevent further penetration of the hazardous agents.Step by step to the hot battle
If an alien micro-organism will be able to slip past border outposts and penetrate into the body, it will unfold a full-scale war, because this time the body will mount its regular army and will repel all the rules of martial arts. The strategy of our protective system consists of four main steps:
1. Identification of the enemy and the first resistance
2. Strengthen the defense and preparing the weapons for the attack
3. Attack and battle.
4 Return to civilian life.
The first to meet the hordes of enemies come out macrophages — cells that are capable of devouring enemy (phagocytosis). These cells join with the enemy in "melee" combat, like the infantry on the front lines of the front. Moreover, macrophages work as intelligence agents, secret military agents.
After the dismemberment of the enemy, some of it they keep to themselves. In the future this part will be useful for establishing the identity of the enemy and study its qualities. Macrophages pass this portion of the agencies of the intelligence Directorate of the organism information of the T-cells.
The operation of the virus to capture cells
The virus comes in contact with the cage and firmly clings to its surface (adsorption of the virus on the cell).
In the contact area, the virus allocates a special enzyme that destroys the membrane of the cell, resulting in membrane a hole will appear. The virus is reduced and injects therein a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) in the cell vacuole.
Penetrating into the genome of the virus takes control of the vital activity of cells and using its resources, to synthesize copies of themselves.
All components of the virus independently from each other arrive to the places of Assembly in the cell and assemble new viruses.
After the formation of a sufficient number of new viruses, they "blow up" the cage and go in search of a new host cell. This whole cycle — from the penetration of the virus in the cell to its reproduction — it takes about 20-25 minutes.General alarm
During the war, in any country, declared a General mobilization. All the natural resources and budget go to military spending. The economy is rebuilt according to the military situation and the whole country comes to a rapid movement. These features are inherent to the human body. Once on the verge of imminent war, the body declares General mobilization. How?
The first attacks of the enemy cavalry (macrophages). However, if their forces are unequal, and it can not cope with the enemy, it starts to produce a special substance is "pyrogen" that is a kind of General alarm. This substance after a long journey reaches the brain and stimulates its centre of thermoregulation.
After that, the brain raises the alarm entire body, and in humans, increased temperature. When the temperature rises, the patient, of course, is ill and need to rest. Thus, the energy required liberation army, is not spent for other purposes. As you can see, there is an incredibly complex plan and design of the human body.The regular army in action
The war between alien microorganisms and the immune system becomes even more protracted after the "mobilization", that is, from the moment you laid up in bed.
Infantry (phagocytes) and cavalry (macrophages) was not enough to protect; up the entire body, and the war escalated to the limit. And at this very moment for the struggle connected lymphocytes (T and b cells).
Cavalry (macrophages) passes intercepted them information about the enemy T-helper cells (T-helpers). These cells in turn cause the battlefield of T-killer cells and cells of the selected fighters of the immune system.
Macrophages take the first blow during the defense of the body. They engulf and digest any foreign substances in the blood. In addition, when collision with the enemy, they are immediately called to the assistance of T-helper cells.
During a process called "phagocytosis", a macrophage tries to catch as many bacteria. Bacteria are surrounded by threads of macrophage and destroyed by the cell. After which the bacteria are digested under the influence of chemicals inside the macrophage. In other words, macrophages engulf, process and use obtained in the course of processing the materials of the enemy.
The production of weapons
As soon as b cells receive information about the enemy, they start producing weapons — antibodies. These weapons, like ballistic missiles, only affects those enemies, which has already been reported. This production is so perfect that the three-dimensional structure of alien micro-organism and a manufactured weapon fully match each other like a lock and key.
Antibodies dock with the enemy and neutralize him, then the enemy undermined a similar tank without tracks, barrel and ammunition. Meanwhile, other elements of the immune system surround neutralized the enemy and eliminate him physically.
Here you need to pay attention to the following: the immune system can deal with millions of varieties of foreign agents. And whatever this agent is, b cells can produce against him the appropriate weapon. This means that the immune system has the innate knowledge and ability to do need a key to millions of different types of locks. The ability of unconscious cells to produce millions of types of antibodies and the successful use of this ability proves the creation of their Great Creator.
Moreover, the complexity of the system is not limited only to it. As b cells destroy the purpose of "ballistic" weapon, T-killers also are waging a fierce struggle against the enemy. Some viruses manage to evade prosecution In lymphocytes, hiding in some cells. However, killer T calculate and destroy the infected cell along with lurking in her virus.After the victory
After the defeat of the enemy proceed to the case of T-suppressors. They give the order to cease fire and stop the activity of T-killer cells and b-cells. Thus, the body goes into normal mode. Most T and b cells produced for military purposes, complete their life cycle and die. However, this necessary war will not be forgotten.
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Before the war it took some time before the enemy was discovered, and made appropriate arrangements. If it is a repeated aggression of the enemy, the body will already be alert, because now his defensive system will always serve the group of cells a "memory" that recognizes and storage are the hallmarks of the enemy. When a possible attack in the future, the immune system will be able to react to the enemy and to anticipate his attack, thanks to the information memory cells.
Refresher one mumps or measles, we do not transfer them again, repeatedly, that is, acquired immunity, which is required of this memory in our immune system.published