The quality of modern drinking water, regardless of the method of its delivery leaves much to be desired. This applies not only to Central water but well water, and even artesian wells. In most cases, the problem with pollution of a different sort can be solved with the help of filters. In this article you will learn about the different methods of filtration, and how to choose a water filter when its appropriate to apply and when not recommended. General selection criteria and operational features of the equipment.
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Methods of water purification
Modern models of household filters have different principles of action. Their design, the active substance, the presence and location of filter elements vary considerably. Before you start choosing the filter it is necessary to understand what methods of water purification exist and how they affect water quality.Mechanical cleaning
Mechanical cleaning is used to remove water from solids – sand, rust from pipes, as well as various salts and chemical additives.
The following types of mechanical filter elements:
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Mesh – the fundamental element in the applied mesh, the cell size of which depends on the level of water pollution and is 20-500 microns.
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Synthetic fibre – mesh cylinder is wound a rope or harness, which retain large impurities. In the process of purification and accumulation of harmful substances, the material changes color.Sorption purification
The principle of operation is based on the phenomenon of adsorption – the arrest of microparticles of contamination of the external surface of the filter solids. The active substance is activated carbon. Budget models are equipped with cartridges containing wood (birch) activated carbon. More expensive and efficient cartridges are filled with activated carbon from coconut shell, which has adsorption capacity is 4 times higher.
The main purpose – the removal of various organic compounds and residual chlorine and odors associated with these substances. Filter elements made from coal, have a limited action spectrum for its expansion into the cartridge admixed with ion exchange material. Combination cartridges can remove herbicides, pesticides, particles of asbestos, petroleum products, heavy metal ions.
Adsorbing organic substances, carbon filters can become breeding grounds for bacteria, so they can be used to clean pre-disinfected water. The restoration of the sorption filter at home impossible, and after the exhaustion of its limit they must be disposed of.
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THE CARTRIDGE WITH CARBON SORBENT
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CARTRIDGE WITH A COMBINED SORBENTIon-exchange purification
Ion exchange filter elements are rarely used as standalone devices. They are an integral part of multi-component household cleaning appliances. The main objective was to reduce the water hardness. It is performed by the reaction of ion exchange (substitution), which is based on the binding of calcium ions and magnesium present in water, insoluble complexes. As the active element uses a special synthetic resin with salts of alkali metals: potassium and sodium. It is these elements that react with salts of hardness (calcium and magnesium) and keep them.
There are two types of ion exchange resins, anionic and cationic. They bind hardness salts due to the different types of chemical reactions, but in the process of operation for the average consumer the difference is almost not noticeable. Most cartridges with ion-exchange resins to recover at home. Enough to wash them out with a strong solution of salt to the reverse reaction of substitution.
IMPORTANTLY! After the ion filter mandatory water must be cleaned a charcoal filter.The main disadvantage of ion-exchange purification method is a small resource of functioning till recovery process. Depending on the model it can range from 200 to 800 L.Purification using reverse osmosis membranes
Many sellers of water filters called ultra purification devices combined devices that combine several methods of purification. This is not true. Ultrathin purification involves filtering water using membranes. Ultra-thin with clean water under pressure (some models up to 6 bar) is fed into a membrane filter with a pore size from 0.0015 to 0.1 micron. As a result of this cleaning, all contaminants remain on the surface of the membrane and through the membrane pass only molecules of water. Recently, with the development of nanotechnology, began to be used of the hollow fiber capillary membrane. Their use significantly reduces costs, as the maintenance of wastewater treatment plant and its cost.
Ultrafiltration allows you to remove mechanical impurities, organic substances, colloidal silicon, excessive iron and manganese, and spend virtually complete disinfection of the liquid. The main drawback of this methods are the relatively high installation cost and the need for constant control over the condition of filter membranes and their regular cleaning and/or replacement.
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Module installed the reverse osmosis membrane.Electrochemical cleaning
The electrochemical method for the purification of drinking water used in home filtering devices in conjunction with other methods. The main objective is the improvement of physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of drinking water.
Installation are quite complex, consisting of:
1. Electrochemical reactor;
2. Chip catcher – most models installed in the top of the device;
3. Floating cone-plugs that block the top hole.
4. Electrode block containing three groups of electrodes:
- I and II group form elektrokoagulyatsii pair pack;
- III – consists of electroflotation electrodes.
5. Device switching – adjusts the allocation of positive and negative charges of energy for the cathode and anode packs of electrodes;
6. Some models have the final filters.
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Household electrolytic water.UV — disinfection
Modules for water disinfection by irradiation with ultraviolet light is used in conjunction with other filtration methods. The principle of operation is based on processing of the water flow intense UV radiation in wavelength range 250-260 nm. This radiation penetrates the cell walls of viruses and bacteria, causing the destruction of the DNA and RNA of the organism.
This method is much more efficient and safer for human health than the classical chemical method in which water is treated with different oxidizing agents: chlorine, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, etc. the Scope of installation of UV disinfection is its relatively large size and high cost. This usually cottages, villas and buildings using for water supply system of artesian wells or stand-alone wells.
The UV radiation module consists of the following key elements:
1. Power supply;
2. Metal case;
3. The source of UV radiation:
- Mercury-quartz lamp;
- Mercury-argon lamp;
4. Protective (sealed) quartz casing – prevents overcooling of the lamp current.
Depending on the declared performance in one housing can be placed a few UV lamps. The main disadvantage of this method is its full energy dependence. For efficient operation it is necessary that the incoming water was of a certain quality, its physical and chemical indicators must not exceed:
In any case, you can use one or the other kind of water filter
- Turbidity < 2 mg/l;
- Chroma < 20°;
- The content of the iron impurities < 1 mg/L.
The effectiveness of cleaning devices depends on how to choose water filter in each case. Modern manufacturers produce many models of various treatment devices and water filters. Many of them bear no particular benefit, and sometimes, incorrect installation or breach conditions, are a source of biological contamination.Filters sumps
Sump relates to means for mechanically cleaning the water. It is a device which is forced to change the direction of water movement. The flow passes through a special grid, leaving a solid waste.
The sump consists of:
Diagram of sump:
1. Plug brass;
2. A gasket of Teflon or silicone;
3. Filter mesh stainless steel — AISI 316;
4. Body – usually Nickel-plated brass CW617N.
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The most common domestic models with different types of thread for mounting:
VT.192, VT.191, VT.One hundred ninety
VT.385, VT.387, VT.Three hundred eighty eight
The feasibility of using. Given the characteristics of the material, sumps may be used for pre-filtration, both cold and hot water with temperatures up to 150°C. They are installed at the entrance to the water system of the apartment or house, behind shut-off valve (stopcock). One of the purposes of this filter is to protect the water meters against the ingress of large solids. Thinner cleaning they can not produce.
IMPORTANTLY! You must carefully follow the installation direction of the device relative to the flow of water, usually it is indicated by an arrow on the housing.Prefilters
Water coming into the apartments and homes of the centralized water supply system, main type of pollution are:
- The excess active chlorine;
- Oxidized iron (from waste pipe).
For drinking water purification from solid impurities, which not only significantly impair its taste, but also can damage household appliances (washing machine, dishwasher) are used prefilters.
The design consists of:
Mounting bracket; plug-in connections for connection to the water supply system; Housing made of transparent plastic; Replacement filter cartridge made of synthetic fibers. The feasibility of using. Prefilters should be used in the purification systems if the water coming into the home has a significant content of solid impurities. The choice of a particular model depends on the average volume of water consumption. Used to protect gas boilers and columns, as well as washing machines and dishwashers from getting into the technique of large mechanical impurities. In fact, they perform the same functions as the sump, but have a greater degree of purification, dimensions, rate of filtration and resource.Filters pitchers
This type of filters are widely known, usually filter pitcher consists of the following elements:
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The design of the jug filter: 1. Cover; 2. Calendar filter replacement; 3. Secondary lock; 4. Pen; 5. Spout for discharge of the treated water; 6. Capacity funnel for water inlet; 7. Housing; 8. Replaceable filter cartridge.
The feasibility of using. The filter jugs are used as alternative devices for the treatment of drinking water if the housing is not equipped with stationary water treatment devices. The degree of purification is somewhat worse, however, the cost is disproportionately cheaper, and that made these filters very popular. Despite the somewhat worse degree of purification, with the help of these filters you can obtain water suitable for drinking. Filter jugs are equipped with various types of cartridges, which are chosen depending on the contaminants present in water.Dispensers (purifieri)
Ordinary, low-end models of dispensers that use purified bottled water, do not have filters. But more expensive devices that connect to a centralized water pipe (purifier) have their own cleaning system.
Appearance and scheme of the universal office dispenser filtration system:
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It consists of: 1. The mechanical filter removes solid particles up to 5 microns; 2. Coal sorption cartridge, removing excess chlorine and organics; 3. Membrane ultrafiltration, which removes bacteria, viruses and excessive dissolved salts; 4. Carbon post-filter to remove unpleasant odors.
The feasibility of using. Dispensers are devices for dispensing water, which are used mainly in offices.The nozzle on the crane
The filter nozzle on the faucet relate primarily to devices for mechanical purification. They are divided into fixtures that are mounted directly on the mixer or standing.
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Their main disadvantages are:
- Low quality of water filtration;
- The decrease in flow rate, most manufacturers produce models with a recommended speed of 1-1,5 l/min.;
- Minor resource, for filters of thin cleaning it is 300-350 L.
The feasibility of using. The use of such devices is recommended only in the most extreme cases, when there is no possibility to install a stationary cleaning system and the water quality is very poor. In all other cases, the use of filter nozzles on the crane is impractical.Flowing sorption filters
The production of the sorption filters are a system of multistage filtration, consisting of 3-5 replaceable cartridges, each of which performs water purification from specific contaminants. Are optimum on a parity the price — quality. Recommended for use in small and average amount of consumption of purified water.
The design of the main nodes of the flow filter:
1. The node for the connection of water;
2. A pre-filter sorption or mechanical cleaning;
3. Filter deep sorption purification of;
4. The node for the connection of the crane;
5. Filter finishing cleaning and conditioning;
*(Set the filter modules will depend on the specific model of filter).
The feasibility of using. Typically, such systems perform mechanical purification from solid impurities, active chlorine, iron, limestone and other chemical contaminants. When choosing a particular model must consider not only the prevalent type of water pollution, but the norm of daily consumption. Most models are equipped with a separate faucet so that water for domestic use is unfiltered, it additionally increases the life of filter cartridges. It should be remembered that the use of such systems for cleaning too hard water is not advisable due to very low resource ion exchange cartridge. After the exhaustion of a certain resource, water will cease to relent and the scum will reappear in your teapot. To solve the problem too hard water only with reverse osmosis systems, which will be discussed further.Reverse osmosis system
Reverse osmosis system is a balanced set of devices and filters for cleaning.
Device major components of the reverse osmosis system:
2. The post filter for air conditioning;
3. Module with reverse osmosis membrane;
4. Storage capacitor;
5. Mechanical filter;
6. Filter for sorption purification of;
7. Sorption filter for final cleaning; 8. Crane.
*(Set the filter modules will depend on the specific model of filter).
It consists of the following components:
1. The preliminary treatment block, which includes a mechanical, sorption and filter ultrafine cleaning.
2. Unit with reverse osmosis membrane. The membrane consists of a polymer with a pore size of 1-15 angstroms for devices with high purity and 10-70 Angstrom to nano filtration plants.
REFERENCE: 1 micron is 10,000 angstroms.3. Storage tank. As the rate of water purification by reverse osmosis is quite low, the system should provide the capacity for accumulation of filtered water. The volume tank must be selected in accordance with a daily consumption rate of drinking water.
4. The post filter is installed after the storage tank to eliminate unpleasant smell and taste.
5. The locking and connecting fittings. Given the low speed cleaning обрат6ным osmosis, use filtered water for household use is impractical, it is mainly used for cooking and drinking. Therefore, the system must have a separate faucet.Water softener
The process of water softening is to reduce the amount of salts, mainly chlorides and sulphates. To do this, use replaceable cartridges with a cation exchange resin, which adsorbs water from the salt, instead of giving hydrogen ions and sodium. The use of soft water is not only healthy, but will keep in good condition appliances. Producing such filters with different performance.
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An example of a softener for drinking water.
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Softener to prevent scaling in washing machine.
The feasibility of using. Before purchasing and installing a filter with the cation exchange resin is necessary to check the level of water hardness. Appropriate use of softener if the water hardness is above the recommended 1.0 to 2.0 mg-EQ/l is Still important to know what these filters do not produce water purification from salts of metals, and bacteria, their prednazanchen is water softening, which contains a large amount of hardness salts. If the water we use for drinking, you should take care of the sorption filters used to purify water from other impurities. If you're supposed to use a softener to protect washing machines from scale of education, it would be enough of a softener.
Overall results. If you want to get really high quality water for cooking, tea, coffee and just drinking water, you need to look in the direction of flow of the sorption filters and reverse osmosis systems. No heads and jugs will not be able to replace them. It should be remembered that these systems are much more expensive. If you can't afford the installation of such systems, as a variant you can use a filter pitcher with a specific cartridge.Postfilters
Postfilter used in reverse osmosis systems and kits in-line filters to eliminate odour and improve the taste of purified water. As the active element is granular or powdered activated carbon in a polymer housing. The placement of fittings for the connection depends on the specific model and which filter device is connected. In addition, the reverse osmosis systems use filters mineralizer. After passing through ortoosikeskuse membrane water removes all minerals, to restore them primeurs such a mineralizer. They restore the natural mineralogicheskii the composition of the water.Selection criteria filter for water purificationThe designated zarezannoy water
The effectiveness of the cleaning system, consequently, the quality of filtered water depends on the specifics of the contamination. Before you determine which water filter to choose for your home should produce a comprehensive analysis coming from the tap water. Analysis you need to do no matter from the well, the artesian well or the centralized water supply is water intake. Only after the analysis it will be clear which filter and which filter elements are needed. Based on this and the selection of the filter.
Water problems, their manifestations, causes, and filters to eliminate:
The PROBLEM MANIFESTS itself AS REASON USED a FILTER OR CARTRIDGE Corrosive water at neutral pH. Copper and bronze pipe and fittings are actively korrodiruet with the appearance of greenish streaks. Water saturated with oxygen was carried out fence of the surface layers or very deep wells. Ion exchange cartridge. Reverse osmosis system. Hard water Limestone deposits on heating elements of household appliances. The presence of limestone in water, salts of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange cartridge. Reverse osmosis system. Insoluble particles, sand, etc. Sludge in the sink. Clogged the sump, the excess amount of pollution. Install or increase the volume of the filter of rough cleaning. Smell fishy, musty, or woody Appears as a rule during the floods (from melting and rain). The fence of water from the surface, together with organic compounds. Sorption carbon cartridge + UV sanitizer. The post-filter + UV sanitizer. The smell of chlorine is Excessive chlorination. The sorption cartridge of any type. The smell of hydrogen sulphide (rotten eggs) Formation of gray or yellow stains on the dishes and the sink, an unpleasant taste. The presence of dissolved sulfide and/or sulfuric bacteria that cause the appearance of serovodoroda. Sorption cartridges of any type. Sorption + UV disinfector (if the problem is bacteria) Chemical smell of detergents Water foams slightly. Getting effluent from the septic tank into the aquifer. Sorption carbon cartridges. The smell of petroleum products to Leak oil into the aquifer. Reverse osmosis system. Muddy water with the smell of methane is a Result of decomposition of organic matter in areas of oil production, aquifers are on the site of an old landfill. Reverse osmosis system. The smell of phenol (a chemical) is Getting into the aquifers chemical runoff. Reverse osmosis system; Sorbinil cartridge. Brackish water the laxative Effect. Getting into aquifers industrial effluents. Ion-exchange;
cartridge. Reverse osmosis system. Acidic, Metallic taste. High iron content of natural acidity pH more than 4.5. Sorption cartridge for iron removal of water. Ferruginous water When washing underwear takes a yellowish tint, during heating the water turns brown. The presence of bivalent iron in concentrations greater than 0.3 mg/L. the Sorption cartridge for iron removal of water. Filters for hot or cold water
The vast majority of filters are designed for osisko cold water. The upper temperature limit of such treatment systems is 35 — 40 0C. So if you need to be cleaned with hot water, you have to look for filters temperature limit of which is not less than 95 0C.Maximum performance
The filter performance is the ability to pass and to clear a certain number of gallons of water per minute. The lowest performance have a reverse osmosis system because the passage of water through the membrane obratnoosmoticheskiye takes a lot of time. But in order that users do not have too long to wait for the requisite amount of water, such devices are equipped with expansion cisterns, where there is always a certain amount of harvested water. A small proizvoditelnosti have filter jugs. When you select the filter you want to define how often are you going to use the filter and how much treated water you need during the day.A resource filter module
Almost every filter has a filter module, which is designed to clean a certain colista water. After the exhaustion of the resource filtering module is not able to provide proper Cuesta water and must be replaced. Before choosing a filter it is possible to calculate approximately the water consumption and on the basis of these calculations to choose one or the other filter element. Please note that in systems with multi-stage purification system, each cartridge has its filrouge ability and resource. This means that the cartridges will be free from replacement at different times rather than all at once.Rashodnie materials, their cost and availability
Before you buy a certain model of filter you need to inquire about the availability of cartridges and their cost. Often byvet so that the manufacturer puts a small price on the filtration system, but the cost of cartridges is disproportionately high, leading to high costs for maintenance of the system during the whole period of its use. In addition, find out whether there is in selling the ink cartridges and consumables in the city or region where you live. It is sometimes difficult to buy certain filter modules and the appearance of those you have to buy the refill, which is also costly and inconvenient.Counterfeiting and unscrupulous manufacturers
Know how to choose a water filter a little, you should still be able to distinguish a quality product from counterfeits. In the world there are many fakes of various products and filters this is no exception. By purchasing such equipment there is a risk to give money, but water quality will remain at the same level.
To protect yourself from buying counterfeits, you need to pay attention to the following points:
The fame of the manufacturer.
- Fame manufacturer
- Cost of goods
- The appearance of the product
- The presence of hologramme, marking seabago application, a unique serial number
As in any other niche there are producers who are working on this market for a long time and are proven. Each of them has its own developments and patents on the various systems used for water purification. The most famous manufacturers of household filters for water purification are such firms as: Barrier, New water, Aquaphor, Geyser, Atoll, and others. when choosing a filter is to orientirovat on productsto these brands.The level of cost of goods.
Consumer opportunities for our citizens are at the low level arises from the desire to save money. When buying a filter, you need to be careful. If you see that the price of the offered model differs significantly from the average price in the market, it is worth considering where this seller got this product. If the product was purchased from an official supplier, but the price is significantly different from prices in other stores, it is one hundred percent fake. Can't because the seller to trade it at a loss and give it at cost also makes no sense.The appearance of the product.
The cost may not always say about nekachestveno of the product, because it can be installed on the same level as the other sellers. So when you buy the model you want filter look at the quality of the material and Assembly. fake always differs from the original in various details. Pay attention to the seams of the tubes, thread outputs for connection to the plumbing, equipment, etc All should be at the best level. In addition, pay attention to the quality of the packaging — fake nobody packs in quality materials. Not according to these little things to high standards can mean that before you fake.The existence of a certificate.
If you have some doubts ask the seller to show a certificate of quality for the products. In this case please note the certificate must be genuine, not a copy many years ago.The presence of hologramme, marking seabago application, a unique serial number.
To protect their products, manufacturers supply various alagramam, documents with special marks, and some very unique serial number with the ability to check for authenticity. Enough to drive such a room in spetsialnoy form available on the official website of the manufacturer and you will receive a response whether your model is authentic.
When choosing a filter it must be remembered that to rid the water of chlorine, dissolved iron salts, to produce its mitigation etc. can only filters fitted with cartridges sorption, ion exchange and/or modules with obratnoosmoticheskiye membrane. It is impossible to produce quality clean water not applying sorbents and/or obratnoosmoticheskiye membrane. In addition, a quality filter will have several degrees of purification and appropriately kartinami. It is impossible to clean various impurities with the same cartridge or module. If you are trying to sell any "miracle" filter, which does not contain the above-mentioned cleaning modules, while the manufacturer claims that it can clean water of all impurities, you just want to cheat.Operation and maintenance of filters
Any of used in the cleaning system of the cartridges is a resource, after which its performance must be replaced or disposed of. Usually it is expressed in number of liters of treated water or time of operation, but with the average consumption of water per day per person. Mechanical cleaning filters must be periodically cleaned of accumulated dirt. If you do not adhere to the rules of operation, the treatment system can become a source of biological contamination.
Most companies produce standardized cartridges for the entire line of filter devices. If the cleaning device is a sequence of flasks. You can use cartridges from other manufacturers, provided that suitable dimensions. To cut or to open the cartridges is not recommended.
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©