How to provide first aid? In such a situation can be any of us!
The ability to provide first aid - a very important skill. After all, it could save someone's life in an emergency! Check these important algorithms first aid to know how to act in an emergency.
Before first aid make sure that you yourself are in no danger. And try as much as possible to protect against further injury to others, for example, pulled a man from a burning vehicle. After this check up, whether the victims show signs of life - if they have a pulse, respiration, if the pupils react to light. Palpable pulse on the carotid artery, breathing can be checked with the help of a piece of glass or mirror. Then shake a man's shoulder to check whether it is in the mind.
The next step - a call to place specialists. Prior to their arrival, try to provide emergency aid - to restore the airway to hold indirect heart massage, artificial respiration, to stop the bleeding. Do everything in your power to help the victim survive until the ambulance came.
How do artificial respiration
If you are previewing has not found evidence of a human breathing, apply artificial lung ventilation.
1. To the victim can breathe, turn his head to the side and use your finger prowess of oral blood, mucus and foreign matter. Check for clogged nose of the victim, and if necessary - to clear them.
2. Zaprokin man's head, holding her neck with one hand.
3. If the victim is injured spine, do not try to change the position of his head!
4. Clamp his nose between thumb and index finger. Take a deep breath, and then firmly press his lips to the mouth of the victim. Breathe into the lungs of the victim.
5. The first 5-10 breaths should be done quickly (20-30 seconds), and then - 12-15 breaths per minute.
Look at the human thorax. If you inhale it rises, it means that you are doing everything correctly.
Indirect heart massage
If in addition to breathing and pulse is absent, it is necessary to carry out chest compressions.
Attention! You can not do chest compressions if there is a pulse.
How to carry out chest compressions:
1. Put the victim on a hard, flat surface. Perform chest compressions on a bed or couch - a bad idea.
2. Find on the human body xiphoid process - the shortest and narrowest part of the sternum, its ending.
3. 2-4 cm up from this process and is the place where you want to press.
4. Put on the base of the palm point. Your thumb should look at on your stomach or jaw affected (depending on your location). Put one hand on the other and push it strictly base. Fingers should not touch the victim's sternum.
5. Do tremors rhythmically smoothly and vertically, enable the whole weight of the upper half of your body. It is necessary to produce 100 to 110 compressions per minute. The chest should then 3-4 cm sag.
6. infant chest compressions to do with your index and middle fingers of one hand. Teenager, using the palm of one hand.
Bleeding is capillary, venous and arterial.
Capillary bleeding can be stopped with aseptic dressing. If the injured limb, you need to raise them above the level of the trunk.
If a person venous bleeding, you need to apply a pressure bandage. This is done as follows: to impose on the wound gauze top - several layers of wool or a clean towel, tight bandage. Vienna, flattened a bandage quickly thrombosing and stop bleeding.
Establish a tourniquet to stop arterial bleeding can be only 1 hour.
First aid for fractures
1. Evaluate how the victim serious injury and to determine the fracture site.
2. Stop the bleeding (if any).
3. It is necessary to check whether it is possible to move the victim until the arrival of specialists. In no case can not tolerate it and do not try to change the situation with injuries of the spine!
4. To ensure the immobility of the bone in the fracture - immobilization. To do this, immobilize the joints, which are located above and below the fracture.
5. splint. To do this, you can use all kinds of lines, poles, rods, and so on. D. Firmly, but not tight, fix the tire patch or bandage.
Help for fainting
The man who fainted, to put horizontally and ensure supply of fresh air. You can splash it with cold water or a little pat on the cheek. If you have a first aid kit on hand, ammonia immediately bring him to his senses.
When the victim wakes up, give him a strong tea or coffee.
If within 3-5 minutes a man comes to the creation, immediately call an ambulance.
First aid for frostbite
1. Place the victim in the heat.
2. Take off his wet clothes, or the frozen.
3. In mild frostbite can grind the damaged areas of the body. In more severe cases (frostbite II-IV degree) rubbing can not be done.
4. Use for rubbing butter or petroleum jelly. Do not rub affected by snow. Wrap yourself frostbitten body part.
5. Give the victim a hot meal or a hot sweet drink.
First aid for poisoning
1. The victim is necessary to wash out the stomach. Let him drink several glasses of salted water (1 liter of 10 grams of salt and 5 grams of sodium). After 2-3 glasses need to induce vomiting. These steps should be repeated until the victim vomit will not "clean". Perform gastric lavage only when the person is conscious.
2. Then you need to give the victim a drink 10-20 tablets of activated charcoal, after dissolving it in a glass of water. Wait for the arrival of specialists.
Let these guidelines help out you in a difficult situation. Of course, it is better that it happened at all, but because no one is immune from this.