Every year, over the waters of the Baltic and Barents Seas NATO aircraft carried out 400 sorties in the aerial reconnaissance of the territory of Russia. In addition, up to 300 reconnaissance aircraft is fixed over the waters of Japan and Okhotsk seas and Karginsky Bay in the Far East.
"Destroy the target!»
According to declassified dossier "Archive Claus" from the National Archives, in order to conduct electronic intelligence against the Soviet Union during the Cold War used spy planes, U-2 RB-47, RB-50, RB-52, R2V, RC-135. Modified RC-135 and "Boeing-707" were the vanguard of American intelligence to intercept data on Soviet radar installations and telemetry transmissions. According to the US magazine "YS News & World Report, "only from 1950 to the end of the 60s the United States produced 20 thousand. Operations along the borders of the Soviet Union and China in order to identify the forces and means of air defense systems.
Since 1950 began to intercept and spy planes from the Soviet fighter aircraft of Air Defense Forces with the aim of forcing them to land on its territory or destroyed. Not without human victims.
According to official data of the US Senate, but between 1950 and 1970 were shot down during the spy aircraft operations at least 252 American pilot, 24 of them were killed, 90 survived, but the fate of 138 pilots have not been clarified until now. < br />
Often the "knights of cloak and dagger 'advantage to ordinary passenger airliners, follow with any innocent and are in complete ignorance about the real purpose of their transit flights nationals on board. So it was, for example, in 1983, with the South Korean "Boeing-747" shot down over Sakhalin. For 5 years before it was another case of the "Boeing-707" from the same country, violated the airspace of the Soviet Union in the north. However, the incident with the airplane in the West and no one learned nothing ...
On that day, April 20, 1978, in Karelia was wonderful, spring, sunny weather. The 265th Fighter Aviation Regiment of the 5th Division of Air Defense Forces based in Poduzheme that close to Kem, completed preliminary preparations for the upcoming scheduled the next morning flight. At the end of the day staff, except for duty forces, was dismissed to go home to rest.
Says a former pilot of 265 IAP lieutenant colonel Sergey Slobodchikov: "Everything went as usual. In 21 hours our link interceptor Su-15TM intercede on combat duty. But soon, 6-7 minutes later, there was information about the offender airspace and was given the command: "Take cover!" This, too, was familiar to us. After all, in our anxiety "deesy" (duty forces. - AP) raised quite often - the border was close by and the responsibility of the regiment was part of the road up to 1270 km, from the north to Alakurtti Wärtsilä in the south, and reconnaissance aircraft of NATO, led by the United States were not a rarity.
Unusually for me is that the departure was that just after takeoff we received an order: "Destroy the target!" Another surprise awaited me when I began to listen to broadcast. This racket was! After all I've heard and Murmansk and Petrozavodsk. All the shouting, something commanded ... »
But the din was at the time and in the whole system of air defense of the country, at all command posts from Murmansk to Moscow. As recalled retired Colonel Boris Samoilov - a former duty officer KP report about the offender he received from operational downstream from KP Golubkina lieutenant colonel, when the goal was still above sea level, 300 kilometers from the border. Its altitude 9 thous. M, the speed of 900 km / h. Duty tools have been alerted. We decided to find out the situation. After some time, again the report - this is our An-12 is returned to the base after the task in the Barents Sea. Absurd! What is "AN" such flight parameters ?! A minute later, new information - obviously returns maritime reconnaissance Tu-95. To communicate with the headquarters of the Northern Fleet. The answer is - they have no cars on the approach, still above the ocean ...
At 21 hours 19 minutes, the intruder in the Murmansk region has crossed the state border and began to delve into the territory of the Kola Peninsula. From the airport Afrikanda to intercept him at the same time Sergey Slobodchikova raise Su-15 from the 365th IAP Captain Alexander Bosov. Course intruder ran just east of the village Afrikanda.
Alexander soon found the first goal, determining that it is "Boeing", which are built on the basis of a US spy plane.
The first reports from his Party of the nature of the target - a Canadian aircraft markings. (Possibly, the pilot handed - "Chinese", but the transmission of information was distorted upward words.) Then came refinement - aboard the "Boeing" marked characters. To find out whether it is a passenger plane, it was not possible. As will be known much later, "wayward spy" is actually a passenger jet "Boeing-707" South Korean airline «KAL», # 902 flying from Paris to Seoul via the North Pole.
Bosov, despite the night conditions, the evolution of its fighter-interceptor and side lights repeatedly to command South Korean crew to follow him to land on a nearby airfield. But "Boeing" these teams pointedly did not perform, but instead became hard to go to Finland.
To the border it was only some few minutes of flight. At this time, operational duty manual Samoilov managed to get a "good" for the shooting down of the offending commander Lieutenant General Dmitriev, who was at home, and continuously negotiated "on a pipe».
- Comrade Commander, leave!
- Destroy - he took the decision. (Means of SMP, it was decided not to apply.)
At 21 hours 42 minutes Bosov Captain Alexander, fulfilling an order issued by the "Boeing" thermal rocket "air-air" in an effort not to hit the fuselage, and the wing of the aircraft. He succeeded. "Yuzhnokoreets" began to lose altitude rapidly, declining spiral.
When Samoilov made contact with the MSC and Air Defense Forces reported on startup, the answer was just irritated, "Do not shoot down, figure it out!" But it was too late ...
At this point lokatorschiki spotted a new goal, which is separated from the first. Duty calculation on CP frantically scrolled its "characteristics" and variants - the container? Cruise missile? The score came on a second.
As former navigator of the 256th IAP, while Senior Lieutenant Aleksandr Bolotov, the CP led combat operation chief of staff Captain Valery Volynets. Mathematical mind the officer - in preference, for example, to play with him was impossible. After receiving the report of the second illumination of the display Omnidirection radar, he quickly came to the conclusion that its performance characteristics coincide with the American cruise missile. In those years, the United States is just doing their tests. Valery immediately reported this to the higher efficiency. The answer was: "Now, wait ..." "Boeing" -shpion had already declined and disappeared from the radar screen, and the mark of the alleged "cruise missile" has been very clear. Volynets decided himself.
Says Sergey Slobodchikov: "All of these twists and turns on the manual with" Boeing "I did not know, but the last fact, I am told, has a new goal, she suggests. Report data. I think one purpose built, there was another. Any thoughts crawl into my head: maybe the war began, because I do not know the whole situation? The nerves in the hand. The purpose saw. Capture. At first sight, then head of the rocket. I got a confirmation of KP: "Destroy the target!" I press the trigger. The rocket went. She reported. I was taken out of the fight ... »
As it turned out, Slobodchikov attacked at an altitude of 6-7 thousand. M rocket explosion severed Bosov and falling out of inertia with great speed left wing console (under 3 meters) giant "Boeing". Only Sergei landed and ran to the UPC (the starting command post) and to report to hear the news, as it is taken aback at the door saying, "What are you doing here? The objective is still in the air. Immediately the plane! "And again he followed his companions Kerefovym, Gembergom and Novozhilov left to intercept the night sky. And then there was another crash ...
SEARCH and forced to land
Says the former commander of 265 IAP retired colonel Anatoly Kerefov.
After the night of the 20th squadron commander Lieutenant Colonel Boatmen checked the readiness of pilots, all of us go home. At that time I was the captain, commanded the link.
Just get to the apartment (in the town, 2-3 km from the airport), households were delighted by their appearance as a signal sounded "howler" - a siren on the roof of a house in the garrison. If necessary, the siren was duplicated by phone or speaker, who stood in the apartment for each pilot. It happened about 19 hours 56 minutes. Then we have to train often. At the signal had to rush out as quickly as possible to rescue the car, which delivers all the airfield. So the first thing to think about on the run: "Probably another practice, no more».
However, at the entrance to the link on duty noticed that the two fighters in the parking lot there. This immediately alerted. Without further ado, I and Major Gemberg occupy the cockpits of our readiness to "swallows" - Su-15TM and we report to the command post. After 4 minutes Gembergu gave the command: "Air". I - "good" for the launch. In the air I hear the following radio: MP: "469 minutes, which is empty?" The answer: "Right».
This meant that Sergey Slobodchikov (he was on duty that day) produced the launch of a radar head guidance. No, this is not training, but something serious.
Then to me: "Rise to the course 320 degrees, the height of 8000 meters." Run the command to 21.45, closing the border of the Soviet Union and Finland. The sky is cloudless. Weather conditions, as they say, a million to one million. KP transferred me to the guidance channel. While entering the zone, the air filled with the talks neighboring KP 365 th Regiment with its pilots that were raised before us. The boys reported that they are on the "famous bay." I immediately realized that we are talking about Kandalaksha Bay. At the request of the CP on the actions of the enemy came the reply: "Where he, poor fellow, go. Vaughn barely lagging. We carry the airfield "(after the launch of the first rocket Captain Alexander Bosov to" Boeing "in addition to a torn left wing turbine jammed in one of the four engines in the fuselage appeared holes from shrapnel. - AP). Then I immediately thought that the case has already been done, and everything will be fine without me. But it turns out I was wrong, it was just beginning. At least for me.
It takes 5-7 minutes, again with CP should be an inquiry about the whereabouts and actions of the pilots, who drove the intruder. At this time, the air is calm. At the command post were worried. After a rather long pause joyless voice interceptors report: the enemy lost the rest of the fuel is running out. KP: "Go back to the airfield».
The case took a serious turn. In the area I stayed, and Gemberg opponent. Location of last currently unknown. What to do?
With KP I set a goal: following the course of 140 degrees with a reduction of up to 500 m, find the goal.
I looked around. The sun was setting over the horizon and only the bright line to distinguish between the day and night. Down light lights settlements. And just do not believe that somewhere very near our airspace torn intruder.
Reduces to hurt one's eyes looking for his silhouette. Flown 10 minutes seemed like an eternity. But here it is happiness, joy heart pounding in his chest - on the background of a gray image of the earth could barely dark shape moving slowly over her huge "bird" - "Boeing" with the lights switched off. The object was on the way to Louhi and followed a course of 270 degrees towards the Finnish border. On the "discovery" reported on KP.
They happily took the message and ordered to come closer to the target and identify it. Dropped to 500 meters, I saw a big plane. As soon as his crew discovered the "guardian", immediately began to perform 180-degree turn. A maneuver, "Boeing" was on a course of 90 degrees - that is, went deep into Soviet territory. I reported this to the CP. In response to: "Bring the offender to our airfield».
Well say "lead." And how to do one? We practiced since the school only group interceptions, and now I'm alone, and even alone with a large object. What kind of plane is also difficult to understand. Flying at night, the lights are turned off. After firing all in his place I would have done the same. And suddenly he has weapons onboard? After all, we know that on the basis of "Boeing-707" made war machines KC-135, C-135, EC-135 and others. Even the well-known "AWACS" - a "mushroom" - the radar all the same "seven hundred and seven." Hundreds of these aircraft to this day are in service in the US Air Force and in other countries.
Do nothing - risk. I went to the left side of the offender, by the commander of the crew, served conditioned signals. I carry out, as it should in such cases, turn the intersection of its course towards our airfield. And if he does not see me and, rushing themselves on. Well, I think, as the case we will not go. Narrated in the manual: "Object failed to comply with the command." Make another three runs, and each time the pilot of the aircraft, the intruder also made a maneuver. Experienced as it turned out later, was a fighter Kim Chang Kyu, who fought with our "MiGs" still in the Korean War. And then the thought crept in: Maybe he does not see any of my commands and maneuvers, as they say, just in case. He took and passed in front of him with the included afterburner. Now he must observe and follow where I pointed. But my "mentee" performs a U-turn back to the other side. Oh, and I got angry. Once at altitude, I start to go into the enemy's tail. He immediately performs a maneuver in the opposite direction on a course of 270 degrees. But I firmly "sitting" on his tail. Occupies the starting position for the attack. Requesting Party "command fails, let us destroy the target." With KP: "Wait a minute." After 1-1, 5 minutes ordered to compel the enemy to land near the location.
And at this moment at the rate notice a big white spot, I determined that the lake covered with ice and snow. The best landing sites and not found. The decision has matured almost instantly. This is useful when the skills acquired still under the guidance of my instructor in the School of Armavir. I am approaching the South Koreans and their right wing trying to cover his left wing (if easier - how to put his fighter wing to wing uninvited "guest"). Risky because inevitably clash would end in disaster. At the same time I turn on the landing lights of its "Su" and begin to decline. The offender deprived maneuver only two choices: either to face with me, or execute a command. The enemy chose the latter. At an altitude of 200 meters, he also turns on the headlights. And so almost "embrace" and go to the ground. I came out of decline and watching "Boeing." Those on the "belly" ran on the ice 300 meters, turned 90 degrees and stood on the shore. Fire, smoke, did not notice. Reported: "forced to land, bearing 350, the removal of 140 km from the settlement of Louhi».
But this story with the South Korean intruder has not ended. Remaining fuel at me almost to the limit. KP again get in touch requires bring new fighters fly out to the site. At an altitude of 200 meters connects with the Su-15 captain, Vladimir Vasilyev. After about 12 minutes I found it visually. Decreases over the landing place of the offender, but the pilot could not see him. He looked at the instruments - fuel to a minimum. Again I took the risk: warning, Vladimir, once again repeated the maneuver, only leaving briefly turned on the afterburner. As the flame, he should have noticed where I'll be - there is a goal. It turned out - Vasilev found it.
I headed for the airport. The first of what happened wormed my techniques. And then he blew the news across the parking lot. Squadron after my report, just hugged me and kissed. Then he was summoned to the UPC, which was waiting for the commander of the regiment. I showed the map to find the "Boeing". Attending immediately once head of the political part advised to prepare a hole in the jacket of the Order (but it subsequently had to do to me or my comrades), and I was allowed to go to rest. In the morning I was supposed to fly to explore the weather. It was nearly morning ... & quot;
Since the defeat of the rocket to the forced landing in 23 hours 05 minutes "Boeing" for nearly 40 minutes on the ability to retain three of his surviving engines continue flying. Anatoly Kerefov "planted" the offender on the ice of Lake Korpijärvi Loukhi south, near the town of Kem (about 280 miles south of Murmansk). On a tip from South Korean fighter Captain Vasilyev noticed helicopters arrived on the scene and began search and rescue operation.
Can not be judged, pardoned! ..
During the inspection of the aircraft revealed that his right wing was damaged on impact with the trees, the nose is not damaged, the console left wing torn off a missile at a turbine engine is jammed, and a hole in the fuselage could be seen from the fragments. Two people out of 110 passengers (the Koreans, the Japanese, the French, the Germans) were killed by shrapnel and 13 wounded. All of them, including children, at the hands of Soviet officers and soldiers moved into the helicopters, which were taken to Kem.
And so it happened.