In this interview with an air traffic controller has shared the subtleties of his profession, he told some lies to him responsibility and shed light on the difference between the Moscow airports. Statement
I grew up in Ulyanovsk. First wanted to become a pilot - to go to the School of Civil Aviation. But it so happened that I went without examinations to the dispatch department. And then summer, hot river - did not want to re-take the entrance exam, so was manager and do not regret it. Pilot - a profession is interesting, but the romance of takeoff and landing is quick, and a lot of minuses: sophisticated jet lag, the need to always be on top, exposure, while away from their families. After high school, I arrived in Moscow, currently working in the Mission Control Center.
For a long time to work in the Moscow air traffic controller did not take new people for two reasons. Firstly, in modern Russia, a legislative vacuum - Soviet norms canceled and new ones are not accepted. The documents are now no rules determining the number of how many controllers should work shift, provide existing number of sectors (sector - is part of the airspace, which has vertical and horizontal boundaries). Therefore, only depend on the employer, to take or not to take new employees. Second, the intensity of flights in 90 years fell. Take the young began only in the last couple of years, before the five jobs was one a replacement manager, because it was very hard.
We now have a vacuum age - many managers under 50 and for a number of people about 20 years old, and middle-aged people is almost there. There are cases when a manager starts to push adult authority is wrong, and the young hesitate to contradict him.
The same, incidentally, was the pilots: at the beginning of zero, they could not even graduate from high school is normal: there was no kerosene to fly. And now we are talking about attracting foreign pilots.
Plus Now desyatitimesyachnye opened training courses for air traffic controllers. Of course, you can make a manager and a janitor, but people higher education disciplines, develops a sense of responsibility. The emergence of courses suggests that people are lacking.
On the Tasks Manager
Task Manager - cater schedule and claimed it fly, while ensuring safe execution of flights. Think about what each mark on the screen in front of you - it's a plane, which is 200-300 people - here soydёsh crazy. But at the same time I want to, working to do everything quickly and efficiently as possible. It is possible to make the plane to land on the shortest possible way - and I do. After all, if 200 people will save ten minutes, everything will be fine.
My goal is to optimize the performance of the pilot - make it easier, safer, easier. Some pilots, however, perceive it this way: "Che is the second I landed on?" Or "I overtake it now" or "it bothers me, you want me to slow down." But this happens rarely.
We come to work an hour before the briefing. This time we are given medical examinations - it measures the pulse and blood pressure. There are testers on alcohol, but I do not remember that they were used. This warning once again on New Year's holidays or May, but in order to use it, one must behave inappropriately. I do not remember such cases.
At the briefing, we provide information about the weather, the airfield and, God forbid, on the status flights (carrying VIPs). Then comes the reception duty. Until now, negotiations are recorded on tape, and record when taking over the duty is done by hand in a journal. We are struggling with this, because what this last century?
Employing approximately two hours, then - a break to rest, is that 50 minutes resting. Work schedule is as follows: the first day - a change in the day, the second day -change in the morning, the next day - night. Then one day - otsypnoy, then two days off. Years go by, and if earlier, after the night shift went to the other, somewhere to relax, walk, now it is difficult, it is necessary to sleep.
It sounds like a conversation with the driver manager? For example, "Descend, train 100, Savelova, 25 alpha." This means that the plane comes to Sheremetyevo from the point with the name "Savelova" that it should be reduced to 100 tier, and the "alpha" - the name of the shortest of the approach lane. Echelon - this division in height in feet. 50 tier - 5000 feet. Corridor - is that the plane flies through the town. In this corridor there is the entry point is the exit point between them - ten kilometers.
Breeding aircraft - is the work manager in Moscow, we do it every minute. Manager solves the issue of security of separation between departing aircraft and flies.
District Moscow air hub, which we serve - is the radius of a thousand kilometers around Moscow. When the plane takes off from Moscow, for example, in Nizhny Novgorod, its takeoff provide controllers at the airport. Then the aircraft transmitted to Mission Control Center, and there the plane manager leads the circle, then the approach controller, then the district center - it reduces to Nizhny Novgorod, and the point at a certain height gives him the dispatcher in Nizhny for seven or eight minutes before landing. Or departing aircraft from Nizhny Novgorod, and after crossing the 50th of height get in touch with the Moscow dispatcher.
We now have programs to attract young professionals, for example, give money for a down payment for the purchase of apartments. If a person from another region, give 50% to eat habitation. There are one-time assistance - the first few years, a certain amount is paid in addition to salary. When we arrived at the beginning of zero, we have not even dreamed of this.
We have the right once a year free to fly anywhere in the world. Previously, it was possible to borrow more children now pay only 50%.
Capacity and responsibility
In Russia there is no specification of bandwidth - not determined the number of aircraft per hour, which can cater for the dispatcher. Here turner per hour can make the nuts 100, it is the norm. If you made 110 nuts, part of them may be defective, he did 70 - flawed. We have no such rules, and scheduling in Moscow did not seem to take into account that manages aircraft man, and man has its limits.
In June, there was a case when the sector went through a 74 aircraft per hour. It was the top sector, where the dispatcher sent planes to land, and those who are left, lifted. And it reduced to three different airfield. Although there is an order from 1986, it spelled the rate - 32 aircraft per hour. In general, our documents are written so that you can not work on them. If we start to work on it, then it will be impossible to service schedule.
In the autumn of 2013 in the history of Vnukovo, when the controller prevented the collision of two aircraft hit the media. Airline "Transaero" offended then, and I know the guys who leaked it to the media, because we always get that guilty Manager. There have been attempts to blame him, that it was he started the flight of "Transaero" in Moscow that he did not have to intervene. When the TU-204 crashed at Vnukovo, the controller saw the aircraft start, he began to shout: "Brakes!" Prosecutors then said to him: Why do you interfere in piloting the ship, you had no right. But then the manager even gave the award for having prevented the collision.
We have a system Proximity Warning (FPIC): if there is a breach of security intervals between aircraft, their marks on the screen at the controller vary and are crosses. Manager visually once the two vessels vytseplyaet and sees that something is wrong. When triggered, the system begins an investigation into the manager why he brought to such a situation. These investigations by a special inspection. Sometimes, true and false positive.
In general, the system should help the dispatcher, but I heard on records, after the operation of the system controller starts to talk quickly and give conflicting commands. He begins the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream - "everything I got," and he begins to subconsciously reduce the aircraft. We have a limitation - the rate of speech not exceeding 100 words per minute, but when the system is activated, there are so rattled!
On the structure of airspace
The current structure of the Moscow air zone for almost 30 years, there is solid crossing, which limits bandwidth - breeding objectives and to comply with the safety intervals must be solved permanently. It is necessary to make a new conflict-free structure, is now working on it.
Previously, it was: was Moscow, she had four airports. As was common airline "Aeroflot", observed geographical principle: Bykov - flights to the southeast, Sheremetyevo - to the north and west of the capital, Vnukovo - to the west and south, Domodedovo - east and south. I come, private capital, and now the company wants to fly when it suits them and where it suits them. And today, the aircraft "UTair" flying from the north - it flies past Sheremetyevo flying to Vnukovo, at the same time takes off from Vnukovo their side, too, without going through Sheremetyevo. And from Sheremetyevo, on the contrary, is flying any aircraft to the south, past the Vnukovo. It turns puff pie, aircraft flying toward each other, crossing each other's path.
The current structure is outdated, as it can fly, if two or three of the aircraft, and now in the civil aviation flights is becoming more involved in international companies. We gasp at rush hour, people work sometimes on the verge of its features. It is necessary to stretch the flight schedule, and we have the peaks, then slump. And when the recession, the person relaxes - chat with a colleague, tee-hee-ha-ha, but then again - and dangerous proximity.
To learn how to throw planes
The pilot during the flight moves along a certain route - he sees it in his cabin in the Flight Management System, that is, in Mission Control. On this route there is a point with specific geographic coordinates through which the aircraft should pass. For example, a flight flies to Vladivostok route he has, but he can not immediately take a course on Vladivostok. Points needed to dilute incoming and outgoing planes. The aerodrome take off and landing aircraft calling each other in the way, because there is no conflict-of input / output. Controllers have to breed them.
Or, for example, took off from Vnukovo flight to the north, and from Sheremetyevo - to the south, and at the same time flight arrives at Vnukovo and arriving at Sheremetyevo. It turns out that just four aircraft are at the same point. With this structure, the likelihood of human error increases. And it can make a mistake and the controller and the pilot. I had so that I gave the pilot to take command of the 70th tier, because it flies toward another vessel in the 80 th echelon. The pilot confirmed the 70th echelon climbs - and went even higher, right on the other side. Although I told him about the fact that it flies head! What happened, why he did so - not entered the data speak to the co-pilot, thinking about? I see it, I start to get involved - to shout it, rotate it. But well, when I have three aircraft at the same time, and when two dozen - I can not see. Or, I can see only when the work FPIC. The system is activated 45 seconds before the collision and, in principle, this is enough time to react and the crews have dispersed. But when the system is triggered, it means that the manager did not intervene in time, did not do his job without warning.
All my colleagues in 2010 was such a case: two aircraft converged at one point and at the same height. And one aircraft was an AN-26, he did not have the equipment TCAS (collision warning system aircraft in the air). Once the pilots were able to cope and everything ended well. Managers saw the plane, but then something in one of them pereklinilo, he decided that they had gone, and gave a command to climb. Then the manager said: "It was not this, he began to gain" - and even after listened to records of negotiations, he could not believe that he gave the command.
We like - found guilty, kicked, and the problem remained something - then we had so many near misses at this point! This conflict structure. If the manager is constantly mistaken in one place, it is probably a question for the structure? And these points have been added to the Moscow aviation hub a lot.
About the new Mission Control Center
Our Centre for automated air traffic control more than 30 years, it is the Swedish set of equipment, which is called "Terkas." The new Mission Control Center are trying to run the year already. Who built the building - a rest room is smaller than the old, and the people there have to work harder. Did halls traffic service little - if you want to expand the number of sectors will not be able to. St. Petersburg began to put equipment companies - workplace ergonomics, even on older hardware is better. ON poor. In our country everything is done for show.
The new center should be a system of automatic dependent surveillance. This is when the aircraft flying in the sky due to the manager does not see the radar, so that the vessel sends signals to the satellite. In this system, the dispatcher sees the crew sets at his altimeter: that he, for example, instead of randomly 70th set of 90-tier. The same goes with the speed: 200 knots gave him, and he holds a 250 - and it immediately comes to the dispatcher. That is, it controls again, did the crew. There will also be a system where the controller sends a voice command is not "gain altitude", and presses the button and the window on the pilot's instrument panel shows "dial 150", as SMS.
Pro training and hijacking
Fitness Center in Moscow, alas, does not work - in the sense that we did not work to hone skills in specific cases. While stazhirueshsya, taught you that once was the manager - all passed into the category of "for show". Trainings are held after work, I go to the trainer, I have in-the-eyes on such after two days, I just controlled flight, I ask them: "What do you want me to teach? Let me teach you something better. " - "Well, sit down sit here then," - they say.
How to behave during a dispatcher hijack? We have a paper, all the secrets I can not tell, but the guide is quite simple - a report to senior management. Well, you need to find the pilot, he can speak or not. For example, the pilot can say the code word by which it is clear that his board seized.
About the difference between the Moscow airports
The most problematic airport - Vnukovo airport terminal was built there, but the airfield itself in terms of service traffic is not very. Bad taxi routes, always some government restrictions. Near restricted areas - Moscow, Barvikha. If you can not keep a safe spacing between aircraft, there can not even start the aircraft, it is necessary to bring to the second round and again to try to cram on the strip. When I fly, I try to buy flights to Domodedovo and Sheremetyevo. Let me there longer idle at customs, at Vnukovo but you can after a quick half hour Customs sit and wait for departure.
In Europe, flying more. But there is any increase in the number of flights are prepared: structure, documents, personnel and equipment. A Vnukovo - a vivid example of the opposite approach: built near large bright terminals, but rested in the sky. You can build two more, but the sky has been limited to 40 departures per hour and remains.
About error statistics
Planes flying at an interval of ten kilometers, because it is safe for our standards: if the first things to happen, the second manager to turn around.
There are statistics on how many mistakes controllers in Moscow has served on the number of flights. For example, normally if 10 thousand flights was one violation of the interval. In 2012, there were four or five of near misses (when the distance between the aircraft is less than half the allowable), besides the usual incidents.
We have last year was such a case. Moscow Mission Control Center on its website wrote that the plan will be only two dangerous approach. The formulation is, of course, incorrect. So immediately we raspiarili that the Centre plans - two dangerous convergence, and if not, what needs to be done. They, of course, then it is removed from the site.
About safety standards "we" and "them»
When the Germans arrive at Vnukovo, they say, you're number 30 on the landing to wait an hour. "As well, I bought this time, we go on a schedule to the minute, why should we wait?" It is useless to explain that the plan we have is not working - all the time and bought it all arrived. And in the English Heathrow Airport, for example, how? Come to our uncle Eugene on business jet and said: I want to arrive at such a time. And they rate - 80 operations per hour.