Cream society bronebankah
The really expensive car will go from any chases and stand grenade explosion on the roof
Most of the attempted murders committed in the vicinity of the victim's personal transport. Thus, in 1914, his car was shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este, 1863-1914), which led to the beginning of the First World War. In 1963, also in a car he was shot by US President John F. Kennedy (John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 1917-1963).
35, US President John F. Kennedy was assassinated Nov. 22, 1963 during the presidential motorcade through the streets of Dallas (TX). Convertible Lincoln X-100 does not provide him with adequate security. Photo: Walt Cisco, Dallas Morning News
March 30, 1981 was an attempt on US President Ronald Reagan (Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004), at the moment when he came out of the car.
Also in 1981, Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II, 1978-2005) shot a man standing at the forefront of the pilgrims, who moved past the vehicle with the head of the Catholic Church. Indeed, the people of this scale are most vulnerable while traveling, so book personal transport - a logical step to ensure their safety.
Crews that give passengers a chance for salvation in the case of the assassination, there ever since there was a firearms and explosives, but their unusual properties, such as sewn into the frame of steel sheets, no one advertised. If each counter will know that an armored coach, then the attempted murderer is likely to take advantage of such means, by which the booking will not save.
For example, an armored coach was Czar Alexander II (1818-1881). The main element of its protection has been strengthened steel sheet bottom, to protect against "infernal machines." It is almost saved the life of the king, March 1, 1881, when a suicide Narodovolets Trotters Nicholas threw a bomb into a royal carriage. Explosion rocked slightly stunned king. Six failed assassination of Alexander II not teach caution. He came out of the coach yourself to as Prince Kropotkin wrote, "to look at the wounded Circassians and say a few words." At this point, a second terrorist, Ignatius Grinivetsky threw another bomb, the explosion of which the king is nothing to protect.
Booking the first civilian cars was first just a side income of some garages, single-piece, semi-artisan production. In addition, the customer is usually required that the appearance of armored vehicles is not much different from the basic model. Thus, all that is known about the armored vehicles early twentieth century, is usually a consequence of the great success of law enforcement bodies, or, conversely, a major failure of someone's security services.
The adoption in 1920 of Prohibition in the United States triggered a sharp increase in the level of organized crime. Armored cars have become massively used by bankers, senior government officials, members of the security services and, of course, gangsters. However, almost the only machine of its kind preserved to this day, and became widely known - is a unique Cadillac, which belonged to the uncrowned king of Chicago, Al Capone (Al Capone, 1899-1947).
The position of Al Capone was a very special and allowed him, for example, with impunity beat to death in broad daylight on the main street of the city chapter of one of the Chicago area, who dared to take any decree without first talking to a gangster. In spite of this, his life and the lives of his family constantly threatened. Therefore, in 1928, Al Capone has got the machine, which would have envied James Bond himself. It was a powerful Cadillac 341, equipped with bullet-proof glass windows, quarter-armor (6, 3 mm) around the body (including "soft" top) and hidden loopholes in the doorway. The rear window of the car could be folded, allowing guards gangster apply all available arsenal, until the machine gun, which, incidentally, there was in the car with a mass of other weapons hidden in special hiding places.
In addition, Cadillac was equipped with a system of discharge of oil into the exhaust pipe - a simple and highly effective way to setting a powerful smoke screen. Finally, the floor of the car was mounted a special hatch through which the road can be either all the same to pour oil or pour sharpened spikes likely to break away from his pursuers.
This armored cost of a gangster in a record sum for those times - $ 30 000. While the base model cost $ 5000 and was considered one of the most expensive cars.
After Al Capone was convicted of tax evasion - the only charge that is able to legally justify - his property (or rather, the part that was recorded on a gangster or his family) were confiscated, including an exclusive Cadillac. It is worth mentioning that this machine is idle for a long time did not stand. February 15, 1933, during an official visit to Chicago the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1882-1945), his car was strafed a Sicilian Zangarmarsh. The president himself was not injured, but the mortal wound was mayor of Chicago, who was riding in the presidential car. After this incident, the security service began to use for trips Roosevelt Al Capone's Cadillac.
Gradually armored cars began to make many major automotive plants. In the US, it was Cadillac and Packard, Germany - Mercedes-Benz, in the UK - Rolls-Royce and Bentley. They went to the presidents, prime ministers, kings, emperors, and from 1936 and general secretary of the Communist Parties of different.
In Soviet bronekapsuly
In the relatively peaceful Soviet armored cars by 1936 it was used only in a collection service. Top party leadership drove a limousine "Leningrad-1" representing almost exact copy of the Buick-32-90. No booking there was not a trace.
The history of the Soviet "bronelimuzinov" started with a Packard car 14 armored factory «Derham» in California. There is a fairly believable legend that says that this car in 1936 gave Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt. However, not so important, whether armored Packard 14 Soviet leadership gift or just bought it, but, be that as it may, the car like Stalin. Is that the white color of the body did not accept the leader, so the car repainted once in classic black.
In 1939, on Stalin's personal orders, "Packard" was sent to the plant VMS, where the Soviet engineers, firstly familiarized with the structural features of the American car, and secondly, reinforced his defense. Were set thicker armor plates (Soviet armor also were better) and armored glass, 7 cm thick.
Soon "Packard" purchased in the United States and the Soviet Union armored, travels almost all the top Soviet leadership, and later, through the efforts of designer Andrei Nikolaevich Ostrovtseva (1902-1988), there was a car ZIS-110 and its armored version - ZIS-115, externally reminiscent of the beloved leader Packard, but are actually much more sophisticated machine. By the way, a curious fact, the ZIS-110, even though he was a limo, but most of these machines worked in the service of a taxi, and theoretically could ride on it, and ordinary Soviet citizen.
Well, with the ZIS-115 is linked another legend. Allegedly, during the presentation of the new machine to Stalin, he asked whether the machine will withstand fire from automatic weapons. Engineers responded that according to the calculations "should." Then Stalin decided to "test", and then offered the designers sit in the car. Before the machine was built platoon machine gunners who opened heavy fire on it. Fortunately for designers, their calculations were correct and ZIS-115 was "no casualties" was approved by the Commission.
When Stalin came to power, Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971), immediately began to struggle with the "deviations from the general line" and displays the "cult of personality". So armored cars appeared for a while out of work. Khrushchev himself preferred to travel to gigs to symbolize his closeness to the people.
In the Khrushchev era senior management moves to different versions ZIL-111, in which no reservations had been made. January 22, 1969, this approach to security had nearly cost the life of the current General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev (1907-1982). During the solemn meeting astronauts lone assassin opened fire from two pistols on government vehicles at the walls of the Kremlin. As a result of firing it was mortally wounded the driver of one of the machines also received a slight wound to the driver of the motorcycle escort and one of the visiting astronauts.
After that, the "garage Task" again reactivated ZIS-115. Well, and drawings of new models of armored limousines appeared again on the drawing boards of designers ZIL only in 1981. The challenge to create a modern armored car to the party leadership has been resolved quickly and efficiently, with the result that there ZIL ZIL 41057 and 41052, the machine for a long time which have no analogues in the world according to the degree of security and reliability. The main feature of these cars was the new (or rather, well forgotten old) way to book.
Usually the car is booked as follows: the basic model is taken, stripped down to its "skeleton", then set her on the elements of protection, armor, bulletproof glass, window, increase the suspension, in some cases, to make changes in the transmission and engine. As a result, an armored car looks almost no different from the base.
Another option - the principle bronekapsuly. For the first time this approach attempted to use even in cars Mercedes-Benz K540 in 1942, but it was too expensive. The factory was created so-called bronekapsuly. In fact, the interior of the vehicle is only izgotovlёnny of armor elements. Then the capsule was mounted on the chassis and secure it to the rest of the body parts were hung. Thus, we get a car that looks indistinguishable from the base, but radically different from it in fact. This method can significantly reduce the reservation total weight, thus "liberated kilograms" were given protective materials. ZIL 41052 has a thickness of armor like BTR - 9 mm (the armor of the presidential car, of course, the quality would give ten points handicap any armored personnel carriers).
In 1983 ZIL 41052 compared to a direct competitor to Cadillac Fleetwood Limousine. Testing included the shelling of the SVD rifle, firing at the most vulnerable parts of the body (cracks in the door, the windows, the windows and the connection casing, door handles), as well as undermining the grenades on the roof and under the fuel tank. ZIL honorably withstood all the tests at the same time "Cadillac", as it turned out, almost "does not hold" shots from SVD, and a hand grenade exploded on the roof over the passenger seat, left a solid hole.
Now, the principle of "bronekapsuly", the brainchild of Soviet engineers, ensures the safety of the American president. As for ZIL, then, despite the excellent (even in today's reality) characteristics of security machines, it does not pass on the high-speed parameters. The maximum speed is only 190 km / h, which is considered insufficient for effective separation from his pursuers. It is sad, but in Russia no longer has its own government limousines and any work in this direction is carried out.
Today armored vehicles are not only the chief executives of states or government officials. Contingent of buyers has expanded at the expense of celebrities - singers, actors, entertainers. For all who want a modern armored vehicles market offers two basic ways to protect: the factory and poslezavodskoe book.
In the first case, the protective elements are mounted directly in the vehicle assembly process in the factory. This technology allows the use of armor materials in the body structure and other important parts of the car, also at the stage of manufacture of the car, it is made with the use of specially designed components: enhanced suspension that can withstand the weight of armor, improved brakes and transmission, uprated engines. However, this is a very fun not cheap, because such work takes only a few large companies, such as DaimlerChrysler, BMW and Audi.
Poslezavodskaya installation protection - the most popular and accessible method, besides there is the possibility to control the process inside and out. Firstly, you can book almost any car you like, and do not choose from a range of standard models of the plant. Secondly, the customer remains the choice for the degree of security. Thirdly, it is possible to order the re-planning and interior options, such as a scanner or explosives, for example, Al Capone, the mechanism of smoke screen. The specific solution is determined only by the thickness of the purse owner's imagination and the natural limitations of the booked car.
Yuri Popov, 25.02.2010
Cadillac 341-A 1928. The same model was at the Chicago gangster Al Capone. However, his car was reinforced armor, bulletproof glass windows and hiding places for the storage of a whole arsenal. Photos (Creative Commons license): Wouter Duijndam
ZIS-115 armored body, intended for senior party figures at the Museum of vintage cars in Moscow. Photo (Photo Library BC): Andrey Sorokin
Agent American presidential security service are waiting for Barack Obama at his armored car. November 2009. Photo: White House Photo / Pete Souza
The creators of the car BMW X5 Security Plus was used high-strength special steel and laminated glass thickness of about 3 cm. It is possible to protect are in the cars of people from attacks using automatic weapons. Photo: BMW AG
Dobavleno1 in [mergetime] 1267642772 [/ mergetime]
I think comments will be (and photo too)
ZIS-115 - armored vehicle class. It was built in the late 1940s at the automobile plant named after Stalin. Initially the index was ZIS-110C, was prepared in 1946-1947. Limousines, according to various estimates, was made about 32 copies.
Externally, the ZIS-115 differed little from the ZIS-110. Some differences: the presence of the central fog, two special signals, increasing the size of tires without white sidewalls.
Forced Displacement 8-cylinder engine from the ZIS-110: 6 liters. Standard motor power increased to 162 hp Six-meter limousine weight of 4280 kg can develop a speed of 120 km / h. Fuel consumption: 27, 5 liters per 100 kilometers.