10 secret societies that created the modern world

Ninety eight million six hundred ninety two thousand three hundred sixty

There is an opinion that the world is controlled by some secret organization, and people in power that we see are nothing but puppets. It sounds not too plausible, but there is such a possibility. Previously there was a secret society that has largely created this world as we know it.

1. Карбонарии

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the European powers had to decide what to do with the former territories of the First French Empire. At the Congress of Vienna the borders of the European States were redrawn, and decisions were mostly taken, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.

Napoleon conquered Italy in 1805, the year, and when Congress signed the Final act in June 1815, the year, Italy these powers are divided between them. Austria got a large territory to the North, and the rest was split into smaller States.

After a decade of turmoil appeared Carbonari. Where they come from, is not entirely clear, but "privacy" society is treated quite seriously. Perhaps they had been expelled from France, they could be a branch of Freemasonry. They had their own initiation rituals, symbols, and hierarchy, similar to the Masonic.

In society, there were approximately 60 000 members, it was the largest secret society on the Italian Peninsula. Although they did not aim to re-unite Italy, they were responsible for the forces that were in motion.

First came the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, which included Sicily and Naples. It was governed by king Ferdinand, the Austrian pawn. In 1820, the year the Carbonari led the revolution, and Ferdinand had to relinquish power and create a Constitution for the country.

In the end, Austrian troops entered Naples and destroyed the Constitution as wanted on the throne sat a man in Austria. However, the uprising forced the Italians to unite, and in 1861, the year Italy was again free.

2. La Trinitarian

Juan Pablo Duarte

The Dominican Republic owes its existence to a secret society called La Trinitarian or the Trinity, founded in July 1838, the year. The island of Haiti since 1822, the year was ruled by the Haitians. Hispanic people in the West didn't like the rules of the French-speaking Haitians from the East. And they had a leader by the name of Juan Pablo Duarte, sometimes called the father of the Dominican Republic.

25-year-old Duarte founded La Trinitarian, together with eight comrades. The main purpose was the spread of nationalist sentiments among the population. Duarte himself came up with the oath for members of the group. They swore "by his honor and conscience, under the leadership of Juan Pablo Duarte to give life and all its benefits for a final separation from the government of Haiti and the establishment of a sovereign independent Republic, free from foreign domination, which will be called the Dominican Republic".

The group did their best to hide their existence from the authorities — Duarte has even created a secret alphabet for secret correspondence. Participants used aliases and met in small groups of three. In addition, members of La Trinitaria were working with rebels in the East of the country who wanted to overthrow the current government for reasons of their own.

In 1843, the year members of the society tried to organize a revolution, but the attempt failed. Several Trinitarian thrown in jail, and Duarte fled to Venezuela. But the group's efforts were not in vain, and a year later a second rebellion led to the Declaration of the Dominican Republic as an independent state, and on 27 February 1844, the year it officially recognized the country.

Duarte returned to become President, but could not take office because of a new military coup. Duarte was exiled from the country he created, and he died abroad in 1864, the year.

3. Brotherhood африканеров

The brotherhood of Afrikaners was founded in 1918-m to year. There have been only white men over the age of 25 years. The company's goal was complete control of South Africa — culturally, economically and politically.

About the Afrikaners are little known. In the 1930-ies they provoked afrikanische nationalism, they had a huge impact on the United national party. By 1947, the year they took control of the South African Bureau of races. Then and there invented racial isolation is the worst example of segregation during the last 60 years.

Their rise to power was so dramatic that one writer in 1978 year, said: "Today the South African government is Brotherhood, and Brotherhood is the government". The Brotherhood consisted of 143 officers and the Prime Ministers of the country since 1948, the year and until the election of Nelson Mandela (Nelson Mandela) in 1994-m to year.

In the 1990-ies society had to change. Now it's called the Boer League, and he even has a website. Now the League can join any adult person whatever colour, sex or religion. It is believed that the members of the League seek to improve the lives of all citizens of the country.

4. Filiki Этерия

Filiki eteria ("Society of friends") to pursue goals that are contrary to a harmless name. In 1821, the year the society members have started a revolutionary war in Greece, which lasted 11 years and resulted resulted in the formation of modern Greek society.

In 1814 year, the couple of merchants, Nikolaos Skoufas and Athanasius Tsakalof, came up with a conspiracy to liberate Greece from Ottoman rule. We were a group of four membership levels. Every member of society has kept his name secret. The organization was as difficult as possible. And then the creators realized that we need to do.

But for two years they managed to recruit about 30 people. One of the most active members of the society was Nikolaos Galatis, who claimed that a relative of Ioannis Kapodistrias, the Greek Ambassador in the Russian Empire — perhaps the only country capable of resisting the Ottomans. The rebels, seeing an opportunity to get a powerful ally, sent Galatea to Russia to recruit his alleged relative.

Kapodistrias are unenthusiastic. He said, "the Only advice I can give anyone about yourself don't tell and stop doing what you're doing. Tell whoever sent you that if they don't want to die themselves and to pull the whole unfortunate country, we must abandon the revolution."

Galactic did the opposite — went on to tell about Etheria to anyone who would listen. Even the Russian police said. And the king. From Kapodistrias had a nervous breakdown, and Galactic left Moscow and continued to attempt to recruit anyone. In the end, he was killed by members of his "society of friends" because he didn't want to understand that their society is "secret".

By 1819, the society managed to recruit people and create six levels of membership. Joined the society people were sworn in by sharing information and making contributions. On the lower level in the hierarchy of the brotherhood stood uninitiated and inexperienced members ("Brothers"). To climb higher, needed more donations and more elaborate rituals. The candidate had to learn the secret signs. In return he received a new title: "Dedicated", "Priest" and "Pastor" (the highest rank).

The leaders of the organization realized that forever society secret can't stay, and was looking for a leader to start a rebellion. They re-turned to Kapodistrias, but he again refused, saying that their reckless plan will not work. It ended up that lead the uprising asked the Russian officer Alexander Ypsilantis (Alexander Ypsilantis). He agreed, and in the spring of 1821, the year in Greece there was a revolution. Although the "Society of friends" broke up during the war, Greece gained independence.

The founding father of modern countries is considered the first head of state (surprise!) Ioannis Kapodistrias, who said that the plan doesn't work. And who said that man can not change his mind?

5. Германенорден

German secret society of the XX-th century Germanenorden firmly believed in the superiority of the Aryan race. In 1916, the year they made their symbol a swastika, and they were anti-Semites. Then what happened, all know.

The society was formed in 1812 to fight against Jews and Freemasons to beat them on their own field. Members of Germanenorden was a difficult initiation rites: people dressed as knights, kings, bards, and even forest nymphs. Candidates had to prove their Aryan ancestry by presenting birth certificates for several generations.

In 1918 year, the group has evolved into the Thule Society, led by Rudolf von Sebottendorf. In 1919, the year it was the German workers ' party, and in 1920, the year the society was headed by Adolf Hitler.

6. Black рука

The Serbian organization "Unity or death", better known as "the Black hand" was formed on 9 may 1911, the year to fight against Ottoman rule. Over the years there have been about 2,500 members, led by Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic, known as "APIs" — the ancient Egyptian deity, the bull.

Candidates were given the oath of office swore to put the secret society above their own lives: "to God the honor of his life and swear that I will without contradiction to obey all the orders. To God the honor of his and I swear on my life that all the secrets of the organization will take to the grave."

Members worked in groups. On the lower level stood a group of three five people, they knew the minimum information they needed to know anything about other groups or the main leaders. The idea was that once the members know nothing, and give nothing.

In 1914, APIs developed a plan for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The mission was successful and became the cause of war, more deadly than what preceded it.

7. Катипунан

Katipunan stands for "Supreme worshipful Union of the sons of the Motherland". The organization was formed in the Philippines in 1892 to fight against the Spanish government. The founders were Freemasons, and from there to Katipunan migrated rituals, codes, passwords, and recruitment into the brotherhood only men.

However, in Katipunan added an additional element — all the papers, starting with the founding document of 7 July 1892, the year they were signed with blood. The original text of the oath is: "I signed this document in my own blood flowing in my veins". By the way, these documents can be purchased on eBay for a couple hundred dollars.

The society managed to recruit tens of thousands of members, leaving the ruling of the Philippines by the Spaniards in the dark. However, in 1896 year, the employee printed factory confided in his sister and told her everything. Conversation overheard nuns told all to the priest, and he denounced to the Spanish authorities. The printing house was searched, and the secrecy was lost.

22 March of the following year the society members decided to abandon secrecy. And so they managed to collect under the noses of the Spaniards enough people to start a General uprising. The Philippine revolutionary army defeated the Spanish and declared independence on 12 June 1898, the year.

Spain refused to recognize the Philippines a separate state, but the United States intervened. They were stationed in the Philippines, its troops and remained there for 50 years, effectively ruling the country. Nevertheless, June 12 is still celebrated in the Philippines as independence day.

8. The Irish Republican братство

In the XIX-th century the members of the international Irish independence movement called themselves the fenians. An offshoot of this organization was founded in Ireland by James Stephens. After a failed uprising in 1848, the year Stevens fled to Paris, where he befriended a deserter John O'mahony. In 1851, the year they both scored in the coup, and at least one secret society modeled on the Freemasons.

Then O'mahony went to new York and founded the American branch of the Fenian Brotherhood, while Stephens in January 1856, the year he returned to Ireland, more driven by revolutionary fervor, and extremely poor life in Paris. In December 1857, the year Stevens has received from O'mahony promised financial assistance and began to create a militant organization in Ireland.

In St. Patrick's Day in 1858, the year he and a group of associates sworn to guard the interests of Ireland, and thus founding the Irish revolutionary brotherhood, later renamed the Irish Republican brotherhood.

From the Fenian outposts had been around the world — in England, Canada, New Zealand and Australia — everywhere, where the hand of the British Empire. They worked in groups, called circles. In the center of each circle stood Colonel own myself verbovka nine captains. The captains were recruited at the nine sergeants, and the sergeants, nine rank and file. Each man knew only his direct superior.

In 1910 year, the leadership of the IRB went to Thomas Clarke, after which the number of society members has grown significantly, mainly due to young Irish people. In may 1915 he established a military Council of seven, and in 1916, the year raised the Easter uprising. It failed, and the leaders had to give up.

Many blame the failure of excessive secrecy, because it is difficult to organize an uprising in these conditions. Nevertheless, the group remained a powerful faction for the next few years, playing a leading role in the Anglo-Irish war. In 1921, the year has finally become available in Ireland.

9. Union спасения

The Russian Empire fell in 1917 year, but the seeds of revolution were sown nearly 100 years before. During the uprising of the Decembrists in 1825, the year 3000 of the rebels tried to seize the Winter Palace and overthrow Tsar Nicholas I V. his first day in power. The uprising was suppressed, but it changed Russia. Nicholas created a spy network to spy on the population and imposition of censorship in the press and education. For such places as Poland, were abolished regional autonomy.

The Decembrist revolt was organized by the Union of salvation. It all began modestly, with six founding members — friends and officers — just going to their homes, until one of them suggested to create a secret political organization. The purpose of the society was vague, although all its members had problems with the policy. The young people decided to make life better in their own country, to abolish blind faith in the police and justice.

In 1817, the year they prepared a Charter, which had been prescribed initiation rituals and four stages of membership. Only two of the upper tier, the founders of the "Boyars" and long held the brotherhood of the Elders knew the true goal of the company. New members on probation were called "Brothers" and pledged to support the society even if you don't know why. Candidates called "Friends" and until then didn't take part in anything to adjust to membership in the fraternity as something self-evident.

In the end, the society was renamed Union of welfare and became involved in charity work and social activities. In 1821, the year of the radical beliefs of a member of the society of Paul Pestel did not agree with the opinion of most of the leaders, and the community has split into two factions — North and South. Pestel led the last. He used the influence of the group to revolt when the Tsar Alexander I dies, and not to allow his successor to come to power.

But the influence of Pestel was not so great as was needed for haphazard and aimless revolution. He was only able to do Russian people even less free.

10. Hawaiian лига

The Kingdom of Hawaii was formed in the early XIX-th century, but lasted less than 100 years before becoming part of the United States. The decline of the Kingdom was set up by the organization known as the Hawaiian League. It consisted of 200 wealthy Americans and Europeans, dissatisfied with the king Kalakaua: they believed the king was too extravagant and, perhaps more importantly, unable to rule the Islands.

The secret society was formed around a Charter, written by Lorrina by Thurston in early 1887, the year (not a single copy has not survived). During the year the group grew to 405 members, but to agree on a common goal, they failed. Some wanted to join the United States and others to establish an independent Republic, but all without exception wanted to overthrow the monarch.

The most important ally of the League was a military group known as the "Honolulu Rifles". In 1893, they overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, usasatsui to the throne two years earlier. For several years, Hawaii was a Republic, but eventually, the revolution became a US territory in 1898, the year and the 50th state in 1959 year.

source: www.publy.ru

Source: /users/1077


See also

New and interesting