Unusual facial Soviet automobile industry

One may criticize the Soviet auto industry for the fact that the same machine is available for decades, but only the guilt of designers in this. They constantly gushed ideas and not afraid of domestic competition. Recall unusual modification of cars, which has not given the green light.

GAZ "A-Aero»
~ 1932 ~

In these times, this project would be called a thesis than a concept car. But just look at these forms and correlate them with the year of issue! In the early 30's aerodynamics in automotive engineering just got up from his knees and made the first tentative steps. And so nice that this forward movement is and the contribution of domestic talent.
In fact, the "A-Aero" Moscow engineer Alexei Nikitin was a refined aerodynamic body, worn on the chassis of GAZ-A standard. The car turned out not simply an unusual and attractive. All major prettiness "Aero", like the integrated headlamps enclosed rear arches and extended keel, worked to reduce drag. And it works not only in theory but also in practice. During the test, "Aero" concept car, to put it mildly, surprised the others by a quarter to reduce fuel consumption and maximum speed, which has grown by almost 30 kilometers per hour compared to the base "jeep." I wish to continue this wonderful story did not get wind. The very same "A-Aero" vanished without a trace.

~ 1936 ~

Create incredible terrain vehicle, successfully pass a state test them all, wait for the adoption of the model adopted, and then ... to abolish all these decisions. This is madness? It GAS!
Throughout his life, one of the greatest automobile designers Vitaly A. Grachev create dedicated vehicle absolute permeability. First gas, then at the ZIL. One of the stages of this path and became a pilot GAZ-21. Six wheels, four of which were leading, extra wheels on the bottom, helped roll over bumps, spare wheels, which allowed to move down to the vertical walls - it is necessary to say that "twenty-first" struck the imagination of his cross? Military jubilant, because they needed just such a car. But Grachev has created a four-wheel drive four-wheel "Emku" patency which was even higher: it was she, and went into the army.

Bogie terrain vehicle borrowed from GAZ-AAA. Subsequently, domestic universal joints replaced imported.
GAZ-21 was to be the basis for an armored car BA-21. He, like the pickup, was produced in a single copy. Army had to start the war in the BA-20, built on the chassis of the usual "Emka".

With this plan, clearly visible small extra wheels on the bottom and spare wheel is a rear car dimensions and geometric increase permeability.

Despite the excellent "geometry", large-angle mating wheels and high-torque motor has a pair of driving wheels is still not enough. On a really difficult ground had to put chains on the driving axle.

On the basis of GAZ-21 was built sedan GAZ-25, which had seven seats, five in the cabin and two more on the jump "Teschin place." Given that the increased number of wheels, spare wheels, too, has become more - or two.

AZ-12A Phaeton
~ 1949 ~

As you know, we love the winters. Because he's a big, beautiful and innovative. But the conveyor, alas, did not reach the most beautiful version of the GAZ-12 - phaeton. Let him top of the massive need to manually lift, albeit devoid of the roof bearing body bulge at the seams, and the power of the 90-strong motor desperately lacked potyazhelevshy car. But the Phaeton was damn attractive!
Open car on display along with Stalin closed and received the approval of the leader. But the tests, which were held in Moscow, and the Crimea, were far deadlier Joseph Stalin - the car did not go into series.
Outdoor ZIM was a real chaise without side windows. This photo clearly visible crotch celluloid windows.

Already during the test side windows made of glass, but to set them still had to separate. Thanks to the hard roof frame silhouette machines with soft and hard top is almost not different.

During tests in the Crimea and in the chaise stopped by Artek. Pioneers delight knew no bounds!

Fortunately, one of the two prototypes came to the present day. It is interesting that over time the number of tropicbirds even increased: in the regions in the parade vehicles ZIM altered handicraft.

~ 1950 ~

This was a concept car with no discount or apology. His inspirer - Yuri Dolmatovsky, brother of the Soviet poet Yevgeny Dolmatovski. Not only an engineer, but also a designer, journalist and one of the most prominent popularizers of the car in the USSR, Yuri Aronovich in the late '40s began to think about the pros wagon-type. It was during his participation and began to develop the first Soviet passenger monocab.
Concept Car NAMI-013, as it is today like to say ahead of his time. Indeed! Rear-engined layout, five meters in length, three rows of seats and the driver, sitting in front of the front axle - this is, anyway, a breakthrough. Alas, enthusiasm Dolmatovski received favorable even in the pages of the foreign automotive press, found no support in the higher courts. Then only the prototype did not get, and he disposed of in 1954.

And after seven years in the United States debuted rear-drive, rear-monocab Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier, ideologically very similar to the car Dolmatovski.

~ 1951 ~

Again on a clean concept car - both product engineering designed to rotate the gears of technological progress, this beauty is not drawn. Before us is "just" a racing car chassis ZIS-110. But even on the very specific linear races - races in pairs several hundred kilometers in length, which were held on conventional highway, the 112th was not demonstrated outstanding results. But the role of Dream car - cars, if not asserting the superiority of socialist industry on the "decadent West", at least parity of the sides, the car is ideal.
The brainchild of Valentina sprout easy to blame imitation conceptual Buick Le Sabre. But the two cars appeared almost simultaneously and both are beautiful in their own way. But in the 112-meters was a true Russian scale: nearly six meters long, fearsome cyclopean spotlight in the center, rollicking "whiskers" growing out of the front fairing, and calling on the strong side of the front wings. It was cool! And not only in design. The version of the pump over a row (!) Eight-cylinder engine Dream car developed almost 200 horsepower and, according to his contemporaries, peremahival over two hundred of the maximum speed.

GAZ-12B and GAZ-12G "The Seagull»
~ 1956 ~

No, we were not wrong number when typing the name of the model. Just in 1950 in Gorky created new models as fast as in Detroit. In the Soviet auto industry was not accepted spraying resources: you busy or improving an existing model, or working on perspective. But the tireless "gazovtsy" if it did not know.

No matter that in 1956 was in full swing full swing work on the GAZ-13, and in 1957 were built the first rideable prototype. Engineers also developed a version of the restyling of winter! The updated sedan was boosted to 110 power engine, different design front and rear, new rear wings, the automatic transmission from the perspective at the time, "Volga" and the new name of "The Seagull." However, the Ministry did not understand why a country on the same plant two cars of a class. As a result, a series has gone only a new name but to draft a six-cylinder sedan is a step below a GAZ-13 in Gorky'll be back.

The name "Chaika" car received a characteristic trim on the grille. It is the only element of the design of the prototype, which reached the serial GAZ-13.
In mid-1950 the latest fashion in Gorky actively experimented with a two-tone paint. Alas, black series high-class cars, as now, was not subjected to revision.

MZMA "Moskvich-444»
~ 1958 ~

The fact that the first "Zaporozhets", nicknamed by the people "humpbacked" - is a clone of Italian minicar FIAT, they know almost everything. But not many people know that in the beginning of his career "Constipation", in fact, was the "Moskvich».
According to the original plan, "humpback" had to get up on the conveyor of the Moscow plant of small cars (MZMA), later better known as AZLK. It is for this purpose in Europe have bought a few copies of the popular FIAT 600 - they dismantled, look inside and say, creatively reworked. Despite the change the diameter of wheels and cosmetic changes in the external design, it was clear from his ears stick out of the "national development».

Eventually, borrowed design MZMA not bring happiness. By order of the top ready-concept urban project "Moskvich" with all the technical documentation and driving prototypes passed Ukrainian factory "Kommunar" - commonly known parent "Constipation." A "Moskvich" and remained a prototype.

~ 1958 ~

On decaying capitalist West after the sedan range of business class car filled up to the coupe and convertible, but the Soviet factories, as you know, their own pride. Therefore, a modification of the "Volga" was the van.

However, the "21 th" was hard to spoil anything, so the van looked great. Two-tone paint, chrome, deer on the hood - and such as personal transportation is not a sin to use! As is often the case, an interesting car and remained only a draft. Largely because it was built not on the gas, and at the Gorky plant bus. Meanwhile, demand for automobiles was similar. No wonder many road transport companies in the overhaul reworked GAZ-21 and GAZ-22 pick-up trucks and even vans. It gets it from them, though not so elegant.

Work on the van was conducted simultaneously with the wagon and an ambulance, but the van was ready for as much as two years earlier.
Load the car was 500 kilograms. To create a flat cargo area spare wheel moved underground, and the tank - in the middle of the bottom.

~ 1963 ~

You'll laugh, but after the second "breakup" with the monocab Yuri Dolmatovsky did not give up. Talented and hard designer decided to step on a rake of socialist realism for the third time. Again, it all started as a good idea.
Absolutely sound idea adaptation of "monospeysa" to the needs of taxi Yuri Aronovich infected experts VNIITE (All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Technical Aesthetics). Taking the experience of operating a taxi on the basis of the usual "Volga" GAZ-21 and methodically removing all of its inherent flaws, presented a draft Dolmatovsky Perspective Taxi.

Needless to say, it was monocab? The driver sat in front of the front axle, while the engine was close to the drive wheels, that is behind. In addition, PT VNIIETO was also a body of fiberglass, the prospects for which at the time seemed endless. Equally revolutionary looked sliding door on the right and a huge amount of time by the standards of the cabin, where passengers could sit with his legs crossed. The advantages of the machine we put as excellent visibility and ease of operation of an active - for example, very important for the taxi easy cleaning of the body and interior cleaning. Finally, the 50-strong "Moskvitch" motor provides quite adequate for a city taxi 100 kilometers per hour maximum speed. Alas, as in previous cases, the work Dolmatovski praised, and only.

But today, looking at the special Nissan NV200 Taxi, traveling about the streets of New York and London, it's hard not to notice a whole heap of similarities "Japanese" from the perspective of Taxi VNIITE.

~ 1964 ~

Why our reviews are no "shishiga"? Because in Gorky we built a truck, which was even cooler!
With 1930 for heavy trucks posted ZIS and GAZ vehicles engaged in the step below. That's just in Gorky to put up with not going, so, as soon as the top lowered directive on the establishment of a three-axle all-wheel drive truck of new generation built their own version. And I do not care that these machines are already developing ZIL (model 131) and "Ural" (375). Truck from the banks of the Volga River was named GAZ-34 and generally based on the units' shishiga ».

At the same load capacity that ZIL, "thirty-four" was 1, 3 tons lighter, half a meter shorter loading platform had more and consume less fuel. But in 1967, the ZIL has finally launched a full-scale production of its trucks, all-terrain vehicle, as well as competition in the USSR could only be in the case of patronage on the part of some of Ministers, the GAZ-34 on the conveyor belt and missed. Although the military has been recommended to the adoption.

As you can see, even for military trucks "gazovtsy" choose cheerful colors.

"Thirty-four" borrowed transmission with the clutch at the ZIL-131 and rear axles with suspension - from the ZIL-157.

During the tests, five GAZ-34 passed the route from Moscow to Ashgabat and Ukhta, drove the soldiers (in the back could accommodate 27 people), towed 122 mm howitzers, trailers and even aircraft.

~ 1965 ~

This 408-th "Moskvich" you will not see! However, it is not quite "Moskvich". In 1965, with the active lobbying on the part of the future Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov, in the early 60s oversaw the entire national economy, construction began in Izhevsk Automobile Plant. And the original car from the new plant was not: instead, it was planned to establish production of the newest "Moskvich-408».

However, the young team of designers the company such a development is not entirely happy about it. Instead of having to travel to Moscow luggage in Udmurtia developed their own car, named WINTER-1. Compact Coupe received the frame structure and body panels made by bending and rolling. From the 408th were only engine, doors and windows.
Soon after the first prototype was followed by the second - four-door sedan was a different grille and name WINTER-2. But none of the arguments could not outweigh the outdated design so that industry leadership ordered izhevchanam not engage in this nonsense, and work on the development of the Moscow sedan.

The creators of the car claimed that the winter - an abbreviation which stands for "Izhevsk plant of small cars».
WINTER-2 was more familiar sedan. Notice what is not in the winter lightweight shoes of the women. Udmurt ladies are so severe ...

Over time, the Winter-1 has undergone a slight restyling - changed grille. Interestingly, it is still original and has not been standardized with the sedan.

The fate of the two machines is not known. Some time ago, in one of the exhibitions there was a strong "ukolhozheny" sedan, which gave the owner of the Winter-2, but the credibility of these statements raises questions.

~ 1973 ~

"Director Volga" GAZ-3102 long 26 years was the coolest Soviet car that could buy an ordinary person. Meanwhile, the conveyor has reached only a small part of the design ideas. Engines V6, automatic transmission, rear and besshkvornevaya spring front suspension, new front panel - all this in the 3102 series buyers did not see.
The fuel crisis of the 1970s, the stagnation in the Soviet economy, the abandonment of the production of "Muscovites" series 3-5, with which the new Volga was to divide the automatic transmission, and, most importantly, VAZ priority funding at the expense of other plants drove Gorky's engineers significantly simplify the initial project. As a result, GAZ-3102 received only a forced version of the old engine, front disc brakes and a new interior and exterior design. And again, all my fault, "AvtoVAZ» ...

In 1967, in the Gorky planned creation of 3101 in a brand new body, but starts slowing economy forced them to work on the new generation of machines in the back of the GAZ-24.

Because of the enormous costs that demanded a new plant in Togliatti, GAS financed on leftovers. "Gazovtsam" had to carry a ready-made machine for the production of all kinds of exhibitions in the hope of persuading senior management. As a result, money has been allocated only greatly simplified GAZ-3102.

The interior of the 3101 sports a lot more than in 3102. The front panel and center console form around some sort of driver cockpit. Note the selector lever on the center tunnel.

~ 1974 ~

Legend says that, thanks to all-wheel drive for the birth of "twenty-fourth" we must personally Leonid Brezhnev. In fact, the reason is confused with the investigation.

"Lada Dwarf»

It might have been the prototype of "Oka", but look at the year of the creation of the prototype. On the contrary, "Dwarf" (the name, of course, especially vazovtsam "managed") constructed from the shortened "Oka". But why it was necessary to reduce the already tiny minicar? Today, quite well-fed in the automotive sense, we simply have forgotten how at the turn of the 90s the whole country floated the idea of ​​"people", and therefore the most cheap machines.
However, weighing less than half a ton of "dwarf" with the landing formula 2 + 2 units of "Oka", in spite of an interesting overall design, development turned out to be another futile. After all, where and what it was to release when a couple of WHA with KAMAZ for a long time could not really establish assembly "donor" "Okie"?


He looks so much like "Ohta" its close to ideal aerodynamic teardrop-shaped body, which sometimes confused these two concepts. But striking appearance WHA X - only a prototype, and in the full sense of the word. Free interpretation of the seven-seater, aerodynamically calibrated monocab has not progressed beyond the stage layout. And in the years of perestroika he vanished without a trace in vazovskoy confusion and vacillation.
But now, looking at the sleek "X" can be clicked his tongue appreciatively, in recognition of "VAZ" designers: that could, when wanted!

AZLK-2143 "Yauza»

Changer 41st "Moskvich", who was "conditionally legitimate" copy of the French "Simca-1307", was the result of the works of their own design bureau AZLK. The nineties demanded fresh solutions, and with it the "Yauza" there were no problems. Large enough - in the length of 4, 7 meters - sedan distinguished by a sleek silhouette and absolutely incredible glazing. Side windows arranged vertically in two rows, and only open bottom. What for? For ventilation and that's enough, but in bad weather rain and snow did not penetrate into the interior. Brilliant!
In navigating the sample was experimental "azlkovsky" 95-horsepower engine 1, 8 liters, and luxury interior surprised - power steering and injury prevention. But after the construction of the prototype rideable "Yauza" "became shallow."

AZLK-2144 «Istra»

If the "Yauza" seems fairly advanced for its era and the development of the country, the "Istra" - generally clean space. The machine was created under the state program "Car of 2000" in the theory really is a machine of the future. Firstly, really elegant - no kidding! - Aluminum body with the doors of the "gull-wing" immediately and provides access to the front and to the rear seats. It was scheduled air suspension with electronically controlled, tidy liquid crystal and an advanced self-diagnostic system.
But the main thing - it's a three-cylinder multi-fuel engine construction German engineer Ludwig Elsbetta. Horses in the 1, 5-liter little something around 70, but the tank was theoretically possible to fill even gasoline, diesel even though canola oil! We do not know how much public money has had time to learn to develop AZLK "Istra", but in the long term car gets fantastic. Nothing, however, came not from him.

"Lada Rapan»

End 90th - blissful time. Until Russia has got powerful computers and not very legitimate software. Imagine a space for imagination of yesterday's school? Absolutely crazy architecture body concept "Rapan" another option seems and is not intended. This slozhnosochinennogo and not very meaningful "architecture" of the body could compose a desperate dreamers already mastered 3D Studio, but still poorly versed in automotive design.
Certainly not. Here, in 1998, wrote about the "Rapanu" magazine "At the wheel": "This is a demonstration of the technical and scientific potential of VAZ, its design features, forward-thinking, and finally (in spite of the enemies), the stable state of the enterprise, which can be business, despite all the upheavals of the Russian economy. " Quote over. However, what is expressed in "long-term thinking," except in the fanciful, like peeped Franco Sbarro forms, sliding doors and power unit from the power of "Oka", the magazine did not specify. But we can safely say - "Rapan" we do no one "lapped up". It is the pride of our home, even through her tears.

GAZ-3106 "Ataman-2»

If you are even slightly interested in the domestic automobile industry, we must remember the "Ataman-1." According to official figures, the truck turned over "Gazelle", but less than the GAZ-53, but in fact it was the car-Frankenstein, unpretentious in appearance is intertwined features of cars, "volzhanok" Nizhny Novgorod and medium trucks.
On the same "original" and the platform is built SUV GAZ-3106. The technical stuffing - the same, including the spar frame and dependent-axle front and rear. But on top of all of this was covered quite incredible body. Imagine ice up Land Cruiser Prado 90, about 15 minutes constant on a bright April sun. And thus obtain the "Ataman-2."



See also

New and interesting