November 22, 1960 Zaporozhye plant "Kommunar" has released the first series of car "Zaporozhets". The dream of a "people's car" has become a reality. Soviet car industry served dreams and the peasant car and automobile for the party leadership.
Since the mid-50s needs of the population on a compact low-cost "people's" car began to take more and more widespread. The task of creating such was set by the state economic planning for development during the 1959-1965 period. The basis of the future of the car, it was decided to take the Fiat 600. It must be said that the "hunchback" was not a blind copy of the Italian subcompact. Many of the structural units have undergone significant changes. ZAZ 965 has become a real "people's car", "starred" in films such as "Three plus two", "Queen of the petrol station" and many others. There was a "hunchback" even in the cartoon "Well, wait a minute" and "Vacation in Buttermilk».
Ukrainian car industry, experimenting on the "humpbacked" "Zaporozhets," which was a replica of the six hundredth Fiat, in the years of Brezhnev's rule has released a new model is almost complete, but very compact sedan, similar in exterior Chevrolet Corvairs. A distinctive feature of the car became larger air intakes, which people immediately dubbed the ears of them ZAZ 966 and got his nickname. In later models, "ears" were cropped, but the nickname remains. "Earful" was the first car of Vladimir Putin, a 19-year-old law student won his first car in the lottery DOSAAF.
"Catch up and overtake America," was the main trend in the development of Soviet industry 50-60 years. This trend also applies to the domestic auto industry, especially the executive segment. First Secretary of the Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev wanted the same car as the American president, only better. By the end of the 50s "Stalinist" ZIS-110, faithfully served for 13 years, is obsolete and no longer hold for several reasons. First, he apparently did not conform to the trend of car design, and secondly, the ZIS-110 was not the MMA, produced on an assembly line and filled the taxi companies. It is clear that the head of the Soviet Union could not ride on the same car with mere mortals. It has been given an order for production of the new executive of the car; the result of the implementation of this order and became a ZIL-111. Suspiciously similar to American Cadillac, ZIL-111 combines the best that could give auto industry: automatic transmission with push-button control, electric window lifters, V-type eight-cylinder engine, power steering, chetyrёhfarnaya lighting and representative seven-seater saloon. During the production model it was produced only 112 cars. Interesting fact: when China started production of executive cars "Hongqi", was based on the design ZIL-111.
3. "The Seagull»
The most beautiful car of the Soviet Union, "The Seagull" was the most massive Soviet car class. As part of its external appearance is a compilation of the car designs of the American automotive industry, the so-called fin-style or "Detroit Baroque". "The Seagull" can be attributed to long-lived Soviet automobile industry: cars were produced from 1959 to 1981. In "The Seagull" we went to the head of the ministries and departments, the first secretary of the republican Communist Parties, after the Soviet Union abroad. Furthermore, special modifications were produced several car: kinosёmochnye, polufaetony, also known case of the production of railway handcar on the basis of "GAZ-13».
Immediately after the release of "Gull" them started "hunting" - an elegant, comfortable car relish party functionaries, but the main chlenovoz remained obsolete winters. The way out was found: on one of the defense plants to the body of "Seagull" is welded front and rear part of the winter. In practice it turns camouflaged car a high level of comfort, nicknamed by the people "Oslobyk." "The Seagull" has long been available for the mass buyer, after the two were supposed to dispose of its capital repairs. Only in the 70s Brezhnev allowed to earn on "The Seagull": machines have been widely exploited registrar, served Intourist, diplomatic missions of foreign countries, ministers, military parades, Soviet ambassadors abroad and stars visiting the USSR.
Volga should be black. Black 24th "Volga" was the symbol of an era, which is not surprising - the car was produced from 1970 to 1992. This car is an indicator of well-being and the ultimate dream of every Soviet citizen. Bulk sale of "Volga" in private hands, but never foreseen: a large part of the cars went on the distribution of the state institutions, taxi companies and for export. "Volga" could afford only very wealthy people, compared to the "popular" "Muscovites" and "Lada" cars nomenclature cost dearly. "Volga" were produced in several versions, the most common was, of course, a sedan. Universals were smaller, and almost all of them went to the needs of the economy, so they are a long time, you could buy a retail network of "Birch" for checks or receive customized.
5.VAZ 2101 ("Kopeck»)
VAZ 2101, "Kopeika" - car legend, the most popular machine in the USSR. For the first prototype model of "Zhiguli" I was taken by the Italian Fiat 124. It is true that "Italian" has been greatly improved, the design of Fiat was made more than 800 changes.
"Unity," as affectionately called the first people in the VAZ 2101, was for the Soviet motorists revolutionary machine. The level of execution and assembly of cars has been at a very high level. Suffice it to say that many of the changes made by the Soviet designers were used later with the release in Italy. "Kopeika" was the favorite car, not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the countries of the socialist bloc. In Cuba, up to now in the course of 'penny-Limousine ", used as taxis. In 2000, a survey of nearly 80,000 motorists from Russia and CIS countries, conducted by the magazine "At the wheel", VAZ 2101 recognized "the best Russian car century».
"Eight" was the first front-Soviet car. For the domestic automotive industry, it was a revolutionary model. Prior to that, all models "Zhiguli" were only rear wheel drive. Some units and components VAZ-2108 were developed in cooperation with Western companies Porsche and UTS. The amount of the contract between the company and Porsche Minavtoproma unknown. However, they say that sharpening "chisel" enabled the company to build a full-size wind tunnel instead of a miserable climate chamber. For his unusual form of "eight" in the people immediately dubbed "chisel", however, despite the nickname, the car "caught." Of particular popularity of "eight" (and later "nine") earned in the years of perestroika among criminals. Frolicking front-wheel cars with the "predatory" outlines - the ideal machine "lads».
7.VAZ 2121 "Niva»
The task of making all-wheel drive car "Zhiguli" set for "VAZ" Soviet Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin. The task was not easy, but coped with it better than good. "Niva" became the world's first SUV compact class. In fact, it is with "Niva" the era of crossovers. In addition, the "Niva" was the first car with permanent four-wheel drive. The decision on the permanent all-wheel drive was made by designers because of the economy, to reduce the load on the powertrain: the assembly of the first Soviet jeeps used items from cars "Lada". "Niva" has become a very successful model and enjoyed deserved love not only in the USSR but abroad. Export options "Niva" were thoroughly tuned, the price for them abroad was comparable to the price of "Mercedes", the demand was no less. "Niva" was successfully sold in more than 100 countries, it was collected in six countries: Brazil, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, Greece, Canada. In many countries, there are still clubs fans of "Neve" and England fans "Niva" even publishes its own journal.
Author: Alex Rudevich