Long time no copy-paste on the forum here - got the article is suitable.
I not write himself, purely szhzhieno!
Article on the full administrative and economic powerlessness of Putin, who began at a meeting in the State Duma deputies to prove that the Soviet Union did not produce consumer goods ymuhin.ru/node/752/poka-vo-glave-ne-bylo-putinykh
, It provoked a discussion about the quality of goods in the Soviet Union. I wish to respond to this debate briefly to write but could not, sorry.
However, before tackling the quality issue, for comparison with this chatter Putin recommend to read or at least see what he is talking with members of the current president of the president.gov.by/press129518.html#doc
So, the quality of goods in general and about their quality in the USSR.
On a general
Some commentators say that the quality of goods in the Soviet Union was beautiful and give examples, others say that the quality of Soviet goods, and a candle to no good quality of the products of the West, and also give examples. And those and others in something right, but, in fact, the two sides do not write about what is worth writing.
But first we must decide what we mean by quality products.
To explain that, I will explain, I will give my definition of quality - this is what should be the true consumers of your work (no resellers). Accordingly, it is necessary to discuss what consumers need, and, by the way, discuss, and whether the consumer what he wants?
Let's start with the fact that the consumer always need one quality setting, because of which he acquires product. However, in this article, you can raise the level of the masses and other parameters that will improve consumers' properties. In fact, rarely are cases where these options can not be raised on or technological reasons, but (if you do not knock up with a brilliant idea) almost always rise any parameter - is the cost of human labor. But whether it is necessary to spend this work to lift the level of all the settings - it's a question that does not pay attention.
I always liked is the thoroughness with which the Germans are working, but sometimes their zeal accounts for only shake his head. Let me begin with historical examples - the quality level of German arms and the quality of the Allied weapons.
Take the artillery shells. Artillery shell must have superior quality - to put as many enemy losses. Secondary quality - it is useful, if the projectile is a long time to lie on the stock without loss of its properties, in fact preparing for war long before it began. In addition, there may be even more quality, for example, the fuse of the projectile, which allows not only to undermine the bomb at the touch of his land, but when firing the rebound, when rebounding from the ground through a fraction of a second bomb exploded in the air. It is in this sense, the German shells were exceptionally high quality - and could lie in warehouses for a long time, and had a sophisticated detonators that allowed to shoot on the ricochet. The Germans spared neither labor costs in the manufacture of shells, or of corrosion-resistant alloys is the production.
And our sappers such statistics. Extracting the USSR from the field past battles unexploded artillery shells, they are one unexploded Soviet bomb was found and found three unexploded German battle, though our artillery fired more shells the Germans than their artillery of our troops. High-quality German shells had detonators of corrosion-resistant, but low-strength alloys, and these fuses in contact with the ground breaking off from time to time, without having to undermine the projectile itself. And the fuse sometimes refused because of its complexity, because the more complex the product, the more likely it is to fail. Now let us remember that in the war to keep the shells do not have to - and so they did not have enough, and shoot to ricochet was not anyone - Soviet infantry did not go into battle columns and had enough weapons to destroy the cannon, which the Germans rolled out on a straight line tip for bounce shooting. This example with shells shows that the number of quality parameters can easily turn into the opposite qualities. But there was also a decrease in the production of shells because of their complexity.
A similar example. In the memoirs of a German saboteur sea since the Second World War, there is such an episode. The first to make sea sabotage the British and Italians. One type of sabotage was as follows. From a torpedo warhead was taken out, and the place is equipped with cabin for saboteur. The first torpedo was attached below the second, the combat. Both torpedoes secretly fell in the sea, and a saboteur, driving the first torpedo, the second transported closer to the enemy ship and then start producing combat torpedoes. The Germans, recognizing the idea began to copy it. Once they were lucky: the Englishman, the line of duty, suffocated in the cockpit, two torpedoes were unharmed thrown on the German coast, and the Germans were able to view them.
At first, the Germans struck stupidity and laziness of British workers: torpedoes were made rough, almost like something even welds were not cleaned. And the German torpedoes all parts and surfaces shone grinding and polishing. But then, otsmeyavshis, and to German saboteurs realized that in time of war, when every hour of operation, engaged in grinding and polishing that obviously should shatter in an explosion - an empty case.
Another example. If we consider each tank separately, the Germans had a wonderful, high-quality tanks (meaning their tactical options), with thick armor, powerful long-range guns of the tanks, even with stabilization of weapons and night vision devices. And our main tank T-34 was without any bells and whistles - just optimal for mass battle armor, a powerful engine and a cannon, capable of distances of the real fight to destroy the battlefield any purpose, except for a small number of special armored vehicles (then with specially armored the issue decided). The Germans built their own high-quality main tanks: T-4 - 8 686 units and the T-5 ("Panther") - 5 976. And heavy T-6 ("Tiger" and "King Tiger") - 1834 units, although German industry has worked all over Europe, participating in the production of very high quality machines. And the Soviet Union, and without Europe built T-34 - 84 070 units, and even heavy: HF - 3104, yes IP - 3 475. Well, and even light tanks, that will not be considered. Our tanks were simple (without additional quality parameters), their mass production was easy to deploy.
And since war is not winning tanks, and other appliances, and army, with equal number of armies, the Soviet infantry and artillery had the task to destroy, say, 100 German tanks, and the German 700 Soviet. As a result, some tanks from the Germans (and the entire European Union-Germans) were high quality, but only a victory is not affected.
Such mindless fad quality I have seen in modern Germany. For example, lightning conductor on the building in Germany is configured so that one of its kind having fun. But ... wires descending from the roof and climbing out of the ground, coupled with the coupling bolt clamp. At this point, rusted wires, therefore, the electrical resistance connections increased by reducing the basic quality of lightning - the why and put it. And our builders throw wire haphazardly, crooked, oblique, but connect them by welding, and if you do not pay attention to the unsightly structures, we can assume that the functions a lightning rod will perform properly, not to mention the fact that it is three times cheaper.
Somehow I had to travel to Germany by car for 400 kilometers of gorgeous track. We drove 10 hours from this time to 15 minutes, drove at a speed of 180 kilometers per hour, and for half an hour stuck in traffic jams because the Germans repaired sections of the route. Very carefully repaired, respectively, for a long time.
And take the quality of the products. I recently remembered as the first time we came to the Luxembourgers, try, jumped on our unsightly tomatoes, and supplements asked, explaining that for many years did not eat these tomatoes. European and tell sad joke that the Dutch will soon receive the Nobel Prize for what finally brought a tomato variety, which has no taste or smell. But what the Dutch tomatoes beautiful!
In today's food for so many preservatives that even talking about the taste is not necessary, because once you need to talk about their virulence, but these products are almost over the years maintained a quality setting as "beautiful" appearance. But eat something you do not look, and the product. No wonder that the market will be advertising "Sausage - the taste of the 60s!", And I heard the saleswoman explains the high price of such bases, "This is a real army stew Brezhnev era!»
By the way, as Russia still have a sufficient number of gourmet accustomed to Soviet delicious food, not pigs, chewing dutifully what inspires them to chew on advertising, the interesting techniques that are now used in the Moscow markets sellers. Once I looked over the bazaar stalls and saw the following scene: a woman torn nets on the beautiful plastic boxes with imported peaches and peaches poured in dirty boxes from unplaned boards - "label" of the Soviet collective farms. After this simple operation of the Crimean peaches issued or Uzbek. The same happened with tomatoes, but they also mixed by size - in fact in the Soviet collective farms vegetables never calibrated size. Then these tomatoes were issued for the Rostov and Krasnodar. But the real Crimean tomatoes in season are sometimes four times more expensive than the Dutch. Although not talk about it, but the latter, if they relate to the current price of the average salary, are several times more expensive than the Soviet, kolkhoz tomatoes.
And sometimes it happens that even familiar to us and seemingly unconditional quality parameter, say, the strength of the product may change its sign for a particular consumer. I remember bought by Soviet foreign trade organizations (in my opinion, "Sovavtoeksport") hundreds of "Lada" for the factory workers, and specialists of the organization I was warned that I should in any case not taken at the "Lada" going for export as they are of very poor quality. I do not understand - how to export products can be supplied poor quality ?? It was found that the machines are supplied indirectly to Western customers, and service stations abroad, where customer orders are made individual improvements - changes in their requirements tight interior, seats, control panel, complete the something useful engines, in short, cars are sorted and establishing . As a result, these service stations cars firmly assembled and disassembled heavier, and more difficult to do so without damage, and in this sense have no strength. Therefore, Togliatti and drove to export that for the USSR the factory TCI would not have missed.
What is the conclusion of these, so to speak, instructive stories?
The fact that the man in the street believes quality is not always so is, in this regard, no setting items can not be considered by itself, without understanding the problem that using this product is decided by the customer. Too often, it may be that for the customer a true indication of the quality of products is the number of products, and not the level of all the settings in this article.
Earlier I gave the example of a tank from which it follows that Stalin ordered the army weapons is much wiser than Hitler did. But the same considerations guided and the main customer of the goods in the Soviet Union - the Government.
In the West, the customer has the greed of all goods (manufacturer's desire to get the maximum profit), and she pushed to give product as attractive as possible for maximum views, often far-fetched, the number of quality parameters. Customer goods in the West was not interested in how many people it will provide the goods, the main thing - profit!
A Soviet client was the government and it had the task of providing this type of goods for all citizens, and as quickly as possible, and this problem can be solved only by waiver to the secondary parameters of quality and sales of goods at prices that are affordable to every saver.
Not only that, somehow forgotten that when the whole world believed that any product bought for a long time, therefore, it will fail, and it will require repair. And the whole world, including the Soviet Union, under the products created and the industry for their repair. According to my observations, the desire to create a one-time, beyond repair items, began with the end of the 80s, in the USSR industry such problems simply nobody put.
This is relatively new, the principle of the production of goods can not be assessed unambiguously. Here's a personal example. And I had no idea that such a product as a radiator, without thawing can fail. And just lucky I heard the door to the kitchen and a strange hissing had to go back and take action, where the kitchen is not very much affected, but the neighbors are not flooded. Imported aluminum radiator was leaking, 10 years after its purchase, and almost certainly after their warranty period. Who needs such disposability? But on the other hand, equipment and technology to develop acceleration products quickly become outdated morally. I remember, some 12-13 years ago, I start the file "Duel" collected on floppy disks, and now can not find the computer on which the floppy disk can be read. It seems that this is still a recent and squeak as laser discs, have come to an end. The breakthrough in the development of technology makes it pointless long work samples. Then I suppose an individual approach is needed - to do something for the ages, but repairable, but something unbreakable short term. But in any case, for giving ability of the things out of the system, should be punished.
Thus, the Soviet Union had, other than in the West, the problem of industry respectively, and other requirements for the quality of their products.
Now think about the individual parameters, the quality of goods in the Soviet Union, and that is why we are not satisfied.
On the quality of the goods in the USSR
To me, the Soviet Union is the best state of all time, but I do not want him to come back and, especially, keep it for someone. We need to go to a better society and not return to that which spawn scoundrels who destroyed our beautiful homeland.
And in terms of the quality of goods in the Soviet Union it was not so easy, just because of this human waste, but, rather, because of the bureaucratic control system has bred the litter. It is not a curse and insult for those bureaucrats who, having been born a man could do, and lived a life of dull and meaningless.
What's in the Soviet Union, even when the principle of providing all citizens hurt create better products for the secondary parameters?
Firstly, the requirement to issue the planned number of products at the end of each month. This requirement makes sense only for the supply of food, but was not at all common for all products. You see, when the leaders of the company, which, in fact, like to produce a very high quality product (and who does not want to?), Put in a situation where 100% of the plan all factory workers receive 140% of the salary (as we do in the factory) and 99, 9% - only 99, 9% of the salary, it forces them to close our eyes to what is a quality product, which gets to the implementation of the plan of 100%. People's remember that when buying sophisticated equipment in the USSR always looked at her passport - in which days of the month the products are made. If in the last decade, it is best to ask the seller to show another TV or a refrigerator.
This system beat the quality of a doublet. Staging and even a trial production of new products (and it better) takes time, and if you are engaged in a new product, then you risk not to implement the plan and to deprive the premiums of employees. Therefore check all the ideas had to agree with the authorities is through reduction of planned production of goods in the first place, and to convince the authorities did not allow to fulfill the plan - it was not an easy task.
But such a system "a report by the end of the month" in Moscow and allowed local companies to conduct monitoring of the USSR (well they work or not) even sheep - Compares two numbers and feels the big boss. After all, to understand how the company really works, it is worthy of encouragement or punishment, can only specialist, and compare the two numbers can and monkey. These monkeys, finishing universities and flooded, though not necessarily immediately to superiors, but certainly - in the administration of Soviet industry.