The history of the current CUM began in the 19th century, when the two Scottish merchant Archibald and Andrew Muir Meriliz founded in St. Petersburg trading company, call them names, "Muir and Meriliz." Trademark "Myur and Meriliz" was registered in 1857.
Photo 1908 Department Store "Myur and Meriliz."
At the end of XIX - early XX century affairs of the company led the third co-owner - Walter Philip. In 1880 the company moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow, where he rented a newly remodeled arh.Kossovym of the old homestead of Prince Gagarin shop at the Kuznetsk Bridge, 19, and five years later opened a wholesale shop millinery and fancy goods at the corner of Kuznetsky Most and Petrovka ( in the "house Khomyakov»).
Photo kon.1960's - nach.1970's. The former trading house Khomyakov. Built in the 1900s. Overbuilt during the Soviet era.
Shortly trading house bought the building for a large store at Theater Square, the site of today's CUM. It was decided to create here a big department store, like London "Whitley" or Paris "Bon Marché". Was not the best place to find: Nearby is a street of expensive shops - Kuznetsk bridge. Has a chic and passages.
After a few years, "Muir and Meriliz" moved on trade in retail, increased range and became Russia's first department store.
Catalog department store "Muir and Meriliz" for the 1912-1913.
The success of the retailer confirmed the speed with which the department opened new offices. In retail trade except hats and tissues appeared ladies fashion clothing and footwear, furniture, kitchenware, sporting goods, carpets, etc. "Muir and Meriliz" became Russia's first department store - Shop for middle-class people, where you could buy almost everything except food.
Slava Moscow store resounded throughout Russia, "Muir and Meriliz" free catalogs sent out their goods, and any citizen of the country from Warsaw to Vladivostok could write out the goods by mail.
Shop catalog, "Muir and Meriliz" for the 1912-1913.
Purchase value in excess of 75, and then 25 rubles were sent to the customer anywhere in Russia, and shipping costs within the European part of the store took over. Four times a year, at the beginning of each season, published catalogs that are sent free of charge to all comers as well as tissue samples.
The goods here are of excellent quality, impeccably polite sellers when the buyer was unhappy goods immediately replaced. For children in the campaign "Muir and Meriliz" was a real treat, because there waiting for them delightful toys. To each were attached labels with the names. "Horses wooden wool", "Bear in the fur crown tumbling", "Seal tin windup walking zigzag».
Shop catalog, "Muir and Meriliz" for the 1912-1913.
Hiring department heads, shop owners did not rely on their ability to bargain, so entering the fixed prices. This caused resentment of those old ladies who prided themselves on their ability to buy goods at the lowest prices. In addition to fixed prices, innovations department were: the obligation to take back or change the product, periodic sales, daily delivery of goods to all parts of the city, as well as lower prices by increasing the number of sales.
Until 1891 on the top floor of department store has conducted trade. By the end of the century the total number of departments in the store and Muir Meriliz reached 44 and the number of employees came close to a thousand. It was Russia's first large department store.
Photo 1900 Right from the Bolshoi Theatre is clearly seen old building "Muir and Meriliz».
In February 1892 the store was a strong fire, the consequences of which, however, were quickly eliminated. "The room was fully provided automatically operating fire extinguishers - wrote the store owner Andrew Muir - and damage to goods, I think, probably stemmed from them and from water supplied fire engines than from the fire." Losses were reimbursed by insurance, but two firefighters died in the fire. This misfortune has further strengthened owners gloom caused by the decline of trade.
Evening of November 24, 1900 in the store began the second fire. Moscow was flooded with bright red light on the many miles in the county, and the crowds flocked from the suburbs to look at such an event.
We are still living in the Saltykov alley. One evening my mother undress me to put to bed. It was always a difficult procedure - I protested because I thought that as soon as I fall asleep, then, and there will be something fun, surprising and "important" (this concern remains for life).
This time I was lucky - my mother has not had time to undress me, as there was a knock at the door, stamping of feet on the stairs and shouts of "Fire! Fire! Run into the street! "Father was not at home, my mother took me in his arms, grabbed my blanket and ran up the stairs, where it was already crowded with people, nodes things. All this avalanche swept down. Dad met us on the stairs - he made his way "upstream" to our apartment. And my mom, and I saw him, he calmed down a bit. On the street again, I was struhnul of unprecedented spectacle, but my father said sternly, "Do not be afraid! No matter what scary, and you look closely, as beautiful, and remember: if beautiful - it is not scary! "And I looked all began to look at. At the time I believed and obeyed his father. My whims flowed mainly on my tender mother.
It was found that burned shop "Muir and Meriliz" - current CUM. Black sky as if sighed fire walls of houses, people's faces that flashed, then faded away. Alley filled with "refugees" and their various assets. Some have already managed to get some furniture in the alley and sat on chairs. The fire flared up, the wind began, and by the "Muir and Meriliz" bore heat, smoke and fumes. When the wind is strong, the sky rocketed in some brightly burning the flag as red flags - is burning whole bales of matter, turning from wind gusts. Some pieces fell to the ground near us, and people shied away from them, and some daredevils ran forward, hoping that maybe not all the material burned. Father chastened us to stand still while he went on Petrovka - exploration. When he returned, he said that the fire brigade arrived, the fire poured, there is no danger and can go home. Long I could not sleep - from "beauty", probably, but, of course, and from fear. " V.Hodasevich
The same picture, but the stripped-down, but is sharper. At the date under the photograph do not pay attention - it is wrong.
Shop building burned down and it was decided to construct a new building on the site burned down. The project is a new seven-storey building designed by renowned architect Roman Klein in the English Gothic style with modern elements. During the construction of the first in Russia was used reinforced concrete. Were used metal construction and steel frame building, made by the famous engineer Shukhov. Although the store was not a skyscraper, a seven-story house at the time was considered high. A new method of construction allowed through thinner walls significantly increase the retail space.
15 (02) in September 1907. «Russian word».
"SHARE AND COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT
Conversion of the Firm "Mure and Meriliz." We are told that the Minister of Trade and Industry approved the charter of commercial and industrial partnership "Muir and Meriliz." Founders of the Firm take - V.V.Filipp and A.A.Meriliz - assume the rights and obligations of the founders of the partnership, passing its property assets and liabilities of the enterprise, as well, and real estate. Fixed capital is defined in the 3 000 000 rubles., Divided into registered shares, at 3,000 rubles. each.
The new building has attracted worldwide attention and was considered an architectural masterpiece. Shopping guide home aware of its importance to the center of Moscow and decided not to put on the facade of the brand name "MM". The new store was opened on Christmas Day in 1908 and attracted great interest because of the novelty of technical equipment, European comfort and beauty of the design rooms
Photo 1908 Fire Maly Theater.
With the opening of a new store "Muir and Meriliz" reached the pinnacle of his fame. In addition to the store at Theater Square, for him, the project of the same Roman Klein, was built "Factory furniture and bronze" at the Little Georgia (now the factory "Dawn"). In the years 1908-1917 the turnover of the new store and the scope of activities of the company as a whole grew rapidly.
By 1913, the store was 80 divisions. According to the level of turnover and equipment salesrooms "Muir and Meriliz" did not yield such a London department store as "Harrods».
Innovations department store "Muir and Meriliz" were reference, waiting room, information service in Moscow and two-speed electric elevator for buyers.
After the revolution, the department store was closed, but not for long.
March 10, 1922. Booming orchestra. The lobby is filled with guests - many guests who came to the opening of the largest department store of the capital - Mostorg. Chairman of the Board store, clinking with scissors, cut the scarlet ribbon. In the crowd there was applause. The orchestra played the carcasses.
Kon.1920 photo's. N.Granovskogo.
Photo 1926 A.Rodchenko. View from the corner of Petrovka and Kuznetsk bridge. In the photo is clearly visible not preserved buildings on the site which now houses the new queue CUM.
Photo 1937. The same kind.
Photos 1935-1937 gg. Service entrance in the CUM from Petrovka.
Muscovites long remember the old name of the department store - "Muir and Meriliz" - and often used it in conversation: "... Here's eight rubles and 15 kopecks for the tram, take a trip to Muir, buy a good collar with a chain" - Mikhail Bulgakov wrote in " Heart of a Dog ».
But the memories of "Muret and Meriliz '30s remarkable writer Yu.Nagibina:
"... I remember captivating dryganie on a spring fur toy monkey with a baby Phocas. "Monkey Fock dancing without rest and the term goes to Kuznetsk walk. teaches his daughter to dance. Cheerful fun for children and young people! "- Tirelessly bawling seller with curly forelock from his military cap. Fun is undeniably fun, but obviously quite expensive, judging by the fact that my mother did not notice hard sweetly views that I was throwing at Fok, and begging - for her.
Only once I was close to the realization of his dream of restless dancer. On Fok had to go to the remains of a huge sum of ten rubles, clusters of nickle and dime on the bounty of my grandfather's doctor to buy a gun Montecristo. Capital was kidnapped from my pocket to store and Muir Meriliz (old building today CUM). Never before had the city not heard of such a heart-rending roar as I broke out, discovered the theft. Noble weapons (five steps kills a man!) Already seriously my right hand and the left-hand twitched funny fur Foca, and I saw myself as an idol of the yard. Grief from loss, vvergshey me in former insignificance, compounded by the loss of confidence in the world, for the first time podsunuvshemusya me terrible snout. I remember before the tragic event, I stood at the entrance to Muir-Meriliz (mother went to the window), and enthusiastically followed the newsboy, scurried among the passers-by with shrill cries: "The last conversation with Mayakovsky fininspektorom!" Perhaps, in these moments, when I open-mouthed, staring at the boys, and I cleaned out & quot ;.
The main stream of customers filled the store after five hours when the workday ended up working in Moscow factories. Often not even had time to change clothes in oiled with the smell of the heated metal and fuel oil overalls crowded turners, fitters, machinists. Crushed in the hands of well made cloth, measured the sturdy boots, chose wives to dress colorful Sitchikov. In TsUMe workers opened a credit - they can take the goods at special Limit books.
In 1933, the Central Department Store for the first time in the country organized a pilot demonstration universal trade in manufactured goods of high quality at high prices.
Photos of the 1930s.
Photo kon.1940's - nach.1950-ies.
Since the beginning of the war turns off the windows of houses, windows went out, and changed the look of the store - a place of well-dressed mannequins in the windows took sandbags, mirrored windows disappeared behind the plywood boards. Rooms on the upper floors of the store turned into barracks. During the Great Patriotic War CUM was providing job card system, and in areas on the upper floors of the store located barracks.
After the war, to the department store were attached separate factory, which produces a wide range of products only CUM on his orders.
Photos of the 1950s. Facade on Petrovka.
Photo 1962 only in Moscow "bronze landlord" on background CUM.
Among the goods of daily demand in the Central Department Store sold: wicks for stoves and kerosene stove, mica, shopping bags "shopping bags" with wooden handles, children's broom. Just store every day there was a sale of up to 17 000 items, ranging from a needle 2 pennies and ending ladies' fur coats.
Photo kon.1970's - nach.1980-ies.
The staff of the Central Department Store was the initiator of the introduction of the practice of self-service trade, sales samples, with open access to goods buyers. Later he was made a new step in the development of advanced methods of trading - organized the sale of goods with open display them on the shelves, and the payment of money to the seller through the cashier, installed here on the counter. So, year after year, thanks to the initiative and creativity of employees supermarket, the use of domestic and foreign experience, methods of trade expanded, improved, created qualitatively new and more effective.
In the 1970s, was attached to TsUMu new building. Square department store has been expanded.
Nach.1990 photo's. The picture shows the new queue CUM.
In 1992, the Central Department Store has changed the legal form and was transformed into an open joint stock company. In 1995 it was decided to reconstruct the building in order to expand retail space and optimize the assortment structure of the store.
The purpose of the reconstruction - to expand trade area due to a more rational planning and organization of retail space.
In late 1995 - early 1996, the Central Department Store held an open international tender for the design of the modernization of the store and its implementation. The tender was won by the German firm ReDesign Einrichtung GmbH (Germany) - one of the well-known design and construction companies participate in the reconstruction of Europe's largest supermarkets and department stores.
Modernization was carried out without stopping the trade. After that area CUM increased to 33 thousand square meters in the qualitative improvement of infrastructure store (buyers easy access to goods, modern elevators and escalators, automated processing of goods, leisure buyers and others.).
The cost of modernization has made about $ 22 million. Required investments were covered by 50% due to the third issue of shares and 50% - at the expense of profits, depreciation, investment and trading partner credit.
Reconstruction and overhaul of the central building of the Central Department Store was completed in 1997, after which the shop has a new, modern, not inferior to international peers appearance.
As you can see, unlike the leadership of the sample in 1908, the current leadership did not hesitate to stick on the facade of the monument "modest" advertising.