100 interesting facts from the history of the USSR and Russia

A whole squadron of interesting facts about our country. Recommended reading

1. What is a Russian town in the 1920s, he lived in two time zones?

In the early 1920s, Novosibirsk consisted of two parts on different banks of the Obi, between which there was a road bridge. And as the clock passed the meridian directly by the river, in the city there were two times. On the left bank of the time difference with Moscow is 3 hours, and on the right - 4. Although a large inconvenience this situation from Novosibirsk did not deliver, because each half lived apart, and even marriages between people of different shores of the city were rare.

2. Where, in parallel with the construction of Baikonur was built wooden false spaceport?

When in 1950 it was decided to build a cosmodrome in the Kazakh steppes, for the introduction of a potential enemy confusing built Baikonur another - wood - in the village of Baikonur Karaganda region. After the start of the "Vostok-1" with Gagarin on board this name in print was transferred to this spaceport, located 300 km from this village.

3. Where and when designed and tested the flying tank?

During the Second World War in the Soviet Union worked on the creation of an aircraft based on the A-40 tank. During flight tests tankoplaner towed aircraft TB-3 and was able to climb to a height of 40 meters. It was assumed, after disengaging the tow rope tank is to plan the desired point, the wings fold and immediately engage in battle. The project was closed due to lack of more powerful tugs that were needed for more important tasks.
4. When and where the Red Army and the White Guards fought on the same side in the same form?

In 1931, in the Chinese province of Xinjiang uprising broke Turkic-Muslim population. The government troops were mobilized Russian immigrants - both Whites who lived in Xinjiang since the days of the Civil War in Russia and those who fled from hunger and rollektivizatsii in the USSR. After another two years, Governor-General of the province Sheng Shicai was able to negotiate with the Soviet Union for help in suppressing the rebellion. In China it was transferred 13th Almaty Troops Regiment, whose soldiers were dressed in the form of White Guards. In addition, the Soviet Union had fought directly funded part, made up of Russian immigrants. Thus, the "red" and "white" involved in the conflict on one side.

5. Whose side in World War II, except for the Third Reich, Hitler fought?

In the Great Patriotic War took part Red Army machine gunner, Semyon K. Hitler, who is Jewish. Preserved award list, according to which Hitler was presented to the medal "For Service in Battle" for the feat. However, in the database "The feat of the people" reported that the medal "For Courage" was awarded the Simon K. Gitl - accidentally or intentionally been changed surname is unknown.

6. edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia is removed from the books published articles about Beria was shot?

In the fifth volume of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia published laudatory article on Beria with his portrait. Soon Beria was arrested and shot, and edited by the TSB sent a special letter to all subscribers. In it recommended scissors or razor to cut the page of Beria, and instead of them to paste extra pages devoted to extended several times in the article "The Bering Strait».

7. How does the Soviet tractors were used in World War II as a combat units?

At the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union experienced a great shortage of tanks, therefore the decision was made in an emergency tanks converted into ordinary tractors. So, during the defense of Odessa from the besieged city of Romanian units were thrown into battle like 20 "tanks", trimmed sheets of armor. The main stake was made on the psychological effect: the attack was carried out at night with lights on and sirens, and Romanians fled. For such cases, as well as for the fact that these machines are often installed dummies heavy guns, the soldiers called them NOR-1, which stands for "Fright».

8. When the world turned out to be on the verge of a nuclear war due to a technical error?

During the Cold War, there were many cases when the world stood on the brink of a nuclear war due to false readings detection systems, missile launches. So, in 1979 in the US alarm was raised due to the fact that one of the computers was loaded by mistake curriculum massive nuclear strike. However, satellites did not detect missile launches, and the alarm was canceled. And in 1983, the Soviet system has malfunctioned satellite detection, the transmitted signal the start of a number of American missiles. Sitting on the remote Lieutenant Colonel Stanislav Petrov took responsibility not to transfer information to senior management of the country, having decided that it was unlikely the United States will deal the first blow such small forces. In 2006 the United Nations awarded Petrov as "a man to prevent a nuclear war».

9. How does our intelligence agencies helped the Soviet schoolchildren a gift to the American ambassador in 1945?

In 1945, Soviet schoolchildren presented the American ambassador wooden panels made of precious wood with a coat of arms of the United States. Neither the students nor the ambassador did not know that the panel is encased in a listening device, the construction of which was designed by Leon Termen. "Beetle" was so well hidden that US intelligence agencies did not notice anything, and the Soviet 8 more years to listen to conversations in the office of ambassador. After the device was presented at the United Nations as evidence of intelligence activities of the Soviet Union, but the principle of its operation a few years remained unsolved.

10. Why did the song "Maybe a crow" from the Soviet cartoon was recorded at an accelerated pace?

The song "Maybe a crow" originally was heard in the animated film "Plasticine Crow" at a normal pace. However, the director Alexander Tatarsky did not watched the recording time, because of what the song is not kept within the allotted 5 minutes of animation. The solution was found simple - song sped up, causing it acquired his famous "cartoon-like" sound.

11. Why football fans shout: "Shay-boo! Shay-boo! »?

Cry fans: "Shay-boo! Shay-boo! "Can be heard on hockey and a football match. As it happens thanks to the famous hockey player Boris Mayorov, who loved to play soccer and even participated in the matches of the major league of the USSR for "Spartacus." Once on the football field the ball gets to Mayorov, the fans began to encourage his usual hockey chants.

12. Why is the word "Qu" in the film "Kin-Dza-Dza" put him under threat of a ban?

When filming the movie "Kin-Dza-Dza", the Secretary General of the USSR became Chernenko. Since his initials were KU, then Danelia under pain of the film I decided to ban the film overdubbed chastoupotreblyaemoe universal word "Ku". Put forward options "Ka", "To", "Que", etc., But the crew is picked, Chernenko died, and in the end everything remains as before.

13. Which animal was shot in the "Caucasian captive" and "9 Rota»?

For the filming of a scene from an old Afghan film "Company 9" I needed a donkey. The crew turned to the Yalta Zoo, explaining that you need an animal that is not afraid of the camera and loud sounds. Employees of the zoo once advised donkey Lucy, who almost 40 years ago starred in "Caucasian captive", fumbling for yourself Shurik. Role in "9 Rota" she played also great.

14. When attempts were made to transfer the Russian language to the Latin alphabet?

In the 1920s, it began a large-scale campaign to translate written peoples of the USSR to Latin. By the end of 1930 it was Latinized 66 languages, including even those that already had written in the Cyrillic alphabet - Yakutia and Komi. It has been developed and several Latin recording schemes for the Russian language, but the plan is not reached. And then reversed the decision and other Soviet languages, and by 1940 almost all of them got the script based on the Cyrillic alphabet.

15. Which Soviet slogan became the prototype of the famous phrase of George Orwell?

The famous formula "two plus two equals five," which George Orwell repeatedly made emphasis in dystopian novel, "1984" came to his mind when he heard the Soviet slogan "Five-Year Plan - in four years!».

16. When did the rulers of Russia are alternated on a "bald-haired»?

In December 1825 the royal throne of the Russian Empire ascended possesses not the most luxuriant hair Nikolai I. Since then traced a clear alternation of bald and hairy heads of state - first kings, then secretary-general, and now presidents. This paradox violate Andropov and Chernenko only, each of which has an initial stage of balding, but because of the short time in power, they can be neglected.

17. Where there was a tax on childlessness?

In the USSR in November 1941 there was a family tax, which amounted to 6% of salary. Dress him childless men from 20 to 50 years old and childless married women between 20 and 45 years old.

18. What was the unofficial leader of the Soviet advertising face of Pepsi?

In 1959, Moscow hosted the American National Exhibition, where Khrushchev offered to try Pepsi-Cola. He agreed, and unwittingly became the advertising face of the company, as the next day in newspapers around the world published a photograph in which the Soviet leader, drink Pepsi.

19. Captain of a football team once made by the judge cancel the wrong hammered his team goals?

At the World Cup in 1962 USSR team met with the team of Uruguay, and with the score 1: 1 after the impact of the Soviet football player the ball flew into the net through a hole on the outside. The referee could not see the time, and a goal is scored, but the captain of the Soviet team, Igor Netto gestures explained to the judge that a goal is scored incorrectly. This ball is eventually canceled, but our players have scored more, and still won the match.

20. Which Soviet animal managed to get a driving license in Germany?

Once the bear circus Valentin Filatov was on tour in Stuttgart. At one of the rehearsals on vototsikle bear left outside the gates of the arena and the circus was on the highway in the city traffic. She managed to pass the junction of three, each of which regulators gave her the green light, before Filatov car overtook her and stopped. The same evening, the local police gave the bear a driving license.

21. Why Stakhanov after setting the record for the extraction of coal was forced to change the name?

Famous Soviet miner Alexei Stakhanov-record holder is actually not named Alex. Just as soon as its record on coal mining article in the newspaper "Pravda" mistakenly called him so, and he had to quickly change the name and passport. What was the real name of Stakhanov, is not precisely known - some researchers believe that Andrew, the other - that Alexander.

22. How does Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign influenced the lyrics "Time Machine»?

During Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign censored many works of art. For example, Andrei Makarevich changed the lyrics in the song "Conversation in a train": after the line "wagon debate - the last thing" rather than "when there is nothing more to drink," he sang, "and cereals are not cook».

23. As it was treated Yevgeny Leonov, when he voiced Winnie the Pooh?

In the Soviet cartoon Winnie the Pooh voiced by Yevgeny Leonov. To achieve a greater comic actor it was accelerated by about 30%. If you reduce speed to this value, you can hear the usual Leonova.

24. For someone self-defense in 1984 in the Soviet Union have created a laser gun?

In 1984, the Soviet Union developed non-lethal laser gun. It was intended for self-defense astronauts. The destructive effect of this gun was to disabling the sensitive elements of optical systems, including the human eye. A major advantage over conventional gun in weightlessness was no return. Now the laser pistol is a monument of science and technology on display at the Museum of the Military Academy of Strategic Missile Forces.

25. What is the blue ball is spinning, spinning head over to the popular song?

In a popular song sounded in the 1934 film "Youth of Maxim" has the line: "twist-spinning blue ball, spinning, spinning over his head." The apparent lack of logic of the text (which is a ball can be twisted over his head?) Is explained simply. In the original version of the song that emerged in the mid 19th century, sung not "ball" and "scarf." But as the letter "F" at the junction of the words sung at a fast pace it is very difficult, she subsequently been reduced.

26. What is the scene in the film "Operation" Y '' was filmed Gaidai based on personal experience of the army?

Leonid Gaidai was drafted into the army in 1942 and served first in Mongolia, where rode horses to the front. Once in a part of the military commissar I came to set recruitment in the army. When asked the officer: "Who's the artillery?" - Said Gaidai: "I!". He also responded to other questions: "Who is the cavalry?" "In the Navy?" "In the intelligence?", Which aroused dissatisfaction chief.
"Yes, you wait, Gaidai - said the military commissar - Give announce the entire list." Later, the director adapted the episode for the film "Operation" Y "and other adventures Shurik».

27. What was the profession of the person named in the legends Muscovites glowing monk?

Academician Semyon Volfkovich was among the first Soviet chemists conduct experiments with phosphorus. Then necessary precautions have not been taken, and a gaseous phosphorus progress impregnated clothing. When Volfkovich returning home through the dark streets, his clothes radiated a bluish glow, and from under the shoes strike sparks. Every time the crowd gathered behind him and took a scientist for the otherworldly
creature, which has led to the spread of rumors in Moscow about "glowing monk».

28. Who and when he tried to swim to the submarine to sail?

In 1942, the Soviet submarine u-421 hit a German anti-mine, lost speed and the ability to dive. To the ship did not carry to the shore of the enemy, it was decided to make the sail and take it to the periscope. However swim sail to the base has not turned out as not even turned the submarine towed by other vehicles. After the appearance of the German torpedo boat crew were evacuated and
submarine sank.

29. Why did the Soviet censors excluded from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia article about the usual music festival?

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia 1955 edition was an article "Prague Spring" of the annual festival of classical music in Prague. However, in the next edition of TSB, released after the infamous Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the article with that title was gone.

30. What phrase Terminator before it has pronounced Elektronik?

In the movie "Terminator 2" Terminator biker says: "I need your clothes, shoes and bike." For 11 years before that in the movie "The Adventures of Electronics" electronics, intending to replace Syroezhkina, addressing him with the phrase: "I need your form».

31. What is sung in the song "Uno-Uno-Uno, Un Momento»?

The song "Uno-Uno-Uno, Un Momento" from the movie "Formula of Love" seems to be written in Italian. In fact, her text is a disconnected set of Italian words, and it was invented by film composer Gennady Gladkov.

32. Who suggested to the Soviet scientist sent into space instead of dogs compassionate American women?

The dog Laika was sent into space, knowing that she would die. After that, the United Nations received a letter from a group of women from the state of Mississippi. They demanded to condemn the inhumane treatment of dogs in the USSR and put forward a proposal if the development of science should be sent to space beings, in our city for it has plenty Little Indians.

33. Who in the Soviet times, was awarded the prize for the invention of a time machine?

"Time Machine" for the movie "Ivan Vasilyevich Changes Occupation" was originally commissioned in the design office, which has submitted a very complicated project. Since the scenario it invents Shura alone, the project came up, and then was invited to work on wood sculptor Vyacheslav Pochechuyev. His version of the machine eventually gave Gaidai, and the Pochechuev received the award and a certificate from the Mosfilm: "The money given for the invention of a time machine" (without the quotation marks).

34. What words of Pushkin's poem "Monument" was censored in 1949?

In 1949, he celebrated the 150th anniversary of Pushkin. A report on his life and work done on the radio Konstantin Simonov. In one Kazakh town at the reproducer gathered a large number of Kalmyks deported here with the historical homeland. Somewhere in the middle of the report they have lost all interest in him and left the area. The fact was that in reading Pushkin's "Monument" Simon stopped reading right at the moment,


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