To improve the fire resistance of wooden structures — means to improve fire safety of the building. To solve this problem for low-rise buildings can be achieved by treatment of wood chemical and paint fire retardant means. Let's talk about fire-prevention impregnation and coating materials.
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Despite the undeniable advantages of wood as a structural material, it has a number of drawbacks, among which, along with the susceptibility to decay, its property of being easily ignited and quick burning. This means that the structure of wood even after removal of the flame source is capable of burning for a long time. However, we should not abandon the use in the construction of environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive wood products. It's about how to protect them from hazards. To ensure fire safety of the building can increase the fire resistance of structural elements by known methods.
Despite the fact that norms (SP 54.13330.2011, NPB 106-95) establish the mandatory fire-retardant treatment of structures of combustible materials only for buildings with a height of three floors, do not underestimate the importance of enhancing the fire resistance of load-bearing and enclosing structures of log cabins, houses made of profiled or laminated veneer lumber, roof coatings single and two storey.
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The use of specially selected compounds of directed action will improve the resistance of wood materials to ignition and to reduce flame spread.
Classification of flame retardants (OS)
In GOST R 53292-2009 classification of fire retardants, simplified schematized in figure:
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Depending on the ability of the OS to reduce the Flammability of wood, they are divided into two groups of fireproof efficiency:
The group Type of the material after processing, the Estimated period of resistance to burning I slow to 90 minutes fire-resistant II to an average of 30-40 minutes Principle of operation. An overview of the types OS wood
1. Lacquer OS are often used for the processing of furniture, decorative products from solid and recycled wood finishes. Classified by durability, waterproof ability, resistance to ultraviolet radiation. The advantage of using lacquer OS is the preservation of the tree structure, giving it the gloss or dullness, the presence of the protective film. For the floors, railings, steps and other elements subject to abrasion, use the special types, e.g. parquet lacquers.
For internal works can be used "NEGORIN-VARNISH", more universal is the product CERAM-PROTECT.
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Of similar products by other producers of the famous "OzL-SK", "OzL-1" (KF-F), OOO "KOVEKS", "libiterm-107", "Shield-1".
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2. The working principle of fire retardant paints and protecting thermal expanding compositions is a multiple thickening of the coating with increasing temperature, the formation of a foam layer that prevents the rapid heating of the element. The advantage of these types of funds is the additional protection of wood from moisture. The standard term preventive actions of fire-retardant paints is usually from 1 year to 5 years. Getting a nonflammable or fire-resistant wood with one tool, as a rule, is achieved due to the different number of layers.
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Popular OS of the type in question are "Pyroplast-HW100", "Akvest-01", "Pyrex", "VUP-2D", "Phoenix DB", DEFENDER-M.
3. Constructive fire-retardant treatment of wood in its action similar to the principle of increasing in volume to the OS is to provide a thermal insulation of the processed element. Such coatings include pastes, coating, plaster, tiles and leaves. Examples are plaster with added perlite or vermiculite, pasta "Ograks-In-UK". The application of pastes and plasters should be performed regularly, not less frequently than every two or three years.
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4. Chemical method of protection is the use of impregnating OS that can penetrate deeply into the wood, for example, when soaking in the bath and applying pressure or superficially, in the processing brush.
These tools include the "flame Retardant-Amidophosphate KM OOO KOVACS", part "PP", "BATHS-1" "neohim", "Pirilaks Terma", "Pirilaks-SS-20".
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5. The growing popularity of combination of methods of fire protection. So, fire and bio protective coating along with increasing the fire resistance of constructions to provide protection from fungal infestation, rot and mildew. The market presents a wide range of names, such as "SENEZH, Agneby", NEOMID 450 and the compositions of MS, HMHA, "iceberg-301", "OK-SF", "ZOTEKS Bioperl", "Astor-Bio", "attic", means from the line Pirilax.
To increase the effectiveness of fire protection by simultaneous application of impregnations and lacquer and painting operating system. Operated outdoor structures made of wood recommended in addition to legkovushek impregnating OS cover means, forming a film.
Some rules for choosing and processing
Your choice of operating system for wood is determined by the conditions of its operation. For a closed unheated space is characterized by less significant fluctuations in temperature and humidity than outdoors and in the heated rooms is provided with positive temperature, and relative humidity not more than 70%.
Rate the duration of the warranty of the protective action of OS, check the availability of their certificates. If you assume the use of a combination of impregnation and coating of vehicles, check compatibility, not every fire-retardant paint can serve as a finishing layer over the OS pre-impregnated wood. For items made of wood, operated under the sunlight, use an OS that is resistant to ultraviolet radiation. In the baths and saunas, because of the special temperature and humidity conditions, you should use tools specifically designed for such conditions.
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Carefully count the consumption of resources: specify on the label the required number of layers for the desired group of fireproof efficiency.
Wood processing must be carried out at a humidity of not more than 70% and temperature not below +5...+10 °C dry and free from dust and surface dirt. When coating previously painted surfaces should remove all remnants of previous coatings, clean and dry.
The main processing methods are:
- application by brush, roller or spray gun in several layers;
- soaking in cold baths, or after preheating of the product.
Don't neglect safety. When working with toxic materials indoors ensure good ventilation, use treatment in a respirator, goggles and rubber gloves.
Taking the decision on carrying out of fire protection of wooden structures in your house, be prepared for the regular, almost annual update. Such measures would not only reduce the risk of fire or localized outbreak of a fire, but, most importantly, will provide you and your family to safely exit the building in case of an emergency. published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©