Scientists have identified about 200 factors that lead to obesity, ranging from problems with hormones and "fat genes" to stress the violations of the diet. Countless studies tell us good news and bad news. The good news is that we are beginning to understand how hormones regulate the size of fat cells effects on appetite and metabolism. The bad news is that we sedentary lifestyle and poor diet mess up your hormones, causing them to do unthinkable things.As the hormones help to control the fat content in our body:
You get fat when you ingest more energy than you expend in metabolism and physical activity. It seems that to get rid of fat very easy — eat less, move more. Unfortunately, this is only apparent simplicity. Your body has a very complex system that controls constant weight.
When you lose weight, it comes into play, trying to get the body back to initial weight parameters. The same mechanisms prevent excessive weight gain when you overeat.
Cells, tissues and organs are always trying to maintain balance. Break it and your body will oppose this in every way. Fat cells are no exception. They are stored fat. If you lose weight, they think you're "robbing" them, and draw on the help of hormones and different chemical compounds to restore the original stocks. These chemical controllers increase appetite and slow metabolism, allowing you to replenish lost fat reserves.Leptin is a satiety hormone
Leptin is a hormone (opened in 1994), regulating energy metabolism. Leptin is a satiety hormone, it sends our brain the signal that it is time to stop eating.
It got its name from the Greek word "Leptos" — slim. Leptin sends the brain signals about the adequacy of fat reserves. When its level is reduced, the brain understands it so that people "die of hunger", it requires a new fat stores, and the person begins to want urgently to eat chocolate, sausages or chips.
In General, the action of this hormone on the body is very mysterious. When this hormone was injected laboratory mice, their weight decreased. It turned out that the mechanism of action of this hormone is simple and concrete: it causes the breakdown of fat and reduces food intake. It would seem to introduce it into the body by injection, and obese patients will not. There it was! Because patients with obesity him about ten times more than lean. Perhaps because the body is full of people somehow lose sensitivity to leptin and therefore begins to produce it at a higher rate in order to somehow overcome this insensitivity. With a reduction in weight decreases the level of leptin.
Levels of leptin also decreases with lack of sleep. This partly explains the fact that chronically nedosypayuschie (less than seven hours a night) people prone to obesity. According to experts, when we do not sleep sufficient number of hours per day, our body produces lesser amount of leptin (and we feel that it is not saturated in the usual amount of food) and increases the production of ghrelin (and we begin to experience hunger constantly). The more fatigue from lack of sleep, the more and more we want to eat!Those who regularly consume fish and seafood, levels of the hormone leptin balanced.
It's very good, because there is a relationship between high leptin levels and low metabolism and obesity.Ghrelin — the hunger hormone
Ghrelin – the "hunger hormone", which opened in 1999, plays an important role in the regulation of the digestion process, mainly by affecting the synthesis of various enzymes. The content of ghrelin in humans in the absence of food dramatically (four times) increases, and after satisfy hunger decreases again. The ghrelin hormone not only stimulates the brain to increase appetite, but also induces genes to the accumulation of visceral fat in the abdomen.
If only two consecutive nights to sleep 2-3 hours less than usual, our body begins to produce 15% more ghrelin and 15% less leptin.
That is, the brain receives a signal that we lack energy so much we lose if you sit on a low calorie diet.
By the way, compared to, for example, from the 1960s through the years people began to sleep an average of 2 hours less. And 60% of modern women feel tired all the time. And about a third of them can't remember when was the last time they slept long, hard and as much as they wanted. Of course, this is a consequence of not only our lifestyle, but the change in the character and our perception of reality.
Apparently, ghrelin was really needed in ancient times: it was dominated by the fear of hunger, and the hormone made people eat when you had the chance, thus giving a chance to survive in tough times.
Fortunately, ghrelin is very easy to outsmart. This requires a special approach to eating.
Not to turn into a violent glutton, you just have to constantly be moderately well-fed. The best way to regulate appetite — to eat very little every 3 hours or 6 times a day, experts say.
Recent studies have shown that fructose (one of the types of sugars that are in particularly large quantities in fruit juices, corn syrup and soda) stimulates the production of ghrelin, resulting in an increase in total calorie intake. That is, the consumption of foods rich in fructose leads to increased and more frequent feelings of hunger and overeating. Fortunately, most people who adhere to a healthy diet, you know that you first need to remove from your diet just these products.Cortisol — the stress hormone
Cortisol, which is also called the "stress hormone" – a close relative of adrenaline, both produced by the adrenal glands. It is a corticosteroid hormone, produced involuntarily in a moment of high stress and forms part of a protective mechanism of the person.
Cortisol affects the metabolism and excess weight in different ways. As part of the built-in biological defense mechanism, manifested under stress, it triggers some protective processes and suspending others. For example, in many people it increases appetite during times of stress that the person had the strength to resist the outside world, and people in psychologically difficult moments begins to "console" delicious. At the same time it reduces the metabolic rate – again, not to lose necessary for salvation from the stress energy. As to affect the production of cortisol, can not, can only ever minimize the stress receiving, changing lifestyle or avoiding sources of stress, or find ways of relaxation: yoga, dance, breathing exercises, prayer, meditation, etc.Adrenaline
Being as we have said, is relative of cortisol, epinephrine, however, affect the metabolism differently than cortisol. If the cortisol is secreted in response to fear, danger or stress, adrenaline is produced in moments of excitement. The difference seemingly small, but it is. For example, if you skydive for the first time, it is likely that you will experience fear, and you increase the level of cortisol. If you are an experienced skydiver, probably, at the moment of the jump you feel is not so much the fear of how emotional arousal, accompanied by the release of adrenaline it.
Unlike cortisol, adrenaline speeds up metabolism and helps in breakdown of fat, releasing them of energy. He runs a special mechanism, called "thermogenesis" — increased body temperature caused by combustion of the energy reserves of the body. In addition, the release of adrenaline usually inhibits the appetite.
Unfortunately, the more weight a person has, the lower his adrenaline production.Estrogen
The female hormone estrogen produced by the ovaries and performs a variety of functions from regulation of the menstrual cycle prior to distribution of body fat. It estrogen is one of the main reasons that young women fat is stored, usually in the lower part of the body, whereas in women after menopause and in men in the abdominal area. It is believed that the lack of estrogen leads to weight gain.
The level of hormones in women begins to decline 10 years before menopause. Very often it is primarily manifested in increased love for sweets. By reducing the production of estrogen, the body begins to look for it in fat cells. Once the fat cells begin to supply the body with estrogen, it begins to store more and more fat. At the same time a woman begins to lose testosterone, resulting in a sharp decrease in muscle mass. Since muscles are responsible for burning fat, the more muscle lost, the more fat is stored. That is why it is so difficult to lose weight after 35-40 years.Subcutaneous fat is not just a layer of fat, it is also a depot of female sex hormones (estrogens).
With obesity the amount of estrogen in the body increases. And if for women such as physiological, for men unnatural. For them normal hormonal balance – the predominance of androgens (male sex hormones).
When a man gains weight, it increases fat depot and, therefore, increasing the level of estrogen. Initially, the body tries to compensate, begins to produce more androgens in the adrenal cortex and testicles, but gradually their capabilities are exhausted, and there is a shift in hormonal levels with the prevalence of estrogen.An excess of estrogen affects the whole body.First, there is gynecomastia in men, literally, begin to grow Breasts. Secondly, it increases the timbre of the voice. Thirdly, deteriorating spermatogenesis,
reduced sperm count and their mobility – there is male infertility. At a time when obesity is reduced and potency – here plays a role not only hormonal imbalances but also the malnutrition of the nervous tissue and impaired circulation.In addition, estrogens change the psyche.
Men are becoming apathetic, tearful, depressed. They think they have a midlife crisis, but in fact it is purely hormonal changes associated with excess weight.InsulinThis is released by the pancreas the hormone plays a major role in the process of fat deposits.
It suppresses the activity of fat splitting enzyme (hormone-sensitive lipase). Besides, it promotes the transport of sugar in fat cells, which boosts the synthesis of fat. That is why the diet high in refined sugars cause obesity. The increase in insulin level caused by consumption of sweet food increases the body fat by slowing the digestion of fats and accelerate their synthesis.Thyroid hormones
These are similar in nature hormones, which are briefly referred to as T1, T2, T3 and T4 produced by the thyroid gland. The greatest influence on the weight gain is having the thyroxine, which speeds up metabolism.
A low production of thyroid hormones, known as low thyroid function leads to weight gain and other unpleasant diseases. However, increased production of these hormones – an overactive thyroid that leads to their illness and also undesirable, although overweight people it is rare. That is, in a healthy balance.For the proper functioning of the thyroid gland required iodine.
Iodine in the diet to ensure consumption of iodized salt, iodine-containing supplements, vitamins, minerals, supplements with algae content, etc. Recent studies have shown that the thyroid even more improved if the iodine be taken in conjunction with another mineral – selenium. In addition, other research suggests that thyroid dysfunction is accompanied by low copper level in the blood.The thyroid gland is affected and some food products.
Healthy natural stimulant for the thyroid is coconut oil. In addition, the level of thyroid hormones as well as testosterone and estrogen, reduced under stress.Hormone imbalances make you fat
If this system works so well, then why in recent times, there are so many people overweight? Scientists have discovered that aging, illness and unhealthy lifestyle disrupt the normal work girocentrale systems. It affects the substances that regulate fat cells. Thus, instead of trying to help us to control weight, hormones contribute to its increase.
In the late 80-ies, it was discovered that metabolic insulin significantly increase the risk of obesity and heart disease. Insulin, like all hormones, works by binding to special receptors in the cells. The combination of poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and genetic inheritance can cause problems with these receptors. In order to compensate for "slow work" of receptors, the pancreas releases more insulin.
It causes many diseases — obesity, high blood pressure, and increase blood fat levels and diabetes. Scientists call this process the "metabolic syndrome" or Syndrome X.Deposition of fat in abdominal region is the most dangerous manifestation of the syndrome. Abdominal fat releases fatty acids directly into the hepatic blood flow.
This causes an increased production of "bad" cholesterol and decrease in the ability of the liver to the purification of insulin, which leads to the elevated levels above normal. Thus begins a vicious cycle: high level of insulin leads to obesity, which causes even more insulin production. Recent studies have shown that leptin (the main regulator of fat) also does not work well in people with such violation as insulin resistance.
The role of obesity and fat deposition in the abdominal area on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome is unclear and contradictory. Some believe that the problem lies in the low physical activity and maintaining a large amounts of fat and refined sugars in the diet. For example, the diet of the animals was caused by the emergence of insulin resistance after just a few weeks. Adding physical activity and change in diet caused improvement of the majority of factors associated with metabolic syndrome (blood pressure, insulin, triglycerides), even if not observed reduction in body weight.Insulin resistance and high insulin levels are more a cause than a consequence of obesity
. The level of lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme that promotes fat storage) is reduced in skeletal muscle of code occurs insulin resistance. On the other hand, in fat cells high insulin levels stimulate lipoprotein lipase suppressing hormone-sensitive lipase (enzyme that breaks down fats). Such changes may cause a decrease in metabolism of fat in the muscle and accumulation in fat cells.The relationship with testosterone levelsTestosterone level largely determines the fat content in men in the abdominal area.
In middle age people with lower levels of testosterone has much more fat in the waist area than people with normal or high level. Besides, this type of fat dangerous risk of developing heart disease.
For many years it was thought that a high testosterone level contributes to heart disease. It was a natural conclusion, because the level of such diseases among women are much lower. But recent research has refuted this conclusion. Low testosterone promotes fat deposition in the abdominal area and increases the risk of insulin resistance. Some scientists believe that even "normal" his level of threat. The number of testosterone receptors in the abdominal area is particularly high, thus increasing its General level will result in an accelerated metabolism of fats in this area.Fight the fat by controlling your hormonesPlaying sports is the best way to control hormonal problems, which can cause metabolic syndrome.
Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity by increasing the number of transports glucose, increases the number of oxidative enzymes, improves blood flow to the muscles and reduces body fat. A very useful work with weights. Studies have shown that adding it to the regular sports improves the situation with insulin resistance and changes for the better body composition.Critical diet.
Eat food with low content of simple sugars, saturated fats and TRANS-fatty acids. There is no need to sit on a crazy diet, just eat balanced foods.
Control the level of fat is to consume fewer calories than expended. But the problems with your hormonal system complicate the matter. Fortunately, for most people control of hormones and its own weight is achieved the same. But take your time. Before you even look in the direction of testosterone or growth hormone, do sports, adjust the diet and maintain a way of life. published