Fun and fat burning. Today I will talk about how linked to an acute stress, joy, happiness, weight loss, and skin color. We will focus on the pituitary gland is like the nerve center which is the operational headquarters and coordinates various organ systems in our body. You'll learn how interrelated different areas of our lives, and that all this (joy, sport, sun, sex, fun and fat burning) can influence each other.
The pituitary gland produces a special substance that is called proopiomelanocortin
(POMC). This unique hormone which is a kind of template. Depending on the situation, our body can cut this stuff in different ways and to different hormones. Thus, one hormone can provide many different substances! This lipotropin (fat burning hormone), endorphin (pleasure), melanocytestimulating hormone (skin color), adrenocorticotropic hormone (stress). And now the most important lesson!
All cleavage products of proopiomelanocortin are produced in equimolar quantities and secreted into the blood at the same time. Thus, it is impossible to increase the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, without a concomitant increase in the secretion of beta-lipotropic hormone. Conversely, it is impossible to increase the secretion of beta-lipotropic hormone without a concomitant increase in the secretion of corticotropin. The same is true about the endorphins. Without acute stress would be no fun, as these hormones are produced strictly one-to-one! Function proopiomelanocortin.
Activation of the hypophyseal system proopiomelanocortin (POMC) occurs under the influence of physical, psychological and immunological stress factors that induce the secretion of fragments of POMC in the cardiovascular system. Most defiantly the interaction of the neuroendocrine and immune systems are manifested in the reaction of stress. It is known that this protective biological reaction develops in response to a wide range of corrosive environmental factors such as microbial, temperature, pain agents, factors of immobility, gravity, emotional impact, and several others.
Proopiomelanocortin is Central to the regulation of physiological homeostasis. The spectrum of action of peptides derived proopiomelanocortin in the body is very wide. Under their control are the processes of normal development, behavior, memory, emotional and physiological response to stress. Disruption of normal synthesis and processing of derivatives, POMC leads to stress-related illnesses and psychosomatic syndromes.
Obviously, the presence of identical for all hormones of this group heptapeptide fragment detects the presence of such an important common functional properties, as the effects on the pigmentation of melanocytes ( melanocytestimulating activity ) and the metabolism of fat in the lipocytes of adipose tissue, lipotropic activity ), stimulation of the biosynthesis of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex and the proliferation of its cells ( kortikotropina activity ). Inside the marked heptapeptide component has a tetrapeptide Met-Deep-GIS Hairdryer, responsible for the regulation of all hormones of the family of processes of formation and especially the retention of long-term memory at the level of the hippocampus and amygdala.
Retain the ability to exhibit different types of biological activity of each hormone is most pronounced able to perform one of them. So, kortikotropina activity of ACTH is approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of MSG. Conversely, melanocytestimulating effect of MSG is higher than ACTH
How to cut in grams?
He POMC does not have hormonally active properties. Hormonally active are the products of splitting a specific endopeptidase. There are three different ways of splitting POMC, giving three different families of metabolites, depending on the location, splitting molecules, which is determined by the exposure of specific endopeptidase. Note that the levels of leptin determines how the cutting process of proopiomelanocortin.
1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH) from which may be formed of α-melanocytestimulating hormone (MSG) and corticotropinby intermediate peptide (KPPP),
2. β-Lipotropin that serves as a precursor of γ-lipotropin and β-endorphin. Of them in turn formed β-MSG, γ-endorphin, α-endorphin.
3. γ-Melanocytestimulating hormone.
These peptides are able to undergo additional modifications from regulatory peptides (e.g., enkephalins). Mechanisms of action and effects of the majority of derivative proopiomelanocortin poorly understood. Thus, from a single molecule are formed: ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), MSG (alpha melanocytestimulating hormones, beta-melanocytestimulating hormones and gamma melanocytestimulating hormones), LPG (beta-and gamma lipotropin-lipotropin), and beta-endorphin.
Depending on site of synthesis (the front or middle lobe of the pituitary gland) and specific incentives, POMC subjected to the following transformations:
Path activity (fizuha and acute stress)
In corticotroph the anterior pituitary under the stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone synthesized endopeptidazy, splitting, POMC on adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-lipotropic hormone. Beta-lipotropic hormone is a hormone of the anterior pituitary, resulting in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary in the splitting of proopiomelanocortin. Together with β-lipotropic hormone formed by adrenocorticotropic hormone. β-lipotropic hormone, causes increased fat burning in subcutaneous adipose tissue and a decrease in the synthesis and deposition of fat.
The way of passion (dopamine)
In melanotropic middle lobe of the pituitary gland when stimulated by dopamine produced endopeptidazy, splitting, POMC on alpha melanocytestimulating hormone, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotropic hormone. Gamma-lipotropic hormone is a hormone of the middle lobe of the hypophysis, resulting in corticotropin the cells of the middle lobe of the pituitary gland in the splitting of proopiomelanocortin. Together with γ-lipotropic hormone formed alpha melanocytestimulating hormone, beta-endorphin and. Gamma-lipotropic hormone, causes increased fat burning in subcutaneous adipose tissue and a decrease in the synthesis and deposition of fat.
Alpha melanocytestimulating hormone stimulates the proliferation of melanocytes of the skin and increased production by the melanocytes of the black pigment melanin. Due to this effect of alpha-melanocytestimulating hormone increases pigmentation of the skin and increases the resistance of the skin to UV light. The path of darkness and quiet.
In melanotropic middle lobe of the pituitary gland are also produced endopeptidazy, splitting, POMC on gamma melanocytestimulating hormone and met-enkephalin. However, it is expected that these peptides are involved in the regulation of extrapyramidal, limbic system and neuroendocrine functions and, in addition, modulate pain perception, have aboriginie and reinforcing properties. Met-enkephalin modulates the formation of a mediator of thermogenesis - интерлейкина1, inhibits the release of dopamine and norepinephrine from the vesicles of sympathetic nerve endings and inhibits the secretion of thyrotropin, and also increases the decay of ATP in muscle cells. Lipotropic hormone.
Lipotropin person has a much more pronounced lipolytic effect than growth hormone. In addition, with the introduction of this hormone significantly reduced the level of calcium in the blood, which some researchers have attributed the implementation mechanism of lipolysis.
Lipotropin as a whole is essentially attenuated ACTH and MSG. However, it turned out that the composition of the molecules lipotropic hormone, closer to its C - Terminus, a fragment which, when cleavage from the solid molecules have special biological activity. They cause a pronounced morphine-like effects ( operatornye effects ) in the brain — pain relief, removing feelings of fear, etc. Introduced into the body, these opioids cause a number of mild side narcotic effects characteristic of drugs of morphine. Mentioned fragments of lipotropin discovered in the brain of animals. After injection of lipotropina their concentration in the brain increases. These morphine-like brain peptides — the endogenous opioids are called endorphins and enkefalins . Fragment 61-91 of lipotropin is beta-endorphin, which includes metenkephalin, alpha - endorphin and gamma-endorphin.
A large number of data indicates that ACTH/MSG-like peptides are capable of inhibiting inflammation. It is shown that a-MSG attenuates inflammatory processes in diseases of the intestine, arthritis, inflammation of the brain, cerebral ischemia, ischemic kidney and dermatitis. MK showed its efficacy in various inflammation models, both acute and chronic. Level a-MSG increases in inflammation, which probably is part of the natural protective reaction of the body .
Lipotropic hormone is also very nice oshushenia fun. Targets are adipose tissue, where it stimulates fat burning and mobilization of fatty acids. The main role is the source of endogenous opiates (α-, β-, γ-endorphins) in the brain that cause pain relief, the removal of feelings of fear, etc. that is why I say that joy has a direct fat-burning effect.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticotropin (ACTH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone results in the production of cortisol. Cortisol is the main representative of the glucocorticoids is a chain link back regulation, and suppresses its own secretion at the level of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Cortisol acts by binding to the receptor in the cytosol, after which the resulting complex moves to the cell nucleus, where it has the ability to regulate gene expression. Thus, cortisol is the main inhibitor of the synthesis of kortikoliberina and education, POMC. In addition, it inhibits the release of ACTH is synthesized, which is stored in vesicles of the cells of the anterior pituitary. There is control of the secretion of cortisol at the level of the hypothalamus. Control through kortikoliberina secreted by the hypothalamus, is characterized by circadian rhythm and periodic type of secretion, which determines the frequency and variation of the level of secretion of hormones regulated by this factor. Most secretory release of ACTH normally occurs in the early morning. Therefore, ideally you should Wake up happy and cheerful.
Neurotropic effects of corticotropin are not dependent on hormonal action, and are the result of his direct influence on the Central nervous system, as it has been shown that a similar effect on training have a beta of MSG, although they contain only a part of the amino acid sequence of ACTH and exhibit low corticotomy activity
There are three main varieties of the MSG, they are often referred to collectively as the melanocortin
Alpha melanocytestimulating hormone (α-MSG)
Beta melanocytestimulating hormone (β-MSG)
Gamma melanocytestimulating hormone (γ-MSG)
The melanocortin: causes skin pigmentation by melanin formation (tanning pharmacological), boosts libido and enhances erection (in 2 hours after the first injection), suppresses the appetite, promotes the burning of fat.Targets are the melanocytes of the skin, iris, pigment epithelium retina, which stimulates melaninogenica and pigmentation. Actively influence feeding behavior.
Function melanotropic hormones lipolysis, body temperature control, immunomodulation, sexual function, cognitive ability. The melanocortin runs processes such as skin pigmentation, food-related, exocrine function, lipolysis, body temperature control, immunomodulation, sexual function, cognitive ability and to a small extent –changes in blood pressure.
The first reports that melanocortin involved in regulation of eating behavior appeared in the mid 70-ies, when it became known that the Central introduction of the a-MSG reduces the amount of food consumed.. the Increase in gene expression agouti-protein in the CNS leads to obesity and low contents of leptin and insulin in the blood. In addition, inactivation of the gene MC4R in mice leads to a pronounced increase in appetite and increase growth and body weight . In some violations, a person may develop darkening of certain areas of the skin (elbows, neck), this is often a sign of insulin resistance.
In response to stress, neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the thalamus from proopiomelanocortin synthesize alpha-melanocytestimulating hormone. This hormone is associated with МС4R-receptor, which has a very wide distribution throughout the Central nervous system in each part of the brain, including the hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, brain stem, spinal cord). Binding to the receptor induces a feeling of alertness, attention, and a temporary reduction in food intake. Passion, sun, and melanocytestimulating fat burning hormone.
The melanocortin has aphrodisiac properties, as confirmed by research. Later (1998), a study was conducted on 10 men suffering from erectile dysfunction. The researchers concluded that Melanotan 2 (melanocortin analog) at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg eliminates dysfunction, even if it is psychogenic.
Therefore, tanning, you stimulate all these processes. Currently, there is increasing evidence linking the processes of fat burning with the presence of man in the sun.
Bombarding the skin, ultraviolet rays stimuliruyut vyrabotok of proopiomelanocortin, which splits into fragments, including a class of prohormones called melanocortins that stimulate the production of melanin – the protective pigment. As a result, the skin darkens, and we get tan. Thus, melanin is an antioxidant that protects the skin from ultraviolet radiation with the help of her darkening. At the same time, the hormones produced by the body in response to sun exposure, melanocortin, working not only in the skin cells.
Thus, a picture emerges of a powerful mechanism for the body's response to famine (winter) and adequate food (in the summer). The rays of the sun stimulate your skin, triggering a reaction that creates melanocortin. They, in turn, encourage the release of skin pigment melanin, while affecting other systems of the body. Melanocortin affect the processes of storing and consume fat, appetite and rate of metabolism of the whole organism. Therefore, the increase in the duration of sun exposure required for the emergence of tans can help you get rid of excess weight. It is important that this does not mean you have to sunbathe – just to spend more time in the sun! Physical activity and proopiomelanocortin.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin are the most studied in terms of physical activity, but physical exercise is also the secretion of other fragments, PEMK, for example beta-lipotropina. The secretion of ACTH and β-endorphin occurs only at a certain intensity and duration of exercise. Numerous studies show that the activation of the pituitary system, POMC occurs at a certain level of metabolic needs, which are characterized by the fact that the content of lactate in the blood exceeds the anaerobic threshold, and can be achieved with a short run anaerobic exercise or prolonged aerobic physical activity
When exposed to physical stress activation “corticotrope part of the" system POMC, which leads to the secretion of immunoreactive material of ACTH and β-endorphin. Increasing the concentration of immunoreactive ACTH and β-endorphin in plasma in response to exercise occurs in virtually equimolar amounts.
Noted that exercises with high intensity when oxygen consumption is above the maximum level (V02max) does not lead to a further increase in the content of β-endorphin in the plasma.
The comparison of ACTH levels before and after submaximal load (80 % V02max), and run the isotonic exercise until exhaustion (100 % V02max) is also allowed to come to the conclusion that exercise-induced increase of ACTH in the blood plasma and its correlation with the level of cortisol in the blood depends on the intensity isotonic exercise. At a load of 40-60 % V02max significant changes in the concentration of β-endorphin did not happen, however, its level was significantly increased while the intensity of exercise 80 % V02max .
In the study of secretion of β-endorphin at a load of 60 and 90% of V02max significant increase in hormone levels was observed only at higher load intensity was dependent on duration of exercise, respectively. A gradual or stepped increase in the load of aerobic character enhanced the level of β-endorphin. The exercise intensity to 66 and 57 % V02max resulted in increased β-endorphin in blood plasma in untrained and trained individuals, respectively.
When performing strength exercises with a heavy load to the key factors that determine the degree of change in the concentration of β-endorphin in blood plasma include the duration of rest intervals between sets and the level of lactate in the blood .
The types of strength training, not leading to total fatigue, namely exercises with a large mass weights, though require high muscle activity for short periods of time, increase in the level of p-endorphin are not accompanied, and may even cause it to fall. The increase in p-endorphin was observed only in cases when exercise athletes worked almost until tired. Demonstrated increasing the concentration of immunoreactive ACTH and p-endorphin in the plasma when performing anaerobic exercises, which correlated with increased content of lactate in the blood.
Aerobic exercise a medium level of intensity of 50% VO,max was not accompanied by changes of β-endorphin, whereas the intensity of exercise 66% of V02max, an increase in the level of β-endorphin . Muscular joy.
It was found that the endorphins periodic electric shocks in a metal cage, immobilization or cold stress. In addition, it is believed that endorphins are produced in the human body during the fighting, sporting events, etc. that allows to a certain extent to ignore the pain and mobilize the reserves. That the wounds of the winners heal quicker than wounds of the vanquished, was known in Ancient Rome.
The correlation of the level of β-endorphin with a variety of psychological and physiological changes, including euphoria, caused by physical activity”, “runners euphoria” (runner's high), dependence on motor activity, negative mood changes, loss of appetite, suppression of immune system function and dysfunction of the reproductive system. However, the isolating function provided by the blood-brain barrier of the brain, eliminates the possibility of any effect of endorphin on the activity of the Central nervous system. In addition, increased levels of endorphins induced by intense aerobic exercise is not associated with a tendency to the formation of dependence on physical activity.
Production of endorphins is increased in response to stress, as a protective reaction to ensure the physiological release of stress, that is, without disruption of adaptation and without the formation of post-stress disorders and diseases. In 1988, it was first confirmed later formulated a hypothesis about the so-called stress-limiting systems of the body that are involved in the activation of the external and internal stress factors. Key stress-limiting system is the opioid system. Therefore, you have more endorphins, you have higher and stress! So anything that increases endorphin levels — decreases stress!
Also increase stand out in laboratory animals exposed to the production of endorphins leads to a decrease in pain.
The popular notion that endorphins are the "happy hormones" or "hormone of joy", based on the fact that the introduction into the organism of drugs similar to endorphins, in particular morphine and other opiates, leads to a strong euphoria. Actually, euphoria is called a side effect on other neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine. In addition, there are other strong aforetime not related to endorphins such as cocaine and MDMA, almost all of them are agonists of dopamine receptors. Thus, endorphins – it's a joy, not euphoria. I tell the difference? Passion, joy and fat burning.
All that will vyzyvaet acute stress and joy, will have fat burning properties. This is the joy of success, the joy of achievement, the joy of creativity, from new places. Do more of what makes you happy and you will automatically lose weight!
The best fat burner — the joy of creativity, joy and love, in the extreme case — just sexual attraction. Any active positive emotions inhibited appetite and burnt is very active extra fat, that is the person who has excess fat, fast lose weight. New impressions, bright emotions, pleasant feelings contribute to the production of happiness hormone in the body. Go to the movies, travel, throw a party.
Stimulates the production of endorphin lipotropin and bath, massages – all of which have to overcome some initial pain. The sport would be tedious as it directly promotes the release of endorphins. This is particularly true for active sports that need to be addressed long and hard: running, swimming, tennis, fitness, etc. In the final stage of training you will feel an incredible lifting force, satisfaction from employment – this will be the long-awaited release of hormones.
Sex is amazing not only in itself but also as a source of endorphins. Don't neglect this method under any circumstances, and every day you will feel happy. As advised Evaluate, in principle, mutual love and passion, overwhelming you — is an incredible source of positivity. Cannot be applied to the body any artificial and coercive measures should sincerely and honestly give yourself the joy, and then the excess fat will easily go out. If you have the joy to give is impossible, you should try at least to reduce the negative. Conclusion.
And now once again the most important lesson! All cleavage products of proopiomelanocortin are produced in equimolar quantities and secreted into the blood at the same time. Thus, it is impossible to increase the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, without a concomitant increase in the secretion of beta-lipotropic hormone. Conversely, it is impossible to increase the secretion of beta-lipotropic hormone without a concomitant increase in the secretion of corticotropin. The same is true about the endorphins. Without acute stress would be no fun, as these hormones are produced strictly one-to-one!
You can pull different parts of the ball: the joy, acute stress, endorphin, creativity, joy, passion, sun and tan, physical activity... and all this will be zapustit the production of the same hormone - proopiomelanocortin with all its positive properties. So choose what You like and go for it! published
Author: Andrey Blueskin
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©
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