"Aerostat" Ogneslav Of Kostovich. Figure 1910 Photo: great-country.ru
30 Dec 1916 in Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) at the age of 65 years died the inventor and designer Ogneslav (Ignatius) kostovic.
By nationality he was a Serb. Born in Austria-Hungary. In his youth lived in the city of pest. After graduating from Higher technical schools and schools of navigation were working in the merchant Navy — carrier coasting vessels. During the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878, kostovic commanded the ship "Hell" transporting Russian troops on the middle Danube. Received the rank of captain of the Russian fleet, he from the end of the 1870s, worked in Russia.
The author of more than a hundred inventions, kostovic did not become widely famous, like his contemporaries, Nikola Tesla or the Gottlieb Daimler. Kostovich own ideas about aerial torpedo, the Telegraph, as well as the equipment for lifting sunken ships. And this humble man invented the submarine and the airship, and the internal combustion engine.
Submarine Project "fish-boat" of Kostovich appeared in 1878. Submarine for 8 people was one propeller driven by two sailors. In the bow there was a "propellant pipe", a type of torpedo tube, for sequential start-up 12 torpedoes by means of compressed air used for breathing team. The project contained many flaws and was criticized mainly due to the lack of sufficiently powerful engine, designed to let the boat speed is required.
Kostovic took the project to Refine and seriously engaged in the study existed in those years engines. He visited the library, met with scientists. Once kostovic heard the report of Dmitri Mendeleev about the projects of the stratospheric balloon with a pressurized cabin of the airship and containing the compressed air.
The history of aerostatics in Russia streamed Kostovich that in August 1879 he presented to the members of the "First Russian society of aeronauts" own project the dirigible "Russia".
Despite the unfortunate fate of the airship, remarkable was the fate of inventions that lay at its core.
The dirigible "Russia" twenty years before the German Ferdinand Zeppelin, Ogneslav kostovic designed hard aircraft — the dirigible "Russia". This airship was built in St. Petersburg for the shareholders ' contributions and subsidies of the Ministry of war. In April 1882 the newspaper "Moscow Vedomosti" reported that the construction of the blimp is progressing and will be completed by August. Alas, the task proved extremely difficult...
The airship was huge. Its case volume of 5 thousand cubic meters. m had a length of 64 m and a diameter of more than 12 m. Through the middle of the body was held vertical shaft-pipe in the lower part of which housed the crew and passengers. Here was located the engine room. The basis of the airship served as a horizontally positioned circular farm adjacent the inside of the cylinder to the soft, Silken sheath. From the upper and lower ends of the mine to the farm was a brace like going from the hub to the rim the spokes of a Bicycle wheel (this comparison liked to give himself kostovic). Farm, mine, and brace gave the whole structure the necessary rigidity, strength and lightness.
Along the Central axis of the hull towards the stern passed the main shaft, crowned with a four-bladed propeller. The rudder was located, on the contrary, in the bow of the ship. Year followed year, and work could not see the end. In addition to technical difficulties, the matter was further complicated by the fact that Kostovich had their own design for almost all devices of the airship, mechanisms and devices, many of which were created for the first time.
The biggest problem, the solution of which depended the success of the enterprise, was the engine. In August, 1884, in the midst of Kostovich over his air ship from France came the news: airship military engineers Renard and Krebs for the first time in history it managed to fly through a closed curve and return to the starting place. Their ship "La France" was equipped with a motor with a galvanic battery.
In response, kostovic decided to provide your vehicle with an internal combustion engine, over which they have for several years worked.
The drawing of the dirigible "Russia". Фото:great-country.ru
The internal combustion engine "Fathers" of the world's first internal combustion engine are the engineers Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach (they became the progenitors of the world famous brand "Mercedes-Benz"). The first engine had arrived on the plant at the end of 1885.
Ogneslav kostovic started the development of the internal combustion engine using liquid light fuel in 1879.
In 1880, kostovic produced a reduced model of the engine with two cylinders. Successful tests have given confidence in the feasibility of a more powerful motor for the airship and the submarine, which he again presented to the Navy Department in the same year, and early next mounted two-cylinder engine on a boat of his own design. A sample of the product has allowed to construct a combination of four such motors.
By 1883 the engine was built, testing and debugging continued until 1885. In a 80-horsepower gasoline internal combustion engine. Kostovic first used electric ignition and a counter movement of the pistons in the oppositely arranged cylinders.
Subsequently, a similar scheme has been made, many diesel engines. Also for the first time as fuel was proposed to use the gasoline to that used in the household only Housewives (for removing stains from clothes) cosmetologists.
Air-fuel mixture from the carburetor is supplied to the inlet valves of the cylinders for the four ports through the throttle valves. The ignition — electrical, low-voltage current by use of movable contacts. Cylinder cooling — water. Lubrication of the friction surfaces was carried out with butter dishes. For uniformity stroke engine used a flywheel of large dimensions.
It is known that in 1888, the inventor has applied to the Department of trade and manufactures, in charge of patent Affairs, with a petition to grant him a ten-year privilege for the "improved engine operating with gasoline, kerosene, oil, coal and other gases, and explosives". Then kostovic applied for patents for his engine in the United States and England, and got them even earlier than in Russia. Russian privilege (patent) he was given only 4 Nov 1892.
O. S. kostovich your motor. Фото:great-country.ru
Plywood is an ideal know-how failed the dirigible "Russia" became the shell material — plywood in the modern sense of the word. Then under it was meant thin sheets of wood (veneer).
Kostovic called his material "arboretum" and even built the eponymous plant near St. Petersburg. Its main products were products of arboreta: barrels for wine and kerosene, boxes, chests, bags, construction items and even plywood collapsible houses.
Plywood kostovic created by mixing in various proportions of milled timber with various components. In the course of these works, the inventor concluded that it is possible, "not razdoblja wood fibers, separate them into layers and then connecting them much more effective way than it has in the natural construction of the tree." When gluing at least three wood sheets with mutually intersecting directions of the fibers were obtained in leaves of arboreta, durable in all directions. Bonding of the sheets he has produced they also invented "adhesive cement". This glue not only sealed the leaves, but also penetrated into all the pores steaming of wood, making arboret not rot, are not susceptible to atmospheric moisture and therefore constant in mass. Recipe of adhesive cement did not reach us.
Planes In 1879, kostovic demonstrated his flying models of a helicopter, airplane, and ornithopter, and in 1881 started to build the plane in full size. The construction of the aircraft was not completed, apparently because the petrol engine of Kostovich was insufficient power and too bulky.
Again, the idea of building aircraft kostovic drawn in 1911, when it receives the “Privilege” for two types of aircraft: Triplane land and aerohydroplane, which had some common parts. In the schemes of both aircraft typical rotating engine blade paddle wheels, which the author thought to use to run on water and hover in place" in the air. The project was the schematic diagram of air brakes in the form of a sliding vertical stabilizer, protivokapotazhnoy chassis, forced acceleration of the flow under and over the wing. The body of the plane had the shape of a boat.
The engine was provided with a 4-cylinder, rotating together with the 4-blade propeller. In aerohydroplane has been widely applied arboret, which was made from a boat, the spars of the wings and other parts. When the building no paddle wheels, kostovic did, and gave the boat at the waterline waterproof wings transverse stability — the “gills” as they are called, made for the first time in the world.
In 1914, kostovic started to work on hydroaeroplanes. It was a double double.: closed cab, dual control, flat-bottomed floats. Almost everything was made of plywood. The construction was carried out in 1913-1914, the plane was completed, but has not been tested.
Monoplane amphibian kostovich of 1916 was a twin flying boat. The hull of the boat is flat-bottomed, cabin open, front of the wing. A wing of constant profile, two-spar, with fabric covering, the scope of his — about 11 m. Engine rated at 100 HP (probably inline). The aircraft was not completed due to the death of Kostovich.