Hepatitis C (HCV) - a hoax
Hepatitis or liver disease in recent years has brought lucrative opportunities for hunters viruses. Hepatitis B can be a really serious condition, starting flu-like symptoms and progresses to more severe, such as high fever and yellowing of the skin.
There are at least 3 types of hepatitis. Hepatitis A is an infectious disease that spreads through unsanitary conditions, and caused the usual, traditional virus. Hepatitis B is also caused by a virus (open in 1960-xx years) and transmitted mostly among that heroin-dependent through the needle, among sexually active and promiscuous people, or from mother to child during birth in the Third World.
The third type of hepatitis was found in 70-xx years, and again among that heroin addiction, alcoholics and patients who had blood transfusions. Most scientists assumed that in these cases, too, was a hepatitis A or hepatitis B, but extensive testing of these patients did not reveal any traces of either one or the other virus. Roughly speaking, 35,000 Americans die each year from all types of the disease, and the proportion of those who have the "non-A non-B hepatitis" is also included in the total number. Today it is called the "hepatitis C". This variant of hepatitis B has no properties of an infectious disease, it is limited to people from certain risk groups, not extending beyond the rest of the population and the doctors who treat hepatic patients. However, virologists from the beginning had their eye on the disease, hoping one day to find the virus, it causes.
That day came in 1987. Laboratory, where it happened, was a laboratory research center Chiron Corporation, a company that produces biotechnology, which was located directly across the bay from San Francisco. Equipped with the most advanced technology, a team of scientists has begun the study of the disease in 1982, introducing the blood of chimpanzees patients. None of the monkeys became ill with hepatitis, although small signs of a similar kind of infection or redness really emerged. The next step, scientists examined the liver tissue for the presence of virus. None was found.
Disappointment was approaching, and a team of scientists looking for even the slightest trace of the virus, and in the end they did amplifying a small portion of the genetic information in vkodirovannogo molecule known as ribonucleic acid (RNA), which does not seem to belong to the genetic code of the host. This fragment was allegedly alien RNA, the scientists concluded, should be - the genetic information of some unknown virus. Whatever it was, hepatic tissues contain it in almost undetectable amounts. Only about half of all patients with hepatitis C have this rare alien RNA. And those who have determined only one RNA molecule for every 10 liver cells, which can hardly be plausible cause of the disease.
Chiron team used the new technology available to restore the fragments of a mysterious virus. Now they could check patients for antibodies to the virus hypothetical and soon discovered that only a small number of patients with hepatitis C have these antibodies in the blood.
Koch's first postulate asserts that really harmful virus must be in large quantities in each with sickness.
His second postulate says that the virus particles are solely responsible to be isolated and grown, and this predpalagaemy new hepatitis B virus has never been found in general form.
The third postulate says that the re-infected animals, such as chimpanzees, have become ill from the virus. But this hypothetical organism could not be tested 3 of these rules. It seems that the standards set by Koch were the last thing thought by scientists from Chiron Corporation, when they announced in 1987 that they finally found the "hepatitis C virus".
Now the viral hypothesis meets more paradoxes. The vast number of people, who for the tests defined positively to a hypothetical hepatitis C virus never develop any symptoms of the disease, despite the fact that the "virus" in their blood no less active than those who do ill with hepatitis. In accordance with the recent full-scale study of over 18 years, those who have signs of "infection", live as long as those who do not have one. However, despite this fact, scientists stick to their line, saying that this ghost virus has an indefinite latency period, which lasts for decades.
Such paradoxes are no longer concerned with hunting viruses scientific community. Indeed, money rains watered every hypothesis of a new virus, so abundant that it does not matter how absurd this hypothesis.
Chiron is not just spent 5 years developing their own new virus. They patented the test for the virus began its release and a public campaign for gaining powerful allies. The first step was the publication of the very well-known in the world of «Science» scientific journal, whose editor is Dan Koshland (Dan Koshland, Jr), professor of molecular and cell biology at the University of California at Berkeley.
Penoet Edward (Edward Penhoet), CEO of Chiron, also holds the position of Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California at Berkeley. NIH-sponsored scientific community of virologists soon fully approved and confirmed the reliability of the hepatitis B virus to promote a campaign C. Chapter Chiron proudly declared: "We have a hit product." The official order from the Ministry of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to test donated blood Chiron Corporation has brought a huge income.
They got their big chance in 1988, when he was a special request from the doctors of the Japanese Emperor Hirohito (Hirohito). The monarch was dying and needed constant blood transfusions, an inquiry Korpopratsiyu Chiron was to provide a test that could confirm that the donated blood was not tainted with hepatitis C.
Corp. grabbed this opportunity and made her in Japan such a great reputation that the Tokyo government gave approval for the product in the course of the year. The emperor died in the meantime, but the excitement about testing Chiron has not subsided, and the Japanese government has made it a testing one of its main health priorities. Test Chiron Corporation is now a profit of $ 60 million annually in this country. By the mid 1990's xx years the United States approved the final test. FDA not only odoblilo him, but even recommended the testing of donated blood all over the world.
The American Association of Blood Banks (American Association of Blood Banks - AABB) was followed by the establishment of officially approving the test at a price of $ 5 for all 12 million samples of donated blood, surrendering every year in this country - it brings another 60 million profit Chiron annually, while the price of testing for clinical purposes is much higher. And all this testing is performed on a virus that has never been isolated.
"I can not give you any evidence that the hepatitis C virus exist. I studied all the scientific literature about the so-called "hepatitis C virus" and found no evidence of the claimed virus. "
Peter Duesberg (Peter Duesberg) - American biochemist and professor of molecular and cell biology, University of California, Berkeley (The University of California, Berkeley)