The tree is one of the oldest and most popular materials for building houses. It has many advantages, among which durability, but over time, wooden buildings, even built on modern technologies, using various of treatments and treatment, may require repair.
Especially actual this problem is for embedded logs, which perform the function of the carrier and is most exposed to aggressive environment, in particular, snowmelt and groundwater, atmospheric deposition.
Due to external factors, the crowns of the wooden structure was beginning to rot, mildew, fungus, they infest insects, saps the tree structure, the result requires an urgent full replacement mortgage bonds, the strengthening of local or partial restoration.
Causes of damage to the lower crowns of the house and options for addressing them
Before beginning work on the localization of the damage to the crowns need to carry out their inspection and identify the cause. By results of examination the issue of how to fix the problem.
Violation of the technology during construction, as well as damage or wear and tear waterproof protection can lead to rotting of the wooden base. If the problem is marked in time, it has been solved after full drying of the impregnating various specialized mastics, and also full replacement of hydroprotection.
Repair you five major ways:
Partial replacement. Replaced only the damaged log. The method is used only as a temporary, damaged when not all of the salary, or because some of the reasons for raising the house impossible. The log need to remove and replace the new with the processing of protective agents. Full dismantling and reinstallation of the structure. Technology is used for non-residential buildings in cases when it is necessary to change not only the crowns, but also some other wooden elements of the structure. The replacement of the crown of the brickwork. Also possible partial replacement of only the damaged areas. The Jack method. Used to tape and solid foundations. The method allows not only easy to replace mortgages, but also to repair, seal and raise the Foundation. With the use of specialized metal hangers. Expensive technology that requires to find or produce a design for a suspension of the house in accordance with the perimeter size of the house, and use special equipment. How to determine what crowns need replacement
Need replacement determined by visual inspection. With light tapping with a mallet, in the case of internal decay, you will hear a dull echo. You also need to check the second and third crowns.
In addition, special attention should be paid to the presence of small moves Zhukov-drevotochtsev. It should be noted that even one larva is able for a short time to pierce the structure of the whole logs to a rotten state.
You also need to inspect the Foundation. The presence of cracks may indicate that it is destroyed and needs restoration.
Partial repair of crowns gradually
Spot repair can be done in the case when the wood is beginning to rot away in one or several areas of foundations, when to completely change mortgages do not make sense.
To do this:
Carefully inspect the surface of the logs. With chisels and any other tool, strip the rotten timber around the region, determine the depth of the damage. Departing from the rotten area to the right and left 40-50 cm, fasten wooden ties with internal and external side of the house to a height of 2.5–3 logs. With the help of a chainsaw or jig saw to carefully remove the damaged element of wood. Make in its place a suitable level Urubko and fit the insert, matching the sizes by the method of spike-a groove. Insert secure firmly with pins. All cracks should be caulked, and the wood handle, water resistant mastic. How to replace mortgages brick walls,
Sometimes you can not raise the structure on jacks to replace ventelou part of the brickwork.
To do this:
With one corner damaged log knock with a sledge hammer. In the free cavity install supports, metal, or wood, or fold a brick column. The same procedure must be done from the other side. Clean the Foundation from dirt and dust, if necessary, repair it. Lay the Foundation surface roofing material in 2 layers. Put logs instead of laying the brickwork for height in the Central part. Then remove the supports, and the space will also brick with surface waterproofing and treatment of the lower parts of logs with mastic or other water-repellent solutions. Thus we can replace individual parts or the entire mortgage lower crown.
Update crowns home the Jack by liftingthe Preparatory work,
the Most common way the updates of the lower rims includes the use of the Jack. Before beginning work to prepare the buildings to rise:
Maximum ease weight of building. Remove, if any, portion of the outer skin of the facade. Fasten the lower undamaged logs vertical wooden ties, in increments of half a meter, preferably with both external and internal parties. Remove in the house the baseboards, if possible detach the floor from the walls. Disconnect rigidly connected to communications: gas (service organization), water, sewer. If the house includes stove or fireplace, it is necessary to remove part of the floor around them, to dismantle the chimney or part of the roof and floor structures around the chimney. Materials and tools
Prepare the following materials:
Fire and bio protective means for wood. Bitumen mastic. Suitable size logs or beams. Any sealing material for logs (tow, etc.). Bricks, cement-sand mixture for laying — if necessary, upgrade the brick Foundation or masonry crowns at home.
Jacks (with a capacity of at least 2.5–5 ton) — 4 pieces and 4 metal plates for support. Wide blocks or timber as a pivot. Levers (metal channel, I-beam or timber). The plane. The ax. Chainsaw. Sledgehammer. Chisel. Pre-assembled channel or brusovo reference jumper for the safety net and support structure. The rise of the building on jacks. Gradual replacement of crowns
Work is performed in the following order:
Mark and saw out the dimensions of the jacks and their locations in the upper logs of the lower crown, with the distance to the corners of the house — 1 meter. The installation of the Jack is dependent on the type of Foundation. Install support blocks under the jacks and place them on the device, also resting on the surface of the metal bars/levers, if the Foundation strip. If he bar, the jacks are mounted directly under the building.
The rise of the house engage evenly with the participation of 3 more helpers. Do not hurry, watch out for uniform rise. After raising the bottom logs can be immediately removed. After raising the house on jacks under its walls it is necessary to have the substructure (with pier Foundation) or you can place chocks (on tape) and leave them for a while, until will continue the Foundation repair and waterproofing, dismantling of damaged crowns and wood processing onebusaway. Once the jacks are lowered, they need to put a new support beam and lifting device of the legs, tight to fix it. So you need to do on all sides of the building. Further, all the intervals must be processed to plug and tow. Useful tips
it is Not recommended to produce the rise of buildings in stormy weather, and the capricious behavior of the soil in winter and during floods. Do not put limbs under the raised structure, if you are not sure it tight fit. Carefully inspect logs, and carefully handle their specialized tools. If you are not confident in their abilities, entrust the job to professionals. The average cost of a replacement lower crowns can cost 30-40 thousand rubles. The best material for the mortgages serve as logs of larch. They are expensive, but durable. The design of them is moisture-proof and durable and can "live" up to 50 years.
Thus, replace the lower crowns of the house and extend the life of the structure, even with significant damage to load-bearing logs, you can own. And although in some cases it may seem like a challenging job, it is doable with careful execution of all instructions and recommendations.
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©