Life is a series of events fromconception to birth and from birth to
Perinatal psychology is a new direction in psychology, is very trendy. As science is about 30 years old and growing rapidly in civilized countries. Created by the world Association of perinatal psychology departments in the cities and countries.Perinatal
— a term consisting of 2 words:peri (peri)
— around, about andNATOs (natalis)
— relating to birth.
Thus perinatal psychology is the science of the psychic life of the unborn child or the newly born.
Classically terminology the following — the unborn child in the womb is called a fetus. After birth, the baby is called a newborn for 4 weeks.
Perinatal psychology involves 2 basic axioms:
Perinatal psychology studies mental life in the perinatal period and its influence on the formation of human personality. It is a science about the connection of the fetus and newborn with the mother, the influence of the mental life of the mother on the child.
- the presence of the psychic life of the fetus;
- the presence of long term memory in the fetus and newborn.
It is a rare example where different professionals in General, find a common language. And is engaged in psychologists, psychotherapists, midwives, pediatricians, teachers.It is assumed that long-term memory of the fetus applies to events occurring during pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum period.
These events affect the formation of the unconscious and the formation of mental and behavioural reactions of an adult. Particularly strong perinatal events affect:
- human behavior in critical situations: stress, divorce, service difficulties, accident, etc.
- the human attraction to extreme sports, military service and attitude to war, attitude to sex, to gambling and to all "sharp".
In other words, perinatal psychology if you wish, you can write off anything.Perinatal matricesa theoretical framework is considered to be the Founder Stanislav Grof,
an American of Czech origin. He brought the theory of the perinatal matrices. This theory inspired reviewed by many followers.
Briefly its main provisions are as follows.In humans, perinatal events are recorded in the form of 4 basic matrices (cliche of cliches), corresponding to the process of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.
They are called basic perinatal matrices
1. Matrix naivety
. This matrix corresponds to the period of pregnancy prior to childbirth.
When it starts its development is not very clear. Most likely it requires the presence of the formed cerebral cortex in the fetus — i.e., 22-24 weeks of pregnancy. Some authors suggest cellular memory, a wave memory, etc. In this case, the matrix of naivety begins to form immediately after conception and even before. This matrix forms the human life potential, his potential, the ability to adapt. Have the desired children, the desired sex, healthy pregnancy with underlying mental potential is higher, and this observation has been made by humanity a long time ago.
2. The matrix of the victims
. Formed since the beginning of labor until complete or almost complete disclosure of the cervix.
Approximately corresponds to 1 period of labor. The child feels the pressure force of contractions, some hypoxia, and the "output" from the uterus is closed. The child partially controls their birth release its own hormones into the mother's bloodstream through the placenta. If the load on the child is too high, there is a danger of hypoxia, it can slow down their deliveries, to be able to kompensirovat. From this point of view, redistillate violates the natural process of interaction between mother and fetus, and pathological forms the matrix of the victim. On the other hand, the mother's fear, fear of childbirth stimulates the release of the mother's stress hormones, there is a spasm of blood vessels of the placenta, fetal hypoxia, and then the matrix of the victims also formed pathological. In a planned caesarean, this matrix can not be formed, when an emergency — formed.
3. Matrix fight
. Approximately 2 period of delivery.Is formed from the end of the disclosure period until the baby is born.
It describes human activity in the moments when its active or waiting something depends. If the mother behaved in bearing-down period, right, helped the child, if he felt that during the struggle he is not alone, later in life his behavior is adequate to the situation. For caesarean section, both planned and emergency, the matrix, apparently, is not formed, although this is controversial. Most likely it corresponds to the moment of extraction of the baby from the uterus during the operation.
4. The matrix of liberty
. Begins with the birth and formation of its ends or during the first 7 days after birth or in the first month, either created and revised all human life.
I.e. man's whole life is reconsidering its attitude to freedom and its own capabilities, given the circumstances of his birth. Different researchers have different opinions for the duration of the formation of the 4th matrix. If the child is for some reason separated from its mother after birth, in adulthood the freedom and independence it can be regarded as a burden and dream of returning to the matrix of innocence.It is believed that full breastfeeding up to a year, good care and love can compensate for the negative perinatal matrices
(for example, if you had a caesarean section, if the child was taken immediately after birth to a children's hospital and was separated from its mother, etc.).
S. groff, engaged in perinatal matrices, conducted experiments using LSD on 5 thousand people. He compared the different types of hallucinations these people with the circumstances of their birth. Additionally, groff has tried to communicate basic perinatal matrices with those psychosomatic diseases (peptic ulcer, hypertension, colitis, atopic dermatitis, etc.), which the subjects were ill in adulthood. Now for the adults there are methods of transmission and correction of the matrix using the techniques of holotropic breathing, i.e. breathing with the creation of controlled hypoxia. It is quite a complex event is held only by professional psychologists.The transmission path information.
If we recognize the presence of the fetus and newborn the possibility to record information about the perinatal period for a lifetime, then immediately the question arises about the transmission of this information from the pregnant woman to the fetus and back. According to modern views, there are 3 main ways:
— via utero-placental blood flow. Transmitted through the placenta hormones, the level of which is controlled partly by emotions. Such, for example, stress hormones, endorphins, etc.
— electromagnetic radiation of organs, tissues, individual cells, etc. in narrow ranges. For example, there is a hypothesis that the egg, located in favorable conditions, can not make any sperm, and the only one that matches it on the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation. The zygote (fertilized egg) also shall inform the parent body about his appearance on the wave level, and not on hormonal. The same patient on the mother emits a "wrong" wave of the fetus and the relevant body of the future child can be formed, too pathological.
— through the water medium of the organism. Water can be a conductor of energy-and the mother of the fetus may pass certain information just through the liquid environment of the body.
The electromagnetic field of a pregnant woman works in the millimeter range changes in accordance with changes in the environment and plays the role of one of the mechanisms of adaptation. The child, in turn, also communicates with the mother's information in the same range.Interestingly, the issue of surrogate motherhood may be considered a very different side. A surrogate mother carrying another (genetically) child for 9 months, information will inevitably affect him and it is partially her child. Cherished child is affected by their biologically step-mother.
The problem of "unwanted children ", i.e. children, the undesirable of one of the parents or both, children of an unwanted gender, children with a further violation of social adaptation is the bread of a large army of specialists in civilized countries.
"Naselennosti" — a very vague concept. Someone from the family prevents the emergence of this child when, for whatever reason — it's always different. As children in the perinatal period learn about their naselennosti? Maybe then naselennosti spaivayut all human problems, which are more nothing to write off.
Dealing with these problems enthusiasts and all of this is hypothesis, although very beautiful and I want to believe in something true.
Practical insightsIf the child can be influenced by the mother, it is possible to educate him in utero? Perinatal psychology claims that it is not only possible, but necessary.
For this there are programs prenatal
(antenatal) education.Important is a sufficient number of positive emotions experienced by the mother.
Classically, pregnant women were asked to look at the beautiful, nature, sea, not to get upset over nothing. Very well, if the mother draws, not even knowing how to do it and the picture conveys its expectations, anxiety and dreams. A huge positive effect has the needlework. Positive emotions include "muscular joy", experienced by the child in the classroom mother education and sports, long walks.
For the perception of all of this, the fetus uses the senses that developed in utero to varying degrees.TouchEarly in the fetus appears touch. In about 7-12 weeks the fetus can feel the tactile stimuli.
The newborn is also experiencing "tactile hunger" and there is the concept of "tactile saturation", which should be done by 7 months, if the child had worn on the hands, massaging and generally touch. In the Netherlands there is a system called "haptonomy". It is a system of tactile interaction between mother and fetus. You can talk to the child, speak to him gentle words, to ask him his name, Pat on the stomach and its aftershocks to determine the answer. This forms the first game. A child can play and father.HearingAuditory and vestibular apparatus of the fetus are formed to 22 weeks of pregnancy.
Newborns can hear well enough. In the early days they can interfere with fluid in the middle ear cavity is the amniotic fluid who do not have time to flow or be absorbed. Some children hear well. Prenatal children hear it, too, but it prevents the noise maternal intestine, blood vessels of the uterus, heartbeat.
Therefore, external sounds reach them bad. But the mother they hear a good thing, since acoustic vibrations reach them through the mother's body. Newborns recognize songs that they sang mother's heartbeat and her voice.
Music and pregnancy deals with many experts worldwide. There is evidence that children whose mothers sang during pregnancy, have better character, are easier trained, more capable for foreign languages, assiduously.
Prematurity, whose cuvees plays good music, better gain weight. In addition, the singing of the mother giving birth easier, because they have normal breathing, they learn to regulate the breath.In order for the child to hear the father must make a large cardboard mouthpiece, put it on your belly and talking or singing to him.You can put headphones on my belly or shove them over the bandage, and include relaxing music.
But for a long time to turn off your child's music, because it still is a kind of aggression. About what kind of music is necessary and when there are numerous versions and even in the Conservatory Professor jusfin is doing. Some believe that the baby needs Mozart and Vivaldi, some folk long songs and lullabies, some — what popular light music.VisionThe reaction of pupils to light is observed from 24 weeks of pregnancy.
Does the red part of the spectrum in the uterus as some think, not very clear.A newborn sees quite well, but not able to focus his vision, so he sees everything blurry.
It is not clear what objects it sees better at a distance of 25-30 cm (i.e., the face of the mother when the child is at the breast) or 50-70 cm (toy carousel). Most likely, this distance individually. But the toy should be hanged at the first opportunity.
Toys according to some observations, needs to be black and white, or shiny, or yellow. The idea is that the child sees everything upside down is not confirmed.There is the concept of "bonding" ("accession", "zapechatlevshie") is a very important event for the restoration of the first emotional contact of the newborn with the mother after birth.
Usually a few minutes after birth, the child begins to look mother in the eye very deliberately and looking at her face. Often this happens before he took the breast, sometimes an hour or two after birth. Is he really looking at her features or not — hard to say, but it's all very impressive.Taste. The sense of smellPrenatal child perceives the taste, because 18 weeks is drinking amniotic fluid and their taste changes somewhat, depending on the food of the mother.
With the abundance of sweet food sweet water. The sense of smell appears quite late and some full-term newborns do not hear the smell of mother's milk few days after birth. Children under the age of 10 days already distinguish their mother by smell.published
The proposed text reflects its own views of the author and in no way does not pretend to completeness, objectivity and depth of comprehension of the problem. In front of a large number of claims, you need to put the word "allegedly." The reader can put this word at will and depending on their beliefs.
- 1. Kovalenko N. P. Perinatal psychology. SPb, 2000
- 2. S. Groff. Outside of the brain.
- 3. Mind and childbirth. Ed Aylamazyan
- 4. Materials 5 Conferences on Perinatal psychology in obstetrics. SPb 1997-2001
- 5. Conference materials on Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Ivanovo, 2001.
- 6. Perinatal psychology and obstetrics, Volgograd, 2001
Author: Lydia Shenderova