The construction of the walls of the bags with the earth (Earthbag building) is a relatively quick and low cost method of construction, recently becoming more known, especially in circles of "alternative" builders and creators of ecovillages.
The use of soil material that is literally everywhere lies under the feet, and the maximum simplicity of the process make this method accessible to many novice builders.
While on the subject of houses built from earth, we can not talk about the architect Nader Khalili, who invented the original method of construction of this eternal material.
In the eighties of the last century in America was the fashion for cob houses. Enthusiasts earthen construction went to England, where built 500 years ago, cob houses have been preserved and, despite his advanced age, still used.
Example of the English was so inspired by the Americans, that they began not only to build but also to develop new methods of Adobe construction. The product of this increased interest was the Cal-Earth Institute in southern California, engaged in the development and training system construction from the ground. Its founder and leader was an American architect of Iranian origin, Nader Khalili.The most prominent design Institute was technology Earthbags, or "Supersemar".
In fact Earthbags – bags filled with earth, which in a certain way, you can put home. Instead of sacks are sometimes used tubes of fabric. To build in this way is very easy and much faster than traditional Adobe. The only thing that can confuse the Builder, straight walls using this technology to build much more complex than curved or domed.
La buildings use raw land fills standard bags from rot proof fabric, such as propylene. If the ground is dry, moisturize. Then the bags are stacked in rows as they should go to the wall, stamped with their feet or any ramming tool. On the first row is laid out the second, slightly more narrow. And so on until a dome-shaped building is ready.
If is used for the construction chute, filling the ground is not very tight, and then laid up in a spiral. Between layers put the usual barbed wire. It helps to bind the layers of bags or tubes, as well as the usual brick wall binds the cement.
In addition to speed of construction, these houses are interesting because, in contrast to the simple mud structures, they can be put in areas flooded by flood waters. Because the bags of soil traditionally used for flood control and the installation of dams.
The dome house is very durable. Their form balances the external load in all directions. In addition, the load perceived by the dome creates a normal membrane stresses to the effects of bending on relatively small surface areas. In modern practice, the most frequently used dome mid surface which is described by the equation of a ball, ellipsoid of revolution or circular cone (conical dome easier to manufacture, but less efficient than spherical).
Of course, the house, built of bags of earth with their hands, will not always have perfect form, but the magic in that dome, even not perfect, is still quite reliable. Sam Khalili argues that the traditional square house with vertical walls almost doomed to one day fall, and from the arch (the base of the dome) also nothing can not happen. In addition, to strengthen the structure of soil mixture are sometimes added to the cement.
Another technology developed by an architect – houses of baked clay. Dome house is laid out of water, earth and clay, dried and fired approximately the same as the ceramic pot.
And house of the bags, and the ceramic houses are built surprisingly quickly. Three people can build a house from start to finish in a week, not having any practical skills in construction.
In 2001 two employees of the UN, Omar Bechet and Lorenzo Jimenez de Luis, visited the Institute in California and spent on himself the experiment of living in earthen homes speed of construction. They spent the night in the buildings and the verdict: the buildings of the city quite livable. But given the ease of their construction and reliability, recommended the construction for solving housing problems of refugees in the middle East. By the way, in addition to this, it is earthly, of the use of construction architect are waiting to go to the moon. NASA has long accepted them as a possible option for the construction of lunar colonies.A brief step-by-step description of how we created our first pilot house dome of the bags to the ground.
We called it "Riceland", that was the name of the company printed on polypropylene bags, which we used :). Inner diameter turned out to 4.3 meters. Such a dome can serve as a model for garden gazebos, studios, house, as well as become a prototype for emergency shelters for people affected by the emergency.
This design is quite stable in earthquake conditions, can withstand floods and hurricanes, and can be used to help people who lost their homes due to
natural disasters, such as Pakistan, Turkey, India, Indonesia, etc.Align The Plot
First of all you must choose the right location for the dome, according to Feng Shui and the stars, but also well-drained, where for years does not leak and is not going water. Then
it is worth noting on the earth is the Central point of a circle-the base of the dome and stick to an upright pole or rod. Tied a rope to it in length to the radius of the base of the dome (taking into account the thickness of the walls, in this case, we took a little less than 3 meters), mark the perimeter within which the precinct will need to align. Then, using hands, eyes, a shovel and a water level, bring the chosen area to a more or less flat condition. Don't forget about the value of organic soil layer: gently spoon the humus with roots and herbs in shading place or use for compost in the garden.
Doors and Windows in such houses do, leaving when stacking bags openings in the form of arches. After drying, the building is plastered or daubed on the outside with cement mortar.
If the land in this area has a composition which after drying will not crack or crumble, for the construction, you can use any, even the most old sacks. After tamping they will be unnecessary. For the device of Foundation is also used bags, but they are not stuffed with earth, and gravel or earth mixed with stones.Dig a Ditch around the Perimeter
In areas where heavy soils may unnecessarily trap moisture, it is important to lay drainage base for the dome in the form of a ditch with crushed stone. This will prevent wet bags, as well as helping to solve winter problems with the freezing of the soil. Winding circles around the same Central pole, mark the inner and outer wall diameter (the thickness of the walls depends on the width of the bags, which will be putting). Don't forget to mention where is located the entrance, leaving enough space for door opening. Please note — the base of the entrance and goes inside to be able to vertically insert the door, despite the slope of the main wall. After
all groomed again came to hold the shovel.Fill The Ditch With Stones
Collect or bring from somewhere the stones to fill the drainage trench. It may be pebbles, gravel, small boulders or "ubranie" (splitted construction waste concrete, brick, cinder block, etc). The photo shows that the walls of the ditch are closed in chicken wire — in this case, it protects the light sandy soil from crumbling and clogging in the voids between the stones of the trench, which could worsen its drainage properties. If you were digging a ditch in dense clay soil, this processing item can be optional.How much to Pour into the Ditch?
It depends on what level you want to lay the first row (or rows) of bags. We laid starting from the ground level, filling the trench completely. If not excluded are floods and earthquakes, will be more reliable to limit the first row of bags in the ground, so even if the soil around the structure will be blurred or destroyed, the dome will have to withstand.What To Take Bags?
We used the standard 50-pound polypropylene bags for rice (in our latitudes, likely analogues of 50-pound bags of flour/sugar, "woven" from the same polypropylene; can be taken and used — approx.interpreter), they are sold wholesale for a thousand pieces. Polypropylene bags are preferred especially if you are going to fill them with something relatively loose. In the case that will be used Adobe (a mixture of wet clay) or filler will be stabilized (e.g. cement), will fit and a more natural fabric options like a sack, because after the installation of the wall strength of the bag will not be so important. Size 50-pound bag is very convenient, the thickness of the finished plaster wall turns 38 inches (usually more, though also possible to search for different sizes or not completely fill — ed.). If you are available different types of bags, the large good will go to the base, and with less better to work to the top of the dome. It is also possible (and sometimes it can be very convenient) to use polypropylene sleeves, which are produced by all coils, but we prefer bags for the following reasons:
1) the bags are cheaper
2) you can work alone
3) each bag separately is easy enough (in our case, 16 kg)
4) the bag with the seam at the bottom is where they could put up a sleeve, especially with something loose, loves to roll to the side.Stacking bags
Carefully lay the first row of bags in a line over the cobbles drainage ditches. Carefully put each bag to the wrapped top edge of the cozy lying in front of the previous bottom of the bag — so everything will be securely packaged. Also, before putting each bag, can be stretched under him on polutorametrovuyu piece of polypropylene twine — then tighten it another two or three subsequent levels of masonry.Compaction bags
After a row of bags is laid, it must be thoroughly rammed, so as stacking wall of the dome had sagged as low as possible. We used all sorts of ways, from trampling boots before applying a home-made rammers. The picture is our favorite rammer, heavy enough, and besides, its base roughly corresponds to the width of the bag.Laying barbed wire
Before you start laying the next level, you need to lay two rows of 4 spikes barbed wire on top of the already buried bags. Indent inside of 10 cm from each outer edge of the wall. Temporarily pull the wire with rocks or bricks, let it lie until then, until you meet a new number of bags. Barbed wire has two functions: 1) helps hold together the bags, 2) prevents the possible spread of the walls due to the pressure of gravity from above.Add subsequent rows
The first few rows should be laid vertical wall, one over one. Let the bags go "overlap", the order as in masonry. It is possible to see that the first rows on top tied with polypropylene twine for stability; it will also provide some reinforcement during the subsequent plaster/stucco.Calculation of the dome shape
A simple way to give the dome a stable form to use as a pointer the pole length is about equal to the inner diameter of the base (4.3 meters in this case). Put the pole inside the perimeter of the house and then start to lift one edge, making sure that "projection" of the pole on the floor all the while passing through the center of the base and the other end was fixed on the ground. The free edge of a pole describe an arc in the shape of a dome. This rule works up to the height of the attic floor (about 2.5 m) and the upper part of the dome to perform better in the form of a cone, an equilateral triangle in the cut. Can be installed on the ceiling of the attic plain wooden shape-a triangle to facilitate stacking of bags. So you will be sure that the bags of the upper series lying smoothly in place and not going anywhere.
Notes for those who want to do everything quickly.
-First of all bring to the site "clean" (no rocks, roots and large pieces of clay) sandy-clay soil, arranging it in piles around the construction site.
-To reduce labor costs, fill the bags near their place of masonry in the wall.
-Throw the bags in place in one fell swoop.
-Gravel can rake in bags directly from the truck. Also think about how it is more rational to fill the drainage trench.
-Work teams — for example, two teams on a small house and arrange a friendly competition for the title of best Stakhanovite ;)
-Bag size is still important. Bag, slightly larger than necessary, can be overwhelming. Not straining. Experiment.
-Hone your skills in stuffing "non-standard" bags — they kill a lot of time. Can be applied partially filled bag in the right place and to estimate by eye how much more to pour. Take more soil than you think — compacted.
-Do not aspire to absolute perfection. Choose the middle path, avoiding the extremes in the form of manic-high masonry or, on the contrary, full of sloppiness. Give case the attention it deserves, and no one will notice the small flaws in your work, especially after the plaster coating the walls. If necessary, defects in the wall just enough to align and trim the rammer to help you.
-Also, do not be too diligent to tamp the bags, enough they became hard. 30 seconds for a bag that's quite enough, max — min, if you are tired or just not in a hurry.
— The use of "cupping method" (i.e., filling of bags gradually, a jar or bucket), although significantly slows down the process but allows you not straining, especially when working on the attic. published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! © Join us at Facebook , Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki