The General Director of open company "ekodom", the head of VTK Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS "energy-Efficient technologies in housing construction" Igor Ogorodnikov.Energy efficient building: focus on comfort
— Igor Aleksandrovich, what is eco housing? And is there a difference between eco and building "new generation"?
— The concept of "eco" is the house, organized on the principle of ecosystem that uses renewable energy, and develops the biological effectiveness of the adjacent land. Recently, we use a more intuitive definition — house of "new generation". For us, the developers, are one and the same.
In ecodome must always adhere to the following principles. The house consumes no more energy than is produced by renewable and alternative sources. Biological processing of waste products and energoactivity it needs to ensure a positive environmental footprint. What comes out should be effectively used on the plot, increasing its biological effectiveness.
Implementations of these principles are many. In Russia, their terms, their way home, so we developed green buildings for Russia and former USSR countries. In the construction of eco-houses are being used today as new technology and traditional. It is important that whatever the building technology is not used, the final features of the home must be suitable to the requirements of eco.
— What building materials are used in construction of such houses?
— You can build from a brick, but it is expensive. The thermal efficiency of a brick low, so to ensure heat loss, corresponding to the economic benefits of using alternative energy, we need to make very thick walls. Ecohouse, in addition, it is also an economic concept. It is determined by the purchasing power of people. If we make a house that is easy to use, but is expensive, requires costly maintenance, for most people it will be the object beyond their purchasing power. Therefore, in the eco-house concept is part of a Suite of technologies which provides the penetration of this object to paying niche for the average family. The lower the price the higher the possibility of mass implementation of this project. We are not talking about a piece object, we are talking about the running mechanism of mass production and construction of eco-homes. Base are technology miniproject materials directly on the construction site. These technologies are characterized by low capital costs when creating and require little power during operation.
Among our recommended production technologies of building materials — manufacture of foamed stone, which is developed at the Institute of solid state chemistry SB RAS. This so-called Leca low temperature baking. Common expanded clay – granulated foamed clay and baked like a brick at a temperature from 800 to 1000 degrees. If ordinary clay as a binder to add liquid glass, then the temperature of production of the same expanded clay occurs at a temperature of 300 degrees. To get the temperature of 1000 degrees need three times more energy than to maintain the temperature at 300 degrees. And energy is money. Consequently, the production of such expanded clay three times cheaper. The equipment for manufacture of expanded clay low temperature baking is in the range of 20 million rubles in the amount of up to 40 cubic meters per shift. This is a new technology and yet just getting ready to enter the market.
All methods of production of green buildings, including life-support systems, building materials, construction technologies were selected so that they were inexpensive, spend a minimum of energy and with the required quality.
In the construction of green buildings using natural materials. The tree is considered as a structural and finishing material as it is very expensive, if to speak of a homogeneous walls. Heterogeneous walls prefer not to consider (although the technical solutions to them also exist), as an inhomogeneous wall at the place of clamping different materials due to the change of their physical properties often have problems with flagoobraznye. And in terms of operation, these walls will stand for less. PU insulation – foam, mineral wool dissolved in 25-30 years. You need to have people accumulated capitalization the following generations did not have to build a house, and they did something else useful. Need the house stood at least 75-100 years, then people will start to prosper. So each generation had to build a house again.
Very good material for construction of eco is the straw. Straw when used correctly, provides 100 years of operation, and the house get very warm. Straw is not worse than wood, if you use the right construction technology. And for finishing work also applies a natural material — clay and straw.Installment myself
— What alternative technologies are used for the sustenance of eco?
— At the moment, alternative energy is still expensive. Middle income people can move into a nice house, but just to provide it with alternative energy, it can be difficult. Alternative energy is almost a third of the cost at home, if not more. But you can make the installment yourself. If you do a complete house project for the information design technology (BIM-tech), you will provide a full set of equipment immediately will know the full composition of your house as it will be used. The project can be implemented without error, because it all balanced and designed.
In the standard design building estimates on average 25-40 % higher than estimated. It is a statistic. And BIM-technology allows to reduce the difference between the two estimates to 3%. This means that you don't spend extra money during construction. The project provided which to put panels where what are engineering systems. You can enter the house, there are "seats" for all these options.
Engineering equipment projects of our homes completely, and the family can gradually be retrofitted. The minimum price with minimal "gentleman's set" of equipment at the level of two and a half million at cost, and with complete 3.5-4 million.
— Who makes today such equipment?
— The term "ecohouse" I invented in 1987. At that period nothing but ideas were not. Then in the early 90-ies of conferences we discussed mostly imported technology, though, and they have almost nothing. In the early 2000-ies have discussed the equipment is European, and our developers are only offered laboratory samples. At the conference, which was held recently in Akademgorodok, discussed only domestic technology and equipment. As an example, we had only one report of the company "Viessman", which produces heating equipment. They have excellent equipment, but the prices are high and price niche of eco are not, if you focus on the average developer.
But it's also not the fact that we in the future will not be able to use their equipment. Due to the massive use minitechnology can reduce the cost per square meter in the construction of green buildings that the customer can afford high quality equipment. BIM engineering allows to provide the customer with several scenarios that it can perform, in terms of their financial capabilities, and then choose the best option.
Important I believe that in our laboratory problems of energy saving, we develop an energy model of the house and are working on the optimization of energy equipment. It is necessary to consider a strategy for saving when building a house, based on current financial capacity. Usually people are trying to save only in the phase of capital costs, and they account for 20% of capital costs plus operating costs.
I now understand that if a person has a normal your home and if it is on its basis will make the BIM project with all applications, then the construction will have a savings of at least 20%. During the transition to BIM by the British during the construction of the Olympic complex made savings of 30%.The house of the sixth technological structure
— How widely used the technology of building of eco-houses in Russia?
— Very low activity on the verge of visibility for major developers. But since I track trends, the increasing rate is very high. I built the schedule of investment by individual developers in the construction of houses, since 1993, when it was decided to allocate land for individual housing construction. The government has launched many licensing arrangements for low-rise construction. The result started the rapid growth of the construction of low-rise housing.
Until 2000, the growth was approximately 10-15 % per year. Then, this figure stabilized at the level of 2-3%. Now annually 45 % of the total housing. The cost of the market of low-rise construction in Russia, about 450 billion a year. The proportion of homes "new generation" in the amount of completely invisible. I think it's a couple, three hundred homes in Russia with elements of eco.
— What, in your opinion, is it connected?
And I could not understand why is not possible to widely develop the project. It seems everyone likes the idea of eco. But now I found the answer. In 2006, I came across the work of Russian economist Sergei Glazyev on technological structures. It is quite actively developed the ideas presented in the works of the economist Nikolai Kondratieff, who lived in the early 20th century, technological structures. His idea is that periodically you receive any technical solution, which drastically affects the development of economic relations in the country. For example, the first technological way happened in England, when he figured out how to mechanize textile production. As a result, spinning was a machine-a thing greatly dropped the price of the fabric. When invented the steam engine, formed the second technological way. Began to actively carry loads over long distances. The third way is associated with the invention of electricity. Fourth is mass production, chemical production, new materials, energy, including nuclear energy. The fifth information revolution. Sixth – and nanotechnology of wide application, the General use of eco-technologies and more.
When I laid out the criteria describing the structures, eco home, it has properties were in sixth technological order. A Russian living in the fourth technological way. If the country has a mobile phone that she's not up, it doesn't get into this technological way. She's just a user. The country should reproduce the technology and on its basis to build a new economy. Ecohouse was in the sixth way, we in the fourth. Management, Economics, thinking only of the state apparatus and most people in General are determined, we have 4-th technological structure. Therefore, as a complex object ecohouse perceived by very small number of people. It's like a fourth grader, who offered to solve problems of tenth grade. Of course, geeks are but a few of them.
— Are there examples of eco-houses in SFO?
— Eco-homes complete no. But there are several houses with elements of eco. Two private houses in the village Lozhok baryshevsky Muo of the Novosibirsk region. They used foam stone, underground heat storage, solar heating and hot water. Another in Novosibirsk. This house was built with the use of solar architecture. It uses a heat pump, composting toilets, solar panels and water heaters.
— How much today is building green buildings? How much income should be the man that he was able to afford it?
— Construction of eco is more expensive by 10 percent compared to a conventional house, if you build with conventional methods without the use of information technology. House with an area of 120-130 sq. m., can cost anywhere from 2.5 to 4 million. the First number is the minimum package. The second full. The construction may take 2-3 months, if you have the required amount. According to statistics the average family accumulates the same amount for 10 years. If unauthorized build a house within 3 years and live in it. Takes a couple of years of rework and retrofitting. I know cases when a very modest income people built themselves an eco-house. This approach – the installment yourself, and many use it. Not only for us. In prosperous Europe, for example, in Denmark, Germany, I met people that have solved their housing issues.
— Is it possible, in your opinion, today, to bring the construction of eco-homes to a new level?
— We have a plan of action. The biggest problem today is the lack of personnel and awareness of entrepreneurs of small construction business (up to a dozen homes per season) on the cost of capital expenditures for new equipment for the efficient construction of an individual house. In addition, you must use the state to create demand for these homes. Without government intervention this process is developing, but very slowly. The state has all the levers to intensify. Today it is important that the part of the population that invests in the construction of half a trillion rubles, information about new technologies was accessible and understandable. For them, it should be clear that for the same money, they can have the best housing.
— How can this be achieved?
One of the possible ways. It is necessary to perform project documentation for the model eco-house in BIM design description construction schedule, with description of building materials, furnishing equipment, providing a range of providers to choose from, and to put within each district municipal administration, which is allocated for construction land. It is necessary to impute the responsibility of government agencies to inform the public about the possibilities of such construction, then the process will develop faster. But this is not enough, because most people need a valid example that he will be able to try on. Exhibitions, demonstration home bad work: it is perceived by the majority as a picture from a magazine. Quite another matter – to a neighbor's house or a community at the University. The demonstration only works on live objects.
In my opinion, we need to build active eco medium size (130-150 sq. m.). They can all be touched, to twist, to see, to change. It is best if they are represented as eco — textbooks at universities. These homes can be trained specialists: engineers, designers, architects, to undertake retraining. Solved two problems at once – training and current demonstration site.
It is a cheap solution. Funding for the development of bases in all the universities already have. This program can be implemented with administrative support and a stimulating policy of the state. You need a lot of such houses in different cities architecture, but with a unified concept. State investment in the creation of a system of demonstration houses textbooks at universities make up only a hundredth of a percent of the expenditure part of the budget.
Demonstration eco house tutorial is equipped by all necessary, including training and monitoring system that will allow you to monitor the parameters of eco in the process of operation, about 20 million roubles it is Important to emphasize that the house itself is basic configuration, which will be offered to the developer, will cost up to 4 million.
Is it possible to talk about specific solutions to promote green buildings?
— At the end of the conference the participants made a decision: to join the expert community. Our goal is to start mass construction of eco-homes. Areas of work several: different systems and technologies into a single complex, developing a plan of action to start the process, preparation and retraining of personnel, and a number of other areas. We did not invent these sent their suggested life itself, they are revealed as trends and the most important tasks of the practice.
Most of all I liked the fact that the conference self-organized working group, which handles the outcome of the conference, developing a framework for further action. Now it included the specialists from Ulan-Ude, Irkutsk and Novosibirsk.
Let me remind you that the conference was attended by 204 professionals from 4 countries of the former USSR, 15 cities and 74 organizations, of which about 10 research organizations and universities, Blee 60 different companies, representatives of administrations. Results with real proposals voiced during the conference, we will give to the state Duma in two weeks. The conference was supported by the Russian Foundation for basic research (project No. 15-08-20027). Following the conference, preparing an analytical report, in which it is necessary to evaluate its results. This job will take a week and a half. In the Duma of the Russian Federation will send the package simultaneously with the sending of the report from the Russian Foundation for basic research. I must say that formalized the Advisory Council has actually work for several years and occasionally makes analytical work. For example, on the order of MA "Siberian agreement", three years ago was released two album at the engineering of individual energy-efficient buildings, in which it is shown that, the SFD is developed and entered the market of domestic technology for building houses of a new generation. published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©