History of foundations by type "Insulated Swedish plate" (USHP) in Russia has not yet ten years old. For the first time about this technology to our compatriots at one of the famous construction forums said user from Estonia in 2008. Since then, the debate about its pros and cons, do not stop, meanwhile in the vastness of Russia built tens of thousands of homes on this basis. The trend was picked up by domestic producers. Corporation TekhnoNikol (one of the largest international manufacturers of reliable and efficient construction materials) produces specialized brand extruded polystyrene and components for the Foundation of ushp. About the prospects of this technology in Russia, its pros and cons says the head of the Engineering center of TECHNONICOL Dmitry Mikhailidi.
What is the peculiarity of the Foundation "Insulated Swedish plate"?
"Insulated Swedish plate" is not just a Foundation, and "zero" cycle of the house. It includes built-in communications: water, Sewerage, drainage system, water heating system, and is ready rough floor. That is directly into it you can lay parquet or linoleum.
The name "Insulated Swedish plate" schwedenplatte, you might say, folk. His low-depth slab Foundation, insulated with polystyrene foam, assigned to users of one of the building forums, on which appeared the first mention of technology. In fact, the prototype of the "Swedish" plate became an American Foundation FROST-PROTECTED SHALLOW FOUNDATION (FPSF). It was developed during the great Depression in Chicago. But wide recognition to the technology came with a light filing of the Nordic countries. In the middle of the last century they are seriously interested in it. Creatively modified within the concept of the passive house resource-saving technology has been widely in demand. In the beginning of XXI century the number of houses in the USHP (in different countries is different) in the Nordic countries exceeded one million. Integrated technology that combines the Foundation, the communications system and the subfloor, in its present form we do have a responsibility Sweden.
A new wave of interest in technology USHP in the world associated with the development of ideas of energy-efficient construction?
This is largely true. It is not surprising that in Europe the technology has become so widely used, because there energy efficiency is considered as a component of economic security. It is expected that after 4 years importing most of the energy resources the EU will move to the standards of passive house. Russia also holds course on resource. According to the Decree of the President, the economy energy intensity between 2008 and 2020 should be reduced by 40%. For the owner of a private home energy efficiency is, first of all, the reduction of utility bills and increased comfort of life.
Integrated thermal insulation – one of the basic conditions for achieving resource saving. For now, most houses significant amounts of thermal energy are being wasted on "heating the street" through the building envelope. Thinking about efficiency of energy use, people often insulated walls and roof, underestimating the role of the Foundation. Meanwhile, it accounts for approximately 15-20% of all loss of home heat energy (and in the case that the roof and walls are well insulated – all 50%).
"Insulated Swedish plate" – one of the best options for the Foundation of an energy efficient house. Concrete base in a closed loop of insulating material virtually eliminates heat losses to the ground. In addition, USHP has a high heat storage properties. That is, the concrete accumulates the incoming heat, and the temperature decreases again releases it into the room. This property is particularly important for timber frame, wooden houses of SIP-panels, it allows you to keep them stable and comfortable.
It is this type of the Foundation of our Corporation are selected for a project HOUSE TEKHNONIKOL. Is a balanced technology of construction of private houses of individual planning on a wooden frame "turnkey". Houses built according to unique standards developed with the participation of the passive house Institute in all the regions correspond to the highest energy efficiency classes a+ or A++ (depending on type of ventilation). Is recommended price per square meter of such house "turnkey" today — 25 thousand rubles.
Home TEKHNONIKOL you can build virtually any suitable for this purpose in the Russian Federation. Energy efficiency gives the future owner will also have more freedom in site selection. So, the reduction of thermal energy needs makes quite affordable heating electricity and non-gasified plot sometimes can cost half the price. According to our calculations, electric heating two-storey House TEKHNONIKOL 90 square meters will cost 2,500 rubles per month (gas heating – 500 rubles per month).
If we talk about the freedom of choice of site, the benefits of the technologies USHP even more obvious. Because it can be applied in almost any soils, including those with a high probability of frost heaving or low bearing capacity. It is desirable that the depth of the pit was not above the freezing depth of soil. Sand cushion in place excavated material efficiently resists loads, while the insulation eliminates the risk of deformation caused by the processes of frost heave. Pressure flat concrete slab is distributed evenly, which ensures the stability of the Foundation to loads, including variables.
Disadvantages of the Foundation "Insulated Swedish plate"
Despite all these advantages, it is no secret that there are many in our country treat this technology with skepticism. Among its shortcomings, in particular, are the high cost, the possibility of shrinkage of the insulating material under the action of loads, the risk of damage to the Styrofoam rodents. Also concerned about the durability.
Indeed, to such questions as the Foundation cannot be taken lightly. Because of its reliability largely depends on the durability of the house. Like other types of foundations, USHP has its strengths and weaknesses and are suitable for only certain construction tasks. For example, hardly you will be able to build a multistory building on the USHP. But for a frame or a wooden energy efficient cottage is the optimal solution.
All these shortcomings can theoretically manifest itself, if you approach the choice of building materials and components without Scandinavian thoroughness or to prevent errors during installation. It is the emergence of modern durable engineering solutions and construction materials enable the Foundation to preserve performance characteristics throughout the life of the house. Technology devices such a Foundation is quite simple, but it is better to entrust the work to professionals.
Any polystyrene suitable for USHP?
Theoretically, Yes: this kind of insulation is distinguished by high strength, near zero water absorption, low thermal conductivity. But the choice of conventional polystyrene foam is really fraught with problems. It can shrink, this Foundation can settle rodents. Therefore it is better to choose specialized products.
Noticing the interest in technology of ushp, experts of the Scientific center of our Corporation set out to develop a material that would prevent these drawbacks. The result of their work became extruded polystyrene TECHNONICOL CARBON ECO SP is the only Russian specialized insulation for USHP. It is produced with the addition of nanoland, which gives it a distinctive silvery hue. This technology allows to reduce the thermal conductivity of the material and increase its strength. So, due to low thermal conductivity to achieve the desired result it is enough just 20 centimeters of material. An important advantage of the specialized brands of polymer isolation with its high resistance as to 10% (as is commonly seen in building) and 2% (the ability to determine the least shrinkage) linear deformation. The Foundation with the use of this material is guaranteed to withstand a load of 20 tons per square meter XPS TECHNONICOL CARBON ECO SP is chemically resistant and does not rot. It unattractive for rodents confirmed by tests of Disinfectology and deratization. In addition, like other products of the line ECO, this product has passed voluntary certification "Leaf of life", confirming its safety, including in cottage construction.
As for the cost of ushp, the price of such a Foundation is indeed slightly higher than alternative options. But together with the works on laying communications and installation of sub-floor the amount is even lower. In addition, the benefits of ushp more tangible if we consider the costs considering the entire life cycle of the building. Because heat loss will be a monthly return to your wallet in the form of savings on utility bills. I want to reiterate that the "Insulated Swedish plate", like other types of foundations is not a universal technology. It is perfect for certain construction tasks. published