Scalpel (military apartment complex)

Dear friends, let me tell the story of the past majesty of the country. Maybe the theme and met, but let in my interpretation, it was too informative.

15 ph + comments

There was a time, unique trains go through our country. Externally they resembled the usual train. But differs from them in that never stopped at the stations, preferred polustanki deaf and lively urban stations, if it drifts to their fate (or an order!), Tried to slip at dawn, when there is less people.

A few years ago on the Russian rail network went sensitive compositions. Externally, they are almost indistinguishable from the usual eye passenger trains. Here are just controllers tried to schedule their movements so that lively and crowded stations of big cities they passed the night or at dawn. They were not seen by the townsfolk. Ghost train, or BZHRK - Battle railway missile systems, - carrying military watch in the Siberian taiga, in the North and the Far East with nuclear weapons. And along with nuclear-powered ships, aircraft and missile troops they support and maintain the strategic balance in the world.

Chief Designer BZHRK academics were brothers, Vladimir and Alexei Utkin. Senior - Vladimir Fedorovich - has died. Vladimir Fedorovich right hand in the creation of a missile train was his brother Alex.
How did the idea of ​​creating a missile trains? According to one version, the Americans have thrown it to us. Soviet intelligence agents extracted information: US defense industry is preparing for the establishment of a train capable of producing ballistic missiles. Allegedly, in the hands of the intelligence services, even got his picture.

As if the picture was captured skillfully small rocket train layout, which does not exist in nature. Like, overseas "hawks" first really going to make a nuclear train, but later abandoned the idea. Why is that? The railway network they are not so extensive, and the cost of the project receive fabulous. To send our scientists on the road that leads to a dead end, contrived and planted "linden" Russian. Let smash his head! A political leadership "pecked" at her and made a willful decision "catch up and overtake" overseas strategists.

It was real? After the Americans have placed missiles "Pershing" in Germany, it was necessary to adequately respond to new threats to the security of our state. So back to the idea of ​​missile trains. Domestic scientists thought on this project earlier, but until then not taken for its decision due to the high cost and complexity. Besides the existing defensive capabilities were enough to adequately respond to the Americans. By the way, it was initially considered as a weapon of retaliation. What is its advantage?

The elusiveness. In contrast to the silo-based missiles, which are known in advance the coordinates of targets. With BZHRK our opponents a lot of questions to which they have been unable to find the answers. In order to track them in the early nineties, Americans have even created a group of military satellites. But from space to detect traces of them it was not so easy. Therefore, even the most modern technology is often lost sight of them. They have been elusive due to well-developed rail network of the Soviet Union. Many years later, US General Powell admitted the academician: "Find your rocket train - is like a needle in a haystack».
The Americans have even invented a special train that was onaschen noeyshim oborudovaniem.Prosuschestvoval not long ...

On the creation of combat missile trains operate 30 ministries and over 130 defense companies. At first glance, a simple idea proposed by the designers - to lift the mine out of the ground and put it on wheels - included a great number of organizational and technical problems.
What was one of the main problems? Take fire. When her lead from the missile silo, the known and the azimuth and elevation, and the starting point. Determining your location - it is one of the most difficult problems. In addition, it is sure to need to know the load on the rails at a particular location. A soils are known to be different. The same conditions in nature do not exist. So that cars do not fall near the railway, we invented a special "launch mortar." Without going into details, the essence of it is that the first rocket is ejected to a height, and then to start.
How to aim? Before you do this, you need to stop the train, run the gyros to determine the north and south, and where to shoot. Do not forget that you need to take more orders and instructions "from above". To let
rocket at exactly the appointed time, and obey his commander in any, even the most adverse circumstances of modern warfare, the conditions of use of precision weapons, we must get this command. So Rocket Train - a complex set. And when the Americans have studied the idea, it met with a number of technical difficulties, and therefore, most likely, and high-tech project abandoned.

If located directly overhead high-voltage wires. - It was invented by a special discharge wires, plus the power supply automatically takes on podstantsii.Chto As for the axle load, then it should not be more than 25 tons. A missile with a launch canister weighs more than 100 tons yes plus car itself, that would be about 200 tons. Invented unload the launch pad at the expense of other cars.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that the movement of the train is exposed to strong vibrations. So, we must not only stop the train, but also the "switch off" the spring - not to wait just until they calm down!
Do not forget that the train - officers and soldiers. They need bedrooms, toilets, dining room, recreation room ... and supplies of food, fuel, water is also necessary! So a set of complex ...
 - At first glance, it might seem that our country is great and it is full of "backwoods", where the missiles could safely hide.
Our potential adversaries missiles became more precise, and they are relatively easy could "cover" of the mine. Therefore, it was necessary to take measures to ensure the reliability of pre-emptive strike. Of course, "Pershing" rockets were good. Although some experts exaggerate their capabilities. It was even said that they can get the exact number hammered into the ground a thousand kilometers away.

The response was a rocket, "Scalpel." He is "fit" into the framework of the agreement with the Americans. He was made in two versions: the mine and based on the railway. It is hard to imagine how much it was necessary to release the "Pershing" to destroy the rocket train.
This fight is not alone, as in mine embodiment, the correlation of forces is quite different ... And because this military complex, of course, unique. Still, the main idea of ​​combat missile systems - is to increase the possibility of containment, that nobody even thought that impunity can click! History shows that we were not the initiators of the arms race. We always had to catch up and make it so that no one had any illusions that there was an advantage. The effect of deterrence continuously determines the state of affairs in our defense industry, and as long as we can stay at the proper level, no nuclear war will not happen.

We immediately prepared four sets. If one machine problems, a commission, which clarifies the causes of the accident. The task of the general designer is to convince the customer to prove that all the necessary tests are performed. We need to move the "wagon" with the place, and then he himself would go ... And at this time in the first launch from Plesetsk rocket train, and of course, you go there. In the second, the third start-up can go and Vice-testing, but usually he is sitting there almost constantly ...

The first train left the factory in 1987, and the last - twelve - in 1991. Warranty period - ten years. But usually he then renewed, everything depended on the ideas that are incorporated in the complex. They have stood the test of time.
In 1991, the rocket put the train on the joke. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev came to the position of Americans and concluded that the strengthening of mutual understanding between the two countries BZHRK better not to let the open spaces of Russia. Otherwise, American taxpayers would have to shell out a tidy sum for the deployment of additional groups Pentagon intelligence satellites. After all, every rocket train per day runs more than 1,000 kilometers, and to identify among the hundreds of trains plying all over Russia, only one BZHRK and then track the route of movement, would have to increase tenfold satellite constellation tracking. To carry out such a project, even in such a rich and technologically advanced country like the United States, it was not under force.
It is not known what arguments overseas friends managed to persuade Mikhail Gorbachev. We know something else: not so long ago, the granddaughter of former president of the Union of Xenia Virganskaya sported at the ball of the richest people in the world in Paris dress by Dior, which is worth 22 thousand dollars.

A formidable missile on rails on the technical area of ​​the exit can not. No money.
However, one rocket train leaves the security perimeter - was required to carry out repairs at the factory. All other crews BZHRK movement must be carried out within the boundaries of the territory. But as it turned out, "the maneuvers of local significance" in no way does not reduce the overall readiness of the crews BZHRK.

To prepare officers drivers rolling regularly conducted training on the routes BZHRK. It is important to visualize the landscape along the railway track, to know all the twists and branching of the road, almost every telegraph pole on the route. All of this eventually allows properly manage combat composition.
To solve this problem can be due to the location to missilemen by the management of railways of Russia, the state of their approach and understanding that this is done in the name of national defense. In principle, the soldiers could use to train its own training train simulates BZHRK, but affected by the lack of funds. Today, more important to spend money on maintenance of the locomotives of those who are in constant combat readiness.
Now BZHRK nowhere aims. In the language of this missile called "zero flight plan." The difficulty is that since 1991, part of the missile never fired their complexes. Tasks combat use
weapons lately they had to work only at the gym. However, in 1998 there was one exception. Crew made a start BZHRK staff "The Lancet", off the train, using the launcher at the Plesetsk test site.

Under the leadership of Vladimir Utkin and with his direct participation created the majority of rockets, on which the missile-defense shield the country.
From 1970 to 1990 he headed the V.F.Utkin CB "South" first as a chief, and then chief designer. During this time, he developed and put into service four strategic missile complex, created several rockets. Among them - a highly efficient, environmentally clean booster "Zenit"; solid-fuel missile SS-24; unparalleled highly strategic missile SS-18.
In the field of space research were implemented various defensive satellites and scientific purposes. In total, the orbit was derived more than three hundred family units "Space" the development of CB "South" is a significant part of the total number of satellites of this series.
The characteristic principle of the V.F.Utkina - the use of defense scientific and technical developments in the interests of science and the national economy. So, on the basis of the combat vehicle SS-9 was created conversion booster
"Cyclone", designed for launching into orbit medium payloads. The satellite "Cosmos-1500" was used in the derivation of convoys, icebound in the East Siberian Sea. "Kosmos-1500" was also the founder of the well-known series of satellites "Ocean", providing a significant increase in safety and efficiency of navigation.

Since 1990 V.F.Utkin - Director of the Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMASH), the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos). With the direct participation of Vladimir Fedorovich developed by Russian Federal Space Program. Under his leadership as the chief designer of the R & D carried out in order to create experimental devices for special purposes, provide the scientific and technical "support" of key issues related to the International Space Station (ISS). Vladimir Fedorovich led coordination of scientific and technical council of the Russian Aerospace Agency and RAS research and experiments on manned station "Mir" and the Russian segment of the ISS. V.F.Utkin - author of over 200 scientific publications and a large number of inventions Cavalier 11 orders and 14 medals.

The first production train went on combat duty in 1987. He was placed on a special platform. The Americans recorded from space
location of the military unit. This was done on purpose, so that they can take into account that train. The bilateral agreement the procedure was spelled out in detail. And then he lost his trail. Experienced train to Plesetsk. He had three combat unit, "living space", his command post.

Major BZHRK cars - those that are located a rocket of PC-22 (according to Western classification "scalpel") and command post of combat crew. "Scalpel" weighs more than a ton and "pulls" at a distance of 10 thousand kilometers. Rockets solid, three-stage, with ten polumegatonnymi nuclear warheads on each individual guidance. In Kostroma divisions several of these trains, and on each of these three launchers, twelve rockets, one hundred and twenty nuclear warheads. You can imagine the destructive power of these rather innocuous-looking trains! Also Kostroma, BZHRK deployed in two locations.

And travel through countries such trains, which can be seen only by accident, carrying military watch in the North and the Far East, the taiga and the mountains ... And behind them closely watched overseas, sending special satellites to detect them, and every hour, every minute trying determine where they are. But to do this, despite all the perfection of modern technology, was not always possible - Rocket Trains "hiding" under the usual and try to determine where is the missile system, and where - fast Novosibirsk-Moscow »...

I finished!!! Here's a story ...



See also

New and interesting