Let us remember the battle, in which the two strongest nations of the world abandoned plans to wage war against Russia in the Far East.
Dedicated to the upcoming 159th anniversary of the battle in the Far East.
It will be 10 images.
So, 1854, Russia is waging war against the sworn friends of England and France. We remember the war for the defense of Sevastopol. Rather, we remember two unsuccessful defense. The first and second 1941-1942g 1854-1855g. This is an amazing deal. Everyone knows about the two valiant but unsuccessful defense and few people remember about a heroic and successful defense. Let's try to talk a little bit to remember the deeds of the descendants of ancestors and not only those deeds which are always broadcast the official propagandists, agitators.
In tyrnete not a lot of information and it is almost always dry enumeration number of guns, dates, titles - all maloudobovarimoe, difficult to understand, moreover, the date of the old style, the new way. Therefore decided not to make a chronological description of the event, but rather to tell in their own words about a battle that went down in history as the Siege of Petropavlovsk.
In the summer of 1854, in August, the combined Anglo-French squadron entered Avacha Bay and stormed the city of Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky right now).
The squadron consisted of 6 ships with 216 guns:
- 3 English ships: frigate "President" (52 guns), the frigate "Pike" (44 guns) and the steamship "Virago" (10 guns)
- 3 of the French frigate "La Fort" (60 guns), the corvette "Eurydice" (32 guns) and the brig "Obligado" (18 guns)
- The personnel of the sailors in 2600, of which 600 professional marines.
The picture steamship "Virago»
Squadron commanded by Rear-fighting admirad David Price, a decorated, member of several wars, has made a career from cabin boy to rear admiral in the cabinet are not the quiet, and the din of battle.
Surprisingly, on the eve of the Battle of Petropavlovsk, he was found shot to death in his own cabin in the heart of your own gun. There are several versions of what happened one more beautiful than the other.
1.Neostorozhnoe weapons handling (professional soldier, ord),
2. Suicide of uncertainty in the victory (Battle-hardened admiral on the eve of the battle with the enemy three times weaker than him, ord)
3. Murder - "and here it try!» ©. Admiral, as opposed to the rest of the commanding officers, insisted on the immediate storming without artillery preparation, which could appeal to the brave Marines who do not want to commit a suicide attack Russian artillery batteries.
Englishmen consider it suicide, and thus justify their neuneudachu. Price is buried on the shore of the bay Tar'in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
From the Russian side in the battle was the frigate "Aurora" (42 guns) and military transport "Dvina". The personnel of the garrison of 920 people (41 officers, 476 soldiers, 349 sailors, 18 Russian and 36 volunteers Kamchadals-Itelmen), 18 shore guns. The frigate "Aurora" and military transport "Dvina" were anchored port to port out of the harbor, the starboard guns (27 guns) were taken to strengthen the coastal batteries. Entrance to the harbor was zagrazhdёn Bonhomme. Frankly speaking, the number of guns in the sources varies greatly, but it all boils down to the fact that there were no more than 70. In the picture coastal battery №2 «Koshechnaya" view of the Avacha Bay, Signal hill, away enemy squadron:
He commanded the defense of the port of Petropavlovsk Commander Major General VS Zavoiko (Little Russian origin, from the nobility of Poltava province)
His first order of Vasily Zavoiko got 15 years. On board the frigate "Alexander Nevsky", he commanded four guns on the lower deck, and was the first head of kapralstva first boarding group. Russian frigate, fought a battle with up to three ships. Fire "Alexander Nevsky" was so destructive that a Turkish frigate was put to the bottom of the second resigned. Zavoiko participated in his capture. During the descent to the rostrum boats kernel smote feed hoist. Vasily Zavoiko fell into the water, but got to the ship. He started a new hoist, and pulled the boat along with the lieutenant Borovitsynym went to the Turkish ship. He brought the flag, the captain and officers.
It was the beginning of a glorious way, its main feat Yegorov made in 1854, commanding the defense of Petropavlovsk. Coastal guns and naval guns were distributed in six batteries, located in strategic areas. Gunners covered sailors, soldiers and volunteers from the local community.
So allies commemorated Price and decided to continue the hard business storming Russian port city. First of all, I appointed a new commander of the French Rear Admiral Fevrier de pointes (in fact, he played the role of commander of the reserve). Then assign the assault, which began with an artillery duel. At 9 o'clock ships "Fort", "President", "Pike" and ship "Virago" took a position to the west of the cape of the signal and began to fire on the battery number 1 standing on its tip. Against her 5 guns were sent to about 80 guns. The unequal duel lasted for more than an hour. Only after two artillery killed and several wounded Zavoiko ordered to leave the location of the battery. Then, the enemy threw a 15 assault boats and 600 marines to flank the battery №4, which protects 29 people. Calculating riveted gun, he hid gunpowder and orderly retreat. On reflection assault team were thrown frigate "Aurora" and the combined payments of batteries 1 and 3 batches a total of 130-180 fighters. Counter-attacks supported gun "Aurora".
Fleeing from the fire of the Russian ships, Marines took cover. But this time, their positions, slipping on a green slope, on the move aiming at the enemy, quickly rushed Russian sailors and Kamchadals. Scope of their enthusiasm, passionate desire to inflict damage in the melee were so strong that people were a single conjoint mass scare the enemy irresistible desire to come. The bayonet battery was repulsed, and the Allied paratroopers dropping arms in panic, falling head over heels rolling down to the water, jump in the boat, who one after another quickly push off.
Later, one of the participants in this battle, wrote: "Despite our small numbers, despite the fact that he was at least four times more powerful than all of our connected party, the enemy began to retreat jogging and so fast that before we arrived to the occupied their battery he was already in the boats. "
In turn, in the memoirs of Allied counterattacking Russian sailors described as the enemy, three times superior numbers, horrendous for their fearlessness and contempt for death. In general, fear has big eyes. Until now, military historians argue, as much as possible to take 150 for 1800, and why the flight landing was so hasty.
Subsequent attempts by the British and French troops landed south of the battery number 3 on this day were also repulsed. Then the enemy ships concentrated their fire on the battery number 2, has 11 guns and covered the entrance to the harbor of Petropavlovsk. Within ten hours of Russian gunners fought an unequal battle with the enemy frigates. And his eighty guns were unable to silence the coastal battery. As soon as any enemy ships to approach it as accurate volleys Russian gunners hit him. By nightfall on August 20 shooting stopped, the first attack was successfully repulsed the enemy defenders of Petropavlovsk.
It is noteworthy that several sources have links to the memories of the British, as the very first salvos of cannon shot down Russian flag on the frigate commander and that it regarded the bad luck that badly affected the morale of the Allies.
Three days Allies lick their wounds, patched ships and conducted reconnaissance. At this time, the city repaired the battery 1, 2 and 4 buried victims. Interestingly, the British Tarja met two American sailors who treacherously violated the duty to the country, have entertained, informed a lot of useful information about the area of Petropavlovsk, which prompted the Allies to attack the other direction.
Followed by a second assault.
Midshipman Nicholas Fesun, who was on board the frigate "Aurora", recalled the eve of the last battle in the following words: "For our part, we were completely ready and determined to die once and for all, and not to retreat a single step, waiting for the battle as a means to end the matter at once. Evening 23rd was fine - such as is rarely on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Officers spent it talking about the homeland, in the memories of the distant St. Petersburg, about family, about family. Shooting games rifle cleaned and learned to fight with bayonets, yet all were calm ... »
Captain Arbuzov, gathered that evening his team turned to her with these words: "Now, my friends, I am with you. By the cross of St. George, which honestly I wear 14 years, osramlyu named commander! If you see me a coward, that Zuko-Lite bayonets and killed spit! But know that I will demand the exact fulfillment of the oath - to fight to the last drop of blood! .. »
"We will die - not to move back!" - Was the unanimous response team.
It is no accident the battery №3 «Peresheechnaya" is the second title "Mortal" This battery is covered isthmus between the hills warning and Nicholas. This is the most convenient landing place, virtually the gateway to the city and to protect the most inconvenient. Rocky rear gave rock dust, which hit the defenders in contact with nuclei. The photo pack №3 because this place looks like now.
To pack number 3 on the isthmus between the Nikolskaya mound and signaling Cape was not a hindrance in the attack, the first blow was struck by it. Steamer "Virago" around 7 o'clock in the morning began to sum up the French frigate "Fort" in its approach it. In 7 hours 30 minutes pyatipushechnaya battery opened fire on "Forte". It began an unequal battle. Poorly protected from nuclear battery withstood 30 guns of the enemy. By firing connected steamship "Virago" freed from the front of the battery setting number 7 of the English frigate "President". In this fight he showed resilience and courage battery commander Lieutenant Prince Maksutov AP. He suggests gun and left the battery only being mortally wounded. At 9 o'clock in the battery is no longer able to meet the shots.
Lieutenant Alexander Maksutov in this battle lost an arm, which is torn by a direct hit nucleus. In Petropavlovsk there is a street named after him.
Monument to the Heroes 3 batteries.
The enemy landed troops numbering 700-900 persons at the place of 23 boats destroyed 3 battery. Battle of the St. Nicholas Hill describes the different colors, but in general we can say the following. Russian soldiers and sailors, 3 times inferior in numbers to the enemy, under the fire of the enemy in a fierce naval artillery bayonet overturned landing in the sea. The enemy lost 300 men killed, including the commander. 7 officers were captured by cavalry, 56 guns and the flag of Gibraltar Regiment Royal Marines UK.
The picture captured the banner:
A few days later significantly depleted allied squadron left Avacha Bay. Then the lady of the seas and its allies finally abandoned the idea of a Russian war in the Pacific. As is known, Russia lost the war 1853-1856g allies, but thanks to the victory in the defense of Petropavlovsk neither the French nor the British in the future has never disputed the sovereignty of the Russian Far East and Kamchatka.
"The board of only one Russian frigates and a few batteries - wrote at the beginning of 1855 the British magazine" United Service Magazine "- proved to be invincible sea power before connecting England and France, the two greatest powers of the world have been mastered and defeated insignificant Russian garrison.
The memorial chapel at the mass grave of the defenders of the city 1854.
It should be noted that Russian troops were obviously worse than armed obsolete smooth-bore guns, they have been deprived of any hope of reinforcements and supplies of ammunition and gunpowder from the mainland. In total, the opponent, having a threefold numerical superiority in men, ships and artillery lost 450 men killed, while the Russian losses estimated at up to 100 people. Different sources Allied casualty figures vary (150-450), it is associated with serious unreliable data from the allies. However, noteworthy is the fact that one of the Spanish captains met the frigate "President" immediately after the fight in a neutral port noted his surprise that sails the English frigate raised by one, separately on each mast, and not simultaneously on all at once, as He demanded marine charter. The reason is simple - people do not have, at the loss of 150 people. this was not to be.
Shackles (!), Have been found murdered French and British paratroopers on the battlefield, historians explain the desire to make money on the slave trade, which at the time flourished in the region.
Siege of Petropavlovsk in August 1854, during which the victory was won over the Anglo-French squadron, one of the glorious pages of the history of Petropavlovsk. A small military garrison on the outskirts of the Russian Empire took over the enemy, surpassing its military force several times. Against the background of the failure of Russia during the Crimean War (1853-1856) the minor scale military action was the only episode of the victory of Russia in the war. About defenders of Petropavlovsk recognized not only Russia but the whole world.
For conducting artillery duels and bombing shore batteries allies via steamship "Virago" towed sailing ships and set them in position. Thus, against any Russian battery (5 to 11 guns) have always acted the gun several frigates (30-40 guns) to the ship itself have connected one of its sides (5 guns).
The enemy used the 38kg nucleus that led the fire "bombing guns».
Ammunition Russian shore batteries was 37 rounds per piece, on the frigate "Aurora" - 60 and transport "Dvina" 30 rounds per gun.
The squadron tried to seize the "Aurora" in April, even before the news of the entry of Britain and France in the war reaches the Russian captain. However, Izyltetevu managed to lull allies imitation repair the frigate. After a "friendly visit" to the captain of the squadron flagship, under the cover of darkness and fog "Aurora" slipped away right from under the nose of Price and headed for Kamchatka. About the beginning of the war, Russian friendly letters warned the American consul and the king of Hawaii. This is a prime example of how the friendly relations with its neighbors allow to win the battle. Hello patriots, not the place echoing the famous phrase of Alexander III about the only two allies army and navy.
After defeating the squadron was decided on the impossibility of further defense of the city. Houses were demolished, local people's ears to the north, the Cossacks and the soldiers settled in the distant village of Avacha river. The sailors, cut through the ice free ship. "Aurora" and "Dvina" went to sea before the arrival of the second squadron.
The second squadron in May 1855 in the amount of five French and nine English ships found the bay empty, uninhabitable and its intended use, and then get out.
In contrast to the fighting in the Crimea, the British and French were not able to take advantage of their advantage of the quality of small arms - at close range combat rifled barrels, range and accuracy of the battle did not play a special role.
For the defense of Petropavlovsk VS Zavoiko pereattestovan was promoted to rear admiral and was awarded the Order of St. George the 3rd degree and St. Stanislaus 1-th degree. The names of the heroes of Defense named streets of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Nikolskaya hill itself became a sacred historical monument of courage and valor of the Russian army and navy.
That's all I wanted to say. You can comment on.