Japanese martial arts (25 photos)

Japanese martial arts, "Budo", which literally means "the way of combat," "Bujutsu" has no literal translation but means something like science, art or craft of war.




Currently, Japanese Budo and Bujutsu words without much of a difference in the sense used to refer to a wide range of skills needed in the martial arts, to fight without weapons possession to the instruments resembling a sword or spear. But in the Edo period (XVII - the middle of the XIX century) Bujutsu and Budo words have quite different implications. Bujutsu called methods of warfare, and budo meant "the military option", the ideal way of life that must lead samurai wielding technique Bujutsu.

Fragment of Shinkage Ryu Heiho Mokuroku that opens the secret techniques of style sword Shinkage-Yagyu



Competitions in archery in Sandzyusengendo, Kyoto.


In those days there were 18 martial arts (Bugei jūhappan), which included archery, horsemanship, possession of knives, throwing spears, self-defense without weapons (jujutsu) and the gun strelbu.Praktika Bujutsu originated in antiquity. By the middle of the Heian period (X-XI cc.) Was born military class for the protection of newly acquired land and agricultural interests. This class of warriors took Bujutsu as part of their culture. Later in the Kamakura period (1192-1333 gg.), The military began to play a political role. They were engaged in a number of martial arts, especially the three types of horseback archery: kasagake (using umbrellas as targets), yabusame (transmission of the arrows on wooden targets), and Inu-Aumont (shooting at fleeing dogs).



In the Muromachi era (about 1333-1568 gg.) Bujutsu masters, who were called hёhomono or heyhodzin used his military experience, studying and perfecting the technique of martial arts. They have developed a number of new styles (called Ryu), for example, Ogasawara Ryu - horseback archery, Hackee Ryu - archery, Otsubo Ryu - horse riding and Aysukage Ryu - military strategy.
A number of other martial arts styles developed during the civil unrest, which lasted from the mid XV to the end of the XVI century. They included Tsuda-ryu - the gun shooting, Takenouchi-ryū - fight without weapons, and Kasimasinto Ryu Ryu Shinkage and Itto-ryu, which were based, respectively, Tsukahara Bokuden, Kamiidzumi Nobutsuna and Ito Ittosay to fight with swords.



Since the Edo Shogunate in the early XVII century united the country, followed the union of stability weakened the military spirit Bujutsu. Martial arts technique was improved through training, which mainly focus on kata (forms-or formal motions). It was believed that they will help to achieve the perfect state of mind based on the teachings of Confucius and Zen. Thus, the practice of martial arts has evolved from a simple study of the movements that helped master the fighting techniques, to strict training, promote a healthy spirit in a healthy body. In other words Bujutsu turned into Budo, which included and philosophy, supports the idea of ​​a certain lifestyle. At a time when the samurai had to master the art of the pen as well as the art of the sword, budo was the ideal towards which the military class ought to strive.
Two famous styles possession of knives were Shinkage-Yagyu-ryu based Yagyu Muneёsi and Niteniti Ryu, Musashi Miyamoto developed. First school favored Tokugawa family, which at that time dominated the politics, it studied himself Shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu.

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