I warn you in advance, and honest - a lot of letters, but read in one breath!
In Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg was the fundamental work "The myth of the twentieth century." What is it meant by the main author of the myth of the last century - I can not say because it is, in contrast to the "My Struggle" Hitler in Russian for free sale is not yet published. But the twentieth century was indeed a rich global myths.
One such myth was the myth of the twentieth century that in the United States, there is indeed a powerful and, most importantly, efficient army (Army), which corresponds to the status of a great power.
Strictly speaking, this is not surprising, because the history of the US and its army rests on myths from the beginning of their occurrence.
The very appearance of the US Army and is covered with thick fog of mythology. For example, the United States became an independent country not July 4, 1776, and 10 years later. In 1776 he began a rebellion and then the guerrilla war of the North American colonies against the British authorities. But it is not clear who was elected president of the United States, former British Army Colonel George Washington was wandering through the countryside, hiding from large parts of the British troops.
In the end, the British troops would have won the scattered bands of rebel colonists, but in 1783 the beginning of the war with England, France. The French fleet in North America brought considerable forces of the French army. The actions of the French army and navy the British forces in North America were defeated and surrendered.
And only then on the political map of the world appeared the United States.
For this very peculiar US thanked his French friends. In 1803, taking advantage of the employment of France the war in Europe, the Americans took away her Louisiana - the last French colony in North America. On the territory of this former French colony it has created several North American states.
But when Americans want to do the same trick with England - take away her Canada, taking advantage of her employment by the war with France - that the war for the Americans was almost over the loss of newly obtained independence. In 1814, the British army burned the US capital, along with the White House. And after that for 84 years the Americans did not dare to face the armies of the European states, placing the soul on the Indians and Mexicans. And yet he had destroyed each other in the amount of 1 million people during the Civil War of 1861-1865.
This war was so bloody (the US population at the time - 30 million), because the generals and officers of northerners and southerners had a very vague idea not only of operational art, but also the basics of elementary tactics. A discipline in both armies was probably lower than that in effect 55 years later, Russian anarchist Makhno's army.
Only through '84 after an unsuccessful war against Britain, the United States decided to attack a European country, with at the weakest - on decrepit and lost nearly all of its colonies to Spain. The purpose of this war was the capture of the last Spanish colonies: Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean and the Philippines in the Pacific Ocean.
To obtain a pretext to start the war, Americans went to the most ambitious for its time a provocation, blowing 15 February 1898 on the roads of Havana own cruiser "Maine". During explosion killed almost the entire crew of the cruiser (260), except for the officers.
This is how the Russian military intelligence officer Colonel Žilina, who was in Cuba at the headquarters of Spanish troops during the Spanish-American War, describes the event: "At the end of January 1898, arrived in Havana American cruiser" Maine ". Sending cruiser was from the US government and demonstrative gesture calling. February 15, 1898 the cruiser was blown under unknown circumstances. The explosion took place at night, when the team was gathering and people were already asleep. Killed whole team, except officers, who by happy coincidence for them have been in the absence of. The Americans, of course, immediately attributed the explosion of the Spanish mine. But sailors experts argue that such an explosion could occur from the mines, and there was inside the ship. With the explosion of the mines was formed hole in the underwater part, and in fact the cruiser was torn in two. "(" The Spanish-American War. Report traveler highest command to the Spanish troops in Cuba of the General Staff Colonel Zhilinsky. "- St. Petersburg, 1899; E . E Yurovskaya. "Workshop on the new history of 1870-1914 years." - M .: Higher School, 1979. - p. 259)
Since the complete absence of the officers on the US cruiser in the evening and night has not caused the colonel Zhilinsky not only suspect, but even surprise, this means that while the US Navy was the only one of the fleets of major powers, the ships which at nightfall completely leaves officers and provide themselves. That's where the future was laid the defeat at Pearl Harbor.
However, the US military has shown itself in the war with Spain is even worse. In the Philippines US troops virtually unopposed Philippine rebels defeated the Spanish army. But in Cuba, despite the assistance of Cuban rebels, the Americans could not break the resistance of the Spanish troops and, finding themselves in a very difficult situation from a lack of supplies and tropical diseases, were about to surrender to the Spaniards, but the Spanish commanders ahead of their American counterparts and offered them his surrender before than they are to him. In located near the island of Cuba, Puerto Rico, American, leading the fighting on their own, as the rebels were not there, were able to break the resistance of the Spanish garrison, numbering several hundred people after only a few weeks of fierce fighting, losing in killed about 3 thousand.
However, then as now, American newspapers to their populations about such pesky details have not been reported, and the drums beat in the victory. Here's how to describe the inherent narcissism Americans stupid Russian consul in New York, VA Teplov in his report dated 04/06/1898: "Despite the very modest progress made since the US Navy victory in Manila, the usual arrogance of Americans raised this victory to unprecedented heights, continues to hold at levels not corresponding to the achieved results. Light triumph completely turned the heads of people here politicians. Neither figure out the unpreparedness of the armed forces or lack of armaments and equipment of troops, nor the slow pace of military operations - nothing is able to satisfy more and more appetite playmaker aimed at the absorption of new territories. "(EE Yurovskaya." Workshop on the new History ... "- with. 239-240)
After the end of the Spanish-American War, the Russian ambassador to the United States AP, Cassini in its report dated 04.27.1899 stated: "After the success scored by the parish during the war with Spain, the American people overcome by a feeling of excessive pride and boundless arrogance, contempt for the non-US. Expressed statesmen of this country views were imbued with these sentiments, and The local press, going on this path, says with conviction that the United States is the first and most powerful country in the world and that even a coalition of the whole of Europe can not terrify them, because they strong enough. "(EE Yurovskaya." Workshop on modern history ... "- p. 248)
This is the "boundless arrogance and contempt for all non-US", which is usually the American people, and especially its political and military elite, had very grave consequences for the US Army in 1918-1919. during the completion of the First World War and the Russian Civil War.
Because of its excessive smart-ass, the Americans entered the First World War, three years after its start, and a year before its completion in the summer of 1917, when its outcome was clear and final winner, to which it was possible to join, have decided. In reality, the US Army began to arrive in Europe in the spring of 1918, six months before the end of the war.
US troops numbering 1 million arrived in Europe is absolutely not ready for combat. There were no modern artillery and small arms. Therefore, the French and English before to put Americans into battle, they had to arm and train. The French gave his artillery, machine guns; English - something small arms and uniforms. Here since the First World War to the present day the Americans survived the French field artillery caliber 105 mm and 155 mm.
Finally, after six months of re-education and, in August 1918 (three months before the end of the First World War), American troops engaged in battle. The results for them were appalling. For two and a half months of fighting in August - the beginning of November 1918 the US forces lost 200 thousand killed. Given the wounded (about 600 thousand), the US Army initially sent to Europe, virtually ceased to exist.
And these Americans suffered terrible losses in the last three months of the First World War, when the most capable and well-trained soldiers and officers of the German army during the preceding four years were either killed or wounded as a result of gas poisoning, and left the military service.
To understand the enormity of American casualties, it is necessary to compare them with the losses of other great powers involved in the First World War. So: Russia - 700 thousand killed, England - 900 thousand, France - 1.3 million, Germany - $ 2 million. Thus, in an average year war Britain lost 225,000, France - 325 000, Germany - 500 thousand. That is, Americans for the last almost three months of the war lost about the same as England lost for the year.
It is therefore natural that took place in the spring and summer of 1919 in the suburbs of Paris - Versailles - the peace conference the French, making sure that in fact there are American troops, far sent the then US President Wilson with his claims decisively determine the outcome of the First World War and post-war device Europe and the world.
This French contempt for the American army was determined not only by how it showed itself in the battles of the end of World War I, but the way it has established itself in the western intervention in the civil war in Russia in the period of 1918-1919., Being at the time the intervention of the weakest of the Western armies.
No matter how demoralized fall of 1918, before the end of the First World War, the German army, but against the background of what is the staff of the Red Army in 1918-1920. Demoralized German soldiers looked just Superman. But in the battles with the Red Army during the Civil War, when 80% of the Red Army went into battle under the threat of being shot on the spot, the US military managed to suffer defeat.
One of the most famous Americans of failures in the battles with the Red Army offensive Shenkursky became the 18th Infantry Division of the 6th Army of the Northern Front, conducted January 19-25, 1919. This division, which had in its composition 3100 people and 13 guns were ordered to cut protrusion front line near Shenkursk.
This projection was 700 Russian Whites and 500 US soldiers from 16 guns. During the onset of diabetes 18 main resistance was assisted Whites. The outcome of the battle decided workaround one part of the 18 LEDs in the rear of the enemy, which resulted in the capture of the city Shegovary 30 km north of Shenkursk on the road Arkhangelsk-Shenkursk. As a result of the US troops in Shenkursk were surrounded only by means of the Whites, who knew the area, were able to reach the main forces of the Anglo-Canadian troops.
01/25/1919 logged in Shenkursk 18SD taken as booty 12 US guns, lots of warehouses with ammunition, food and uniforms.
Thus, out of 16 Americans have guns fire the Reds have lost only 4. The main opponent to 18SD was not the superiority of the Americans in the artillery, and natural factors: the snow up to his waist, 40-degree cold and only partly small-machine-gun fire Whites.
After the defeat at Shenkursk US forces in the Russian North had withdrawn to the rear, and then hurriedly evacuated home.
In the battles of Shenkursk American officers demonstrated the inability of management to basic artillery fire. 18SD artillery to fight the enemy machine guns were dispersed by rifle regiments, which advanced on different directions. A 16 guns Americans were concentrated in one place and, therefore, the elementary ability to focus on the fire threatened areas would paralyze the offensive 18SD, despite its superiority in numbers.
Manage artillery fire and maneuver, focusing it on one direction or another, could any European artillery officer at the time, but not the US.
The reason - in the weak preparation of American officers in general and artillery in particular due to the overall weak level of American Civic Education as Throughout the existence of the US armed forces the bulk of the officers came to them from among the graduates of civilian higher educational institutions.
And the level of training in American universities and colleges following facts. In 1883, a former artillery captain Degas, being a double agent for the revolutionary terrorist organization "Narodnaya Volya" and the Russian political police, entangled in a double play and save their lives, fled from Russia, first in France and then in the United States. There he died in 1920 of natural causes, as a professor of mathematics at a university. To do this, he had the formation of Russian artillery school. In America itself, he did not learn anywhere else. If Degayev been so intimidated and not hiding - in the US, he could have achieved more. Do, for example, to serve in the American army, and to finish his career with the rank of Colonel General, Chief Artillery Department of the Ministry of War. Level of education in the Russian artuchilische for this would be enough to excess.
Besides Russian North during the Civil War, American troops were in the Russian Far East. There's a regular Red Army was not, but the Red partisans operated there his main opponent was considered Japanese and Whites. To the Americans, they treated with undisguised contempt and soldiers believed they extort money and weapons in exchange for a non-aggression. Such is the kind of Russian racket, which Fadeev details mentioned in the novel "The Last of Udege" dedicated partisans of the Far East during the Civil War.
After the First World War, the American army for a long time did not have anything of his own. Arming the French, the British outfit. English kaski- "plates" were on the minds of US troops until the summer of 1942. Then they finally changed the style of their own helmets.
If the US Army in the 20-30-ies. Twentieth century. It was in the deep stagnation, not having until the end of the 30-ies. even the domestic production of tanks, the US Navy has developed quite rapidly, especially for the time the new type of naval forces - and the carriers based on their deck-based aircraft. But the good of it was very little.
By 1941 the US Navy fought in '43 - since the end of the Spanish-American War in 1898 why the American whining, then entered into the world historiography, that supposedly only a surprise attack by Japanese aircraft at Pearl Harbor led to 12.7.1941 US initial defeat in the Pacific in December 1941 - June 1942, does not hold water. During the raid were destroyed only all 9 battleships of the US Pacific Fleet, and all aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers appeared intact. But even destroyed battleships could offset the redeployment of ships of the same class from the Atlantic Ocean, which was eventually done. But the most important thing is that during the attack on Pearl Harbor was not destroyed or damaged a single US aircraft carrier, which was the main striking force of the sea battles of World War II.
So the reason for the defeat the United States in the Pacific in 1941-1942. It was not the attack on Pearl Harbor, and the incompetence of the American Fleet Command. This is evidenced by the results of the battle in the Java Sea on the night of 27 on February 28, 1942, when a group of five American cruisers and destroyers attacked 10 4 cruisers and 14 destroyers, the Japanese fleet, covering the caravan of Japanese transports with troops on board.