One of the most intriguing moments in the history of our country is 1941. Mysteriously, not only for us but for the soldiers who passed through this year.
Year paradoxical. The heroism of the defenders of the Brest Fortress, border guards, pilots, made several air rams on the first day of the war - in stark contrast with the surrender of the masses of the Red Army. What's the problem?
Contrasts 1941 give rise to very different interpretations of what happened. Some say that the Stalinist repressions deprived of a normal army commanders. Others - that the Soviet people did not want to defend the hated social system. Third - an insurmountable superiority of the Germans in the ability to fight. Many judgments. And there's the famous phrase of Marshal Konev, who became not describe the beginning of the war: "do not want to lie, and the truth will still not be allowed to write."
It is understood that at least something close to the truth could write a few. Soldier, major, colonel, and even General drill see not much. The picture as a whole is only visible from higher headquarters. From the headquarters of fronts, from Moscow. But we again know that the staffs of the fronts owned poor situation, respectively, and in Moscow received the defective information.
Thus, the truth could not tell any Konev nor Zhukov, Stalin or even if he was able to write his memoirs. Even they did not have the full information.
But the truth can be calculated inquisitive mind researcher who asks the right questions. Unfortunately, the right questions to ask few tries, and most of the right to put questions simply can not. Once Vavilov defined the experiment "experiment - this is clearly staged nature of the issue, which will be the definite answer: yes or no." Properly question always requires a response in the form of yes or no. Let us try to approach the problem in 1941 with the questions in this form.
Was the German army more compelling the Red Army?
The whole logic of the general ideas pushed to the answer - was. The Germans had the experience of several successful military campaigns in Europe. The Germans were perfectly well-oiled mechanism of interaction between the armed forces. In particular, the interaction of air and ground forces were worked out specifically for 2.5 years in Spain, the Condor Legion. Richthofen, who had this not yet fully priced in the literature for a wide range of readers experience, commanded by the German air force in the band of our South-Western Front in the summer of 1941.
But there is one thing. It turns out exactly the army, in which the enemy blows inflicted obviously superior forces, which accounted for all the power stroke - they just were not defeated. Moreover, they successfully fought for a long time, creating problems of the German offensive. This is the answer to the question.
Let's sketch out the scheme. At the front, from the Baltic to the Carpathian German offensive parried three fronts: the North-West, West and South-West. Starting from the Baltic coast, our armies have been placed in the following order (from north to south): The 8th and 11th Army of the North-Western Front. Then a 3rd, 10th, 4th Army on the Western Front, 5th, 6th, 26th and 12th Army of the Southwestern Front. Behind the border covering the armies of the Western Front in Minsk fortified area (SD) located 13th Army of the Western Front.
June 22 armored spearheads hit the enemy came in 8th and 11th Army, 4th Army and the 5th Army. Let us see what happened to them.
In the most difficult situation turned out to be the 8th Army, which had to retreat through hostile Baltic states. However, its compounds are found in July 1941 in Estonia. Stand back, take up defensive positions, again retreating. The Germans beat this army, but do not overwhelm the first few days. As for the mass capture of the Red Army troops in the Baltic region in the memoirs of the opponent did not slip. A Liepaja, which is held a few days the soldiers of the 8th Army and Red Navy - could well claim the title of the Hero City.
11th Army. On the first day of the war before all the orders on its counterattack 11 mechanized corps, almost the weakest in the whole composition of the Red Army, armed with a weak T-26 - attack the advancing Germans, he knocks them abroad. Offensively, the next two or three days, he loses almost all of its tanks. But it is counter tanks 11 Mechanized Corps of the 11th Army of the North-Western Front, the war marked in history as the Battle of Grodno. Subsequently, the 11th Army was retreating, trying to join the fight for the retention of the cities. But to keep them that the army fails. The retreat continues. Army loses communication with the headquarters of both the front and with Moscow. While Moscow does not know whether there is, this is the 11th Army. But the army there. And more or less understood in the operational environment, the headquarters of the army feels weak point of the enemy - poorly covered flanks of the moving tank to Pskov wedge. It falls on the flanks, cutting the road, as far as a day stop the enemy's advance. Subsequently, the 11th Army saved as troop association. It participates in the winter of 1941-42, the Red Army offensive.
Akim, the two armies of the North-Western Front, which came under the crushing power of the Germans first blow - a blow that were not crushed or broken. And we continued to fight. And not without success. About a mass surrender of soldiers of these armies is no information. The soldiers did not show his unwillingness to fight for the Soviet Motherland. Officers quite competently assess the possibility of warfare. Where to retreat, not to be bypassed where to take the defense, and where to put a dangerous counterattack.
4th Army of the Western Front. It came under attack by enemy Brest. Two divisions of the army, which no command of the Belarusian Military District, no own commander gave the order not to leave the city in the summer camp - were shot straight into the German artillery barracks in the city of Brest. The army, however, joined the fighting, took part in the counterattack forces in existence in her mechanized corps, retreated, clinging to the frontiers. One of the divisions of the army, having gone to the Mozyr SD at the old border, held it for a month. This is finally the West Division fought their way disparate forces encircled. And here is his way defeated the headquarters of the 3rd Army. On the basis of this staff, numerous groups and encircled the only organized military force - the division of the 4th Army was reconstituted 3rd Army. New, replacing disappeared. However, the division itself had already ceased to be a division of the 4th Army, and was reassigned 21st Army. But it is important to keep track of its destiny. After all, this division among those who engaged in battle June 22 at the direction of the main attack. This division is not enough that she had survived on the basis of its revived larger troop association - the army. Which will have had a long military destiny.
What about the rest of the 4th Army. Her story ends July 24, 1941. But not because of the defeat and capture. Before disbanding, it is offensive to help the environment out of the troops of the 13th army. Unsuccessfully. At night, the infantry of the 4th Army knocks the enemy from towns and villages, and in the afternoon have to give the same towns - since the presence of the enemy tanks, artillery and aircraft. The front is not moving. But for breach encircled fails. Finally available at this time as part of the 4th army of four divisions - transferred to the 13th Army, which in addition to the control and management of the Army Infantry Corps nothing more. And the remaining troops without headquarters of the 4th Army - becomes the new headquarters of the Central Front.
The troops of the army, accepting the brunt of the powerful impact of the Germans via Brest defending one of the main roads leading to Moscow - on the Warsaw highway - not just were not defeated and captured, and were offensive to help the surrounded troops. And these troops began fighting organized nucleus around which were revived two armies. And the army headquarters was the headquarters of a new front. Subsequently, the Chief of Staff of the 4th Army Sandalov will actually lead to the Moscow counteroffensive 20th most successful 20th Army (commander Vlasov, who at this time is not in the army - is being treated for an illness), will participate in the success Pogorelo- Gorodishchenskaya operations in August 1942, in the operation of "Mars" in November and December 1942 onwards.
5th Army of the Southwestern Front was hit at the junction with the 6th Army. And in fact, I had to retreat, turning the front to the south. Mechanized Corps of the army took part in the counterattack in the area Novograd Volyn. At the front of the army of the Germans were forced to stay for a week on the river happened. Subsequently, when a breakthrough tank wedge enemy to Kiev between 5 and 6 armies became a reality, the 5th Army front is facing south, it stretches for 300 kilometers - inflicted a series of crushing blows against the flank of Kiev wedge intercepted Kiev highway - and thereby stopped the attack on Kiev. German Panzer Division came to Kiev fortified area that literally no one to protect - and stopped. Primitive left without shells - because troops intercepted the 5th Army communications.
Against the 5th Army, to cling to the Korosten fortified area on the old border, the Germans were forced to deploy 11 divisions. They have the entire Soviet front was 190 divisions. So, every 1/17 of all the Wehrmacht was turned against the only 5th Army at a time when the front came from the depths of the country's Soviet Army numbered 19, 20, 21 ... 37, 38 ... During the 35 days of army inflicted Germans 150 beats. Army troops secretly and quickly maneuvered in Pripyat forests appear in unexpected places, smashed the enemy, and then they themselves escaped from under the blows of the Germans. Successfully operated and artillery. She, too, secretly maneuvered and caused unexpected very telling blows against concentrations of enemy troops, on stations and convoys of vehicles that supplied the enemy troops. Ammunition was. Fortified for which caught the army - it's not only the bunkers, in essence lost value in terms of mobile warfare. Fortified - is primarily a warehouse of weapons, ammunition, food, fuel, clothing, spare parts. Artillery 5th Army had not experienced difficulties with shells. And hence, the enemy had very tight. Later, in 1943-44 during the offensive operations of the Red Army it found that 2/3 of the corpses of German soldiers had traces of destruction is by artillery fire. So in fact they were soldiers in the trenches. But the artillery of the 5th Army, which operated according to the reconnaissance and sabotage groups struck at concentrations of troops.
Accordingly, the directives of the German command the destruction of the 5th Army was supplied as a task of equal importance for the taking of Leningrad, the occupation of Donbass. It is the 5th Army, took the fight on June 22 was the cause of the so-called Pripyat crisis, forcing the Germans to stop the attack on Moscow and turn Panzer Group Guderian south - against Kiev grouping. This army inflicted crushing blows communications even when the Germans launched a massive attack against it - after August 5. From the very onset of this German came anecdote. It began on August 5, instead of the 4 th to the curious reason. Reconnaissance and sabotage group of the 5th Army intercepted a package with the German directive on the beginning of the offensive. The Directive did not get to the troops.
The army was not defeated. She A perfect in the fighting. Commander-5 General Potapov asked the front marching reinforcements - and almost did not get. And the army continued to torment the full 11 German divisions unexpected and successful hit, staying at the 300-mile front with only 2,400 active bayonets.
Remarque. Staff of the German Infantry Division was 14 thousand people. 11 divisions - it is 150 thousand. And they hold the army, which is inferior to the number of active bayonets regular number of troops in the 20 (!) Times. Digest this figure. In conceding 20 times in the number of infantry opposing enemy army - is offensive to become a headache the German General Staff.
So. Army, which fell severity of the impact of the German army - crushed by this blow was not. Moreover, they have demonstrated vitality, activity and ability to competently retreat, and then another and destroy the enemy many times superior. - Not numbers, but skill.
In addition to 5-Army South-Western Front should be noted the action is not the whole army and the right-flank 99 divisions of the Red Army under 26 Przemysl. This division has successfully fought two or three advancing in this place German divisions. I throw them across the river San. And the Germans have nothing to do with it could not. Despite the power of the strike, despite the German organization and air superiority against the other divisions of the army offensive in the early days of the war was not conducted.
On the question of the title of paragraph responded large military formations: the army and the division took over the severity of the impact. The answer is NO. I do not have a quality advantage over the Wehrmacht Soviet soldiers and commanders.
And then answer the paradox of the disaster in 1941 becomes much more serious. If the troops, which had brought down the power of the German offensive, fought successfully, where millions of prisoners? Where the loss of thousands of tanks and planes, huge territories?
Whether fighting 12th Army?
And what about the other armies? - Those on which blows are not applied. Or it was relatively weak.
Let's start with the most interesting to clarify the situation of the army - the 12th Army General Ponedelina. This army occupied the front from the Polish border in the south of Lviv region, two divisions of 13 Infantry Corps covered Carpathian mountain passes on the border with Hungary, which on June 22 had not entered the war. Next, the body of the army were located along the border with Romania to Bukovina.
June 22 troops of the army were alerted, received weapons and ammunition - and took up positions. Moving troops fighting positions they had been bombed. Aviation subordinate command of the 12th Army on June 22 in the air does not rise. She did not give orders to take off into the air, someone bombed or vice versa cover own troops from the air. I do not give orders to the army commander and army headquarters. The commander and the headquarters of 13 Infantry Corps, parts of which are just exposed to enemy aircraft. However, after the position of the troops were not attacked anyone. According to border guards three detachments guarding the border south of Przemysl and beyond the Carpathians - up to 26 June inclusive attempt to attack an opponent on the front of this huge mnogosotkilometrovom did not take. Not against 13 Infantry Corps, nor against left-flank divisions of the neighboring 26th Army.
On the Internet, posted letters from the front artillery officer Inozemtsev, who on June 22 in a part of the artillery battery of 192 Infantry Division entered the position, and two days later they were forced to retreat due to the fact that they can be circumvented. So the men explained. After 2 days - is June 24th. Order Staff of the Southwestern Front in the 12 Army withdrawal was not. Order corps headquarters was.
Border guards, which was removed from the outpost on Veretsky pass the order of Staff Infantry Corps, also confirmed: there was a written order.
There are only memories - railway brigade officer, interact with 13 Rifle Corps. The book "Steel Stretches." The brigade served the railways in the south of Lviv region. Sambir, Stryi, Turk, Drohobych, Borislav. The morning of 25 June, a group of railway explosives arrived at the headquarters of 192 rifle division receiving orders that blow - and found no staff. Found infantry units, final departure from previously held positions.
Captured commander of the 12th Army of the Red Army, Major General PG Ponedelin (center)
and the commander of the 13th Rifle Corps of the 12th Army, Major-General N. Kirillov.
Uman District. August 1941
It all fits. Three supporting each other leaving certificate 13 Rifle Corps 12 military positions on the border with Hungary on 24 of June - the morning of June 25th. Without the minimum pressure of the enemy. And without an order from front headquarters. In combat reports 12 Army, which is also posted on the Web, - 25 June Ponedelin commander informs staff front, the position of troops of 13 Army Staff ck unknown. On a completely untouched by the war wing of the Southwestern Front, commander knows what's going on in his body right flank - to which of the army staff 2-3 hour drive, from which there is a connection, even on non-affected until the Civil telephone network.
Meanwhile, guards the gates, concealing Veretsky pass are allowed to return to the outpost. And discover the Germans on the road that descends from the pass.