Who blew DnieproGES?

68 years ago, August 18, 1941, 20: 00-20: 30, the traveling Red Army were blown Dnieper dam and the railway bridge across the Dnieper.

"The military transports and people who at the time were moving along the dam, of course, lost. The explosion of the bridge and dam on the island of Khortytsya was cut Infantry Regiment, which crossed at this time on the eastern shore.

In the body of the dam formed a large hole, went active water discharge. The result is a vast area of ​​flooding in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. A giant wave swept away several enemy crossings, sank many F shistskih units who had taken refuge in the flooded areas. But to break free water does not divide people into "us" and "them".

Almost tridtsatimetrovoy avalanche of water swept the Dnieper floodplains, flooding everything in its path. The entire lower part of Zaporizhia with huge reserves of various goods, military materials and tens of thousands of tons of food and other property for some time been demolished. Dozens of vessels with crew, perished in that terrible stream. The strength resulting from the undermining of the dam Dniproges wave was such that the monitor "Volochaevka" was thrown out on the shore, and then could be used as a defensive structure on the land.

In the flooded area of ​​the island Khortitsa and Dnieper flooded areas tens of kilometers further to the Nikopol stood on the positions of military units. The explosion of the dam drastically raised the water level in the lower reaches of the Dnieper River, where at this time began crossing Wastes of Odessa of the 2nd Cavalry Corps, the 18th and 9th Armies. These troops have been "cut off" at the crossing, part of the enlarged number of groups of troops were surrounded and captured, and managed to cross part in incredibly difficult conditions, abandoning artillery and military equipment.
Told that died in the flooded areas while about 20,000 Red Army soldiers - how many, no one thought to consider. [5] Besides the troops, were killed in the swamps of dozens of thousands of cattle and many people who at that time were there at work. »

Who blew Dneproges? Research zalizyaka in 3 parts






Part One

ZAPOROZHYE
Dneproges, August 1941

August 18, 1941 the Nazis, leaving a breakthrough tanks and motorized troops with the aim of a sudden capture of the Dnieper [1] and the dam, which is calculated on the break into the city, broke through the defenses west of Zaporozhye on a narrow sector of the front. Former Chief of General Staff of the Land Forces of Germany F. Halder describes the events in the Zaporozhye region, "August 19, 1941. The 59th day of the war. The situation at the front: The Army Group "South": The enemy continues to resist the Romanian part, coming to Odessa. In the district of Ochakov enemy launched a counterattack on the site of the 50th Division. In Kherson port there is a large number of enemy ships. 11th Army last night started to ferry the troops of the 11th army corps across the Bug. Enemy aviation intensively attacking our advanced advancing in the bend of the Dnieper. 9th Panzer Division went to the area of ​​1 km west of the dam at the Zaporozhye. 14th Panzer Division rushed to the enemy at the bridgehead Zaporozhye "[2].

On the bridge over the old bed of the Dnieper to the enemy managed to break into the Khortytsya, closer to the start gun Dnieproges and-mortar shelling of its defenders.

Defending units performing "Comrade Stalin's orders from July 3, 1941" hydroelectric generators switching to self-immolation, retreated on the Left Bank.

The former head of construction Dnieper FG Loginov said: "It was August 18, 1941. The day Dneproges worked full-time, although the shells were flying over the dam and power plant turbine room. In the case of retreat of our troops it has been decided to plant equipment and damage the dam, not to give the enemy the opportunity to use the Dnieper. Hard, but necessary operation was entrusted to the chief engineer of the Dnieper Gregory Shatsky ... "[3].

The Germans, later also confirmed the destruction of the station turbine hall employees. In his memoirs, Speer, who in September 1930 was the head of the Reich military construction, and since February 1942 - Reich Minister of weapons, says: "... I visited and exploded Russian power in Kiev. In it, after the major part of the construction was able to seal the hole in the dam, it was established by German turbine. At his retreat Russian knocked out the equipment is very simple and remarkable way: by switching the distributor of grease at full operation of turbines. Deprived of grease machines were heated and literally devoured themselves, turned into a pile of unusable scrap. A very effective means of destruction and all - simply turning the handle by one person! "[4].

But the turbine were not the main purpose of destruction. Should blow up the dam itself. The German troops were still on the right bank of the Dnieper, near Nikopol and Krivoy Rog. The planned dam Dnieper explosion no one was warned neither of the dam, on which at that time were moving military vehicles and troops, who retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper, neither the population and institutions of the city Zaporozhye - 10-12 kilometers from the hydroelectric power plant downstream of the Dnieper. Just were not warned the military units located below the Dnieper in Zaporozhye Meadowlands, although telephone connection while the Left function normally.

The study of available documents 157 th Regiment of the NKVD on the protection of critical industrial, protect and defend themselves Dneproges until the last minute, allowing up to set the clock to undermine the dam: 20.00-20.30 August 18, 1941.

It was at this time Dneproges, Dnieper dam, railway bridge across the Dnieper were blown up.

Military transports and people who at the time were moving along the dam, of course, lost. The explosion of the bridge and dam on the island of Khortytsya was cut Infantry Regiment, which crossed at this time on the eastern shore.

In the body of the dam formed a large hole, went active water discharge. The result is a vast area of ​​flooding in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. A giant wave swept away several enemy crossings, sank many Nazi divisions, had taken refuge in the flooded areas. But to break free water does not divide people into "us" and "them."

Almost tridtsatimetrovoy avalanche of water swept the Dnieper floodplains, flooding everything in its path. The entire lower part of Zaporizhia with huge reserves of various goods, military materials and tens of thousands of tons of food and other property for some time been demolished. Dozens of vessels with crew, perished in that terrible stream. The strength resulting from the undermining of the dam Dniproges wave was such that the monitor "Volochaevka" was thrown out on the shore, and then could be used as a defensive structure on the land.

In the flooded area of ​​the island Khortitsa and Dnieper flooded areas tens of kilometers further to the Nikopol stood on the positions of military units. The explosion of the dam drastically raised the water level in the lower reaches of the Dnieper River, where at this time began crossing Wastes of Odessa of the 2nd Cavalry Corps, the 18th and 9th Armies. These troops were "cut off" at the crossing, part of the enlarged number of groups of troops were surrounded and captured, and managed to cross part in incredibly difficult conditions, abandoning artillery and military equipment.

Told that died in the flooded areas while about 20,000 Red Army soldiers - how many, no one thought to consider. [5] Besides the troops, were killed in the swamps of dozens of thousands of cattle and many people who at that time were there at work.

Here's how to describe this event witnesses:

"Suddenly the earth trembled. Bear looked to the west and gasped: there, somewhere near the Dnieper silently grew, raised a huge, black fungus agromadneyshy ... dam! They blew up the dam!

- Mom, open your mouth wider !!!

- What?

- Open! Shire! Roth!

And took off! Oh, it exploded! Our pride, our love, our handsome Dneproges, Dniprelstan our ridny minute, what is the pain in our hearts responded your pain, your mortal wound that oh as not soon zarubtsuetsya! And how much more ahead of such wounds? "[6]

"... On August 18 ... .When I get to the dock, he saw that the entire Oak Grove and coastal homes were flooded with water, the Dnieper, because in the night under the 17th we blew the dam (jumper) Dniproges, and water gushed out strong shaft and demolished everything in its path. And in the flooded areas of the city below was a lot of cattle and people. The city was an ominous silence and desolation, from hour to hour waiting for the Germans - the people on the occasion gave a robbery mills and shops. Power came around and after a couple of days in the city has been restored order "[7].

Mark Trojanowski [8]: "Suddenly, the 17th in the morning near the Dnieper the Germans appeared. Almost all of the political department workers were sent to help in terms of guarding the approaches to the dam. Breaks mines and shells. At the entrance to the dam and installed armored regimental guns. After the completion of the dam is sent, without rifles ...

Soon, we have witnessed how this replenishment ran back. Shots began to persecute him to fight again. And an hour later all without rifles were allowed to leave. Such confusion relaxing and resistant parts. We took off a little bit all the ugliness at the dam. They took erupted on the shore of a huge fire at a military factory.

All under fire, no one knows exactly where everything was. While we were deciding where to go, the streets of the city came under heavy fire. Mines and artillery. The enemy is there, on the other side. It was terrible to watch as the woman rushed, not knowing what to do. They live on the other side, working on it. In the morning, as if nothing had happened, we went to work. Everything was normal, trams. And now on the other side of the hail rained shells. Burning large houses. People are in despair.

There was a disturbing night of 17 to 18 of August. On the other side of blazing fires. Political department was preparing the car for evacuation. Headquarters moved at night. They waited for the arrival of the night of our tanks. What if something is interesting !!!

We spent the night at the cars on the street. There was a few large explosions. We do not know what it is. We thought breaks heavy shells. During the night hours of 12 we learn the terrible news - the dam of the Dnieper and railway Bridge blown up. Blown up unnecessarily prematurely when on the other side, our left side. They say that now looking for the culprits. And made it as NKVD, spanikovali "[9].

Indeed, the panic occurred. But it was undermining the Dnieper vigilante?

Unfortunately, the commander of the Southern Front Tyulenev IV this fact in his memoirs have very sparingly: "We were in Zaporozhye, when suddenly the earth rocked under my feet - a tremendous explosion shook the air. Dvenadtsatitonny charge tola Dneproges destroyed the pride of the Soviet people ". [10]




[1] DniproHES Lenin began to build in 1927, was put into operation in 1932. The power of 650 megawatts. The design capacity is reached in 1939. The building length of 236 m and a height of 70 m. 9 vertical hydraulic units of 72 MW. Curved dam, its length is 760 m. Shielding wall length 216 m, height of 60 m. Blind dam 251 m in length. 47 spillway spans.
[2] F. Halder War Diary. Daily recording head of the Army General Staff 1939-1942 gg.- M .: Military Publishing, 1968-1971 Original: Halder F. Kriegstagebuch. Tägliche Aufzeichnungen des Chefs des Generalstabes des Heeres 1939-1942. - Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1962-1964 Book online: militera.lib.ru/db/halder/index.html
[3] NI Pavlenko. "Will live!". 2000 (for publication in the "Our contemporary» N7, 2001)
nashsovr.aihs.net/p.php?y=2001&n=7&id=1
[4] A. Speer memories. - Smolensk: Rusich; Moscow: Progress, 1997
militera.lib.ru/memo/german/speer_a/index.html
[5] To date, the number of buried remains controversial Red Army - the numbers are called different, but the burial place not controversial - is the railway bridge on the street Hlyastikovy. That's where the body washed up on the Red Army, and that is where they buried the locals, after deepening depression in the ground. Now their remains knurled layer of asphalt - for the convenience of walking. Pavel Makarov. whp057.narod.ru/nikopol1-st1.htm
[6] Ilya Kogan. That's how it was ... Tale. www.erfolg.ru/hall/i_kogan.htm
[7] Shvydko Zoe. I - Zoe ... Naberezhnye Chelny. Samizdat. 1996 (Memoirs Shvydko Zoya Petrovna) zhurnal.lib.ru/o/onushko_l_g/yazoyadoc.shtml
[8] Mark Trojanowski Antonovich (1907-1967) - a well-known documentary filmmaker.
[9] M. Trojanowski "... From the age par: Diaries. Letters. Notes. " Comp. E.Uvarova-Troyanovskaya, N.Venzher. - M .: "Russian Political Encyclopedia" (ROSSPEN), 2004. - 304 p.
[10] Tyulenev IV After three wars. - M .: Military Publishing, 1972




Part two

Slightly clarify the situation with the explosion of the Dnieper and open for research papers operational headquarters of the Southern Front:

"Series D

Directive № 0083 / OP

Southern Front headquarters Pokrovsky.
08/21/41 of 15 h. 45 m.
Map 500 000

... In the Zaporozhye direction avenue to a part of one TD and one or two ppm reached the milestone p. Dnepr, is exploring and preparing to force the river. Dnipro [11] ...
Prospect to the acting superior forces, was designed to take all the Right-Bank Ukraine, apply individual defeat armies of the front, defending the west district. Dnepr, in particular the district of Nikolaev [12]. By entering into battle tank and a significant amount of Motorized, etc.-to the move trying to seize crossings over the river. Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk district tries [13], Zaporozhye, Nikopol [14], Kherson and Odessa at the same time to master ...
... .Uporno Defending part of the Southern Front did not give pr-ku acquire Dnepropetrovsk [15], Zaporozhye, Kherson [16], Odessa, inflicted heavy losses at Nikolaev, Zaporozhye, Dnepropetrovsk ...
... Zaporizhia group: the composition - 274, 226, 270 Rifle regiment of the NKVD. Management group to confer on Mr. ck 48 g m. Malinowski and his staff, who immediately go down in Zaporozhye and assumed command of the group. The task - to seize the island of Khortytsya and a solid defense on the east. bank. Dnepr, hold their hands Zaporozhye.
Commander of the Southern Front Tyulenev
Member of the Military Council of the Zaporozhets
Nashtayuzhfronta Romanov "[17]

Pursuant to the said order of the command of the Southern Front September 3, 1941 of the 274 th Infantry Division of the 12th Army of Zaporizhia with the national militia under the cover of tanks crossed the Dnieper and three days of fierce fighting in defeating the enemy on the island of Khortytsya. After the liberation of Khortitsa significantly weakened the shelling factories and cities, which contributed to the acceleration of the dismantling and evacuation of equipment and people.

After the destruction of the dam the Dnieper and the Dnieper, all party leaders fled to the east. A week later, on orders from Moscow, most of these pseudo-leaders went back in Zaporizhia and some time before the arrival of the Germans continued to "lead" and to assure that the Zaporizhia "will never be handed over to the enemy" that the enemy will not be allowed for the Dnieper. Early destruction of the Dnieper they explained "hostile sabotage" "sabotage».

After the explosion in Zaporozhye Dnieper defense continued for another month and a half. In September, leaving daily from the east for at least 620 cars, and on some days - about 900. The only export one plant "Zaporizhstal" took 8 th. Wagons. 22 plants were taken out of national importance and 26 enterprises of light and food industries. In addition, machine-building evacuated, pedagogical institutes and other educational institutions, Theatre. MK Zankovetska, broadcasting center, kinofilmofond valuable regional museum exhibits and more. It was a heroic feat Zaporozhye workers, engineers and technical workers.

Is at the time a member of the Military Council of the Southern direction NS Khrushchev [18] after a very brief "remembered" the battle for Zaporozhye: "A lot of machines we evacuated from Zaporozhye, literally under the noses of the enemy. We are instructed to carry out this operation Korniytsu. It was in those days a member of the Military Council of the Southern Front, or seems to be representative of the Government of Ukraine. Korniets played a big role in the evacuation of equipment, and the equipment is now gone to the east, which is very positive impact on the creation of the defense industry in the new place "[19].

October 4 workers and engineering and technical personnel involved in the dismantling of factories, left the city. Only then did the German troops marched in Kiev. They were met by fire and mines. All that it was impossible to take out to the east, was blown up or set on fire.




What happened Aug. 18, 1941 at DnieproGES and who gave the order to undermine the dam?

Leonid Sosnitsky argues that the order for the destruction of the Dnieper gave the commander of the south-westerly direction SM Budyonny "Another day of August 18 in Zaporozhye saw Semyon Budyonny (all known historical sources are silent on this), and it's probably he decided to undermine the Dnieper. By the time the Nazis were masters of the situation on the island of Khortytsya, launched artillery. They came to the island "for the company" - absolutely peaceful, with the environment, militias evacuated civilians and collective-farm cattle. No one owes, according to the memoirs, nothing prevented the Germans, too, behaved "cultural."

















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