Vanilla (foty + letters)

Old paper on sea cabbage

Decided to reassemble materialchik an interesting Temko. I'm still collecting a lot learned not even think that vanilla everywhere except Mexico pollinated artificially. So here's the material and pictures:

Vanilla (Vanilla), genus of climbing plants from the orchid family (Orchidaceae), typical of Tropical. belt. Fragrant perennial vine, a parasite on the high trees, clinging to its aerial roots of the trunks and branches of trees, climb to the top, to the crown. The leaves are oval to lanceolate vanilla, fleshy. Vanilla flowers in large, light green (yellow-green), nice smelling, in racemes. Perianth of five oblong leaflets; sixth forming lip, rolled into a tube enclosing one stamen and pistil, which makes it difficult pollination, carried out at home a special local species of butterflies. Use fruit vanilla - boxes stuchkoobraznoy forms (single chamber fruit brown), length of 20-30 cm and a width of 1 cm, containing numerous small dark brown (to black) seeds. The best varieties are covered in addition bloom off-white crystals. Fruit plants up to 20, sometimes up to 50 years.

There are about 100 species distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres.

It should be noted that from the variety of species using only three, and the quality depends on the geographical plants of site:
Vanilla planifolia - gives several cultivars of vanilla better quality, with long pods of 20-25 centimeters.
Vanilla pompona - short pods of lower quality.
Vanilla tahitensis - Thai vanilla. Characterized by a reddish-brown color, the length of the pods - 12-14 cm. As spice it the least valuable of these.

The best varieties are grown in Mexico. The next best is the so-called bourbon or Réunionnaise - from the name of the island, where they grow. The fruits of her one-third less than the Mexican, the color darker. A similar kind of grows on the islands of Java and Ceylon. Vanilla Mauritius Seychelles consists of a cylindrical pods about 15 cm long. It is lighter than the Mexican, has a slight scent.
Other types of vanilla considered decorative.

At the very beginning of European history vanilla spice used exclusively for flavoring cocoa. But later it was used to flavor pastries. Europeans also added vanilla seeds into tobacco and smoked or chewed, and considered him a magic drug. German researcher Bizar Zimmerman found that vanilla is an extremely powerful aphrodisiac. In the 18th century the property was credited with vanilla heal stomach ulcers and be a good antidote.

There is a legend about the origin of vanilla:

Once, in the pre-vanilla is still time in Papantla (which will be called after the "fragrant") was born a girl unprecedented charm. And born in a difficult family - her father was governor Tenitsli third. Princess differed so incredible beauty that parents could not bear the thought of what it will have to give in marriage to a mortal man. Therefore, a girl, at the behest of ambitious moms and dads, became a priestess of the goddess of the harvest Tonoakayohua, from which favor the survival of the whole people. The duties of the Morning Star (so she called her daughter to the royal family) included decoration of the temple and sacrifice.
Once in the woods, where she went for the flowers to the goddess, saw her young prince named Young Deer, which instantly and passionately in love. He knew he could even pay with their lives for overseeing the priestess, but could not refuse pleasure to see his beloved. Soon he had a plan of kidnapping Stars. When she once again came to collect flowers, deer, hide in the bushes, jumped out of hiding, confessed his feeling princess grabbed by the arm and dragged him away - in the rainforest. At first she did not understand what was going on, but soon imbued with a sense of mutual and willingly allowed herself to snitch.
However, when they reached the mountains, to meet them from the cave came a terrible monster. His fiery breath lovers forced to go back on the road, where they were waiting for the priests of the tribe, offended misconduct colleagues. Ministers Tonoakayohua young lovers caught and cut off their heads. The priests learned a trembling heart, and put them on the altar of the goddess formidable that it does not really was angry, and the body as superfluous, dropped into a deep crevasse.
Some time later, at the place where blood was shed deer and stars became dry grass. In its place at a fantastic rate began to grow unknown shrub. A few days later he reached the height of human growth and covered with dense foliage. Soon, next to a bush rose bindweed that touching curled around the branches. Plants were like gentle lovers, merged in an embrace. All watched this phenomenon in amazement, and here one morning to Vjun flowers appeared, like a young woman dreaming of the beloved. After they dried up and withered in their place appeared thin graceful pods. From them came incomparable flavor, which could not be compared best temple incense Tonoakayohua.
Clerics realize that the blood of a young princess and her fiance has degenerated into a powerful thick brush and delicate orchid. Both plants have come to regard as sacred, and vanilla called "nectar of the gods" and since then has brought a gift goddess of the harvest.

Historical homeland vanilla - tropical forests of Eastern Mexico. And now it is cultivated in different parts of the globe - in many countries of the Caribbean (Jamaica, Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique), in the tropical parts of South America (especially in Guiana), Ceylon, Malaysia, Madagascar, Reunion, Seychelles, Comoros Islands, on the island of Mauritius and Polynesia - Tahiti and Hawaii. Moreover, 50% of the world production is concentrated on the islands of Madagascar and Reunion.

Vine growing very fast, up to one meter per month, under good conditions. And, as you read in the introduction, it is quite easy to caught on in other parts of the earth. That's just it was not enough. Needed not just adult plants, it was necessary to get the pods. But this turned out to be much more complicated.
Ovary vanilla ripens very slowly - 7-9 months after fertilization (almost like a human embryo). But get this ovary is still harder than wait gestation.

The flower is pollinated by bees vanilla kind of Melipona, which live only in Mexico, and one species of hummingbird. But they can be used to pollinate only 5% !!! colors. And Mexicans adapt himself pollinated by hand. Engaged in these children are able to handle the day about a thousand flowers. Vanilla flower flowers only one day. Flowers open in the afternoon and the night closed. And pollinate the flower need to keep up with these half-day.

Fruits of vanilla tear immature when they are odorless. This is usually done manually - with the help of scissors. And for "spice" conduct a ritual! Pods are immersed in hot - (80-85 ° C) - water for 20 seconds. They were then wrapped in woolen blankets and stored at 60 ° C. A day later they bring to the sun exactly one hour. The next day - one hour and ten minutes. And so - for a month, increasing the time by 10 minutes every day. Pods begin to acquire a brown color appears spicy bitter taste. Then the pods are dried in the shade outdoors until the white bloom. The initial weight is less than 1/3, and most importantly, during this month of vanilla, only intuition peasant affects the quality of the final product.

In addition to growing, harvesting and preparation, the quality is affected and storage. This is properly prepared for the use and storage of vanilla just amazes resistance. A case where after 36 years of storage, the spice has retained all its properties. But in violation of the rules of storage pods become brittle, lose their elasticity, crack, lose its color. At least half of vanilla properties is lost.

Remember that high-quality pods should be soft, elastic, slightly twisted, oily to the touch, dark brown in color with small, barely visible, white crystals on the surface. And depending on the deviation from the standard, vanilla spread over 8 classes (fine long, lovely long enough beautiful, good, and so on. D.).

I think that all of the above, a good explanation of the high cost of this spice.
Note that real vanilla is expensive. And the fact that we usually sold in stores - it's not vanilla, and vanillin. In technical handbooks wrote about him: "The by-product of rosin from pine resin." Cheap substitute invented simultaneously in England (Goble, 1876), in Germany (Tiemann and Germany 1874, 1876) and in France (de Laer, 1891). And the fact that we buy in the guise of vanilla sugar, a mixture of synthetic vanillin powder and powdered sugar.

The smell of vanilla flavor subtleties deprived of this vanilla, but so sharp and strong that one gram of it replaces and fifty grams of vanilla sticks.

What is contained in these pods, giving ordinary-looking plant such properties?

"In the fruit contains glycoside glyukovanilin, essential oil (0, 5-0, 8%), mucous and tannins. Fermentation glyukovanilin split into glucose and vanillin. The main flavoring agent vanilla is vanillin-4-hydroxy-W-metoksilbenzal-aldehyde. Its content in the range 0, 75-2, and 9% (12, 5%). »
Clever. Perhaps not everyone knows, but for sure.

In folk medicine, vanilla is used in fever, dyspepsia, chlorosis, nervous system disorders, mental illness, sleepiness, rheumatism. Is used as an aphrodisiac.
Vanilla, almost the most subtle spice that is used in cooking. It is added to all possible sweet dishes: in a jam, cookies, cakes, pies, muffins, cakes, cakes, sweet pies, puddings, cheese products, creams, jellies, compotes, mousses, cocoa, dessert dishes from fruits, sweet fruit and milk soups, sweet sauces, jellies.

In addition to the use of vanilla in cooking, it is actively used in perfumery, aromatherapy, in love magic.

Vanilla plant is considered to Jupiter, the element fire, warm aura.
The most active in the magic of vanilla is used for two purposes - love potions and rejuvenating. Vanilla increases vitality, improves mental ability, use it in rituals aimed at the acquisition of power. Vanilla oil has a stimulating effect on women, and these are in the preparation of a love potion. The aroma of the spices relieves irritation, brings a sense of peace of mind, soothes. Whole beans are added in love charms, or worn on the body (for the same purpose).
In magic vanilla corresponds concept of purity, feminine appeal and affection.

Dobavleno1 in [mergetime] 1269346531 [/ mergetime]


That's all, hope to learn a lot of interesting things.



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