May 20, 1961 out of the gate of the American car body company Hess & Eisenhardt went very unusual car. The huge six-meter Convertible Limousine, built on Lincoln Continental, designed for the garage special purpose president of the United States. This spectacular dark blue handsome tragic fate has prepared fame. After two and a half years at the Lincoln index SS-100-X, John Fitzgerald Kennedy go to that same trip to Dallas ...
Next 26 photos (clickable) + text. The end will outline!
In this picture, the original version of the Lincoln Continental SS-100-X - without body armor. Unfortunately, the black-and-white image can not be seen striking dark blue color scheme elegant Convertible limousine
Today, however, we will not remember the details of the assassination attempt on the president loud. Let with the mysterious events of the tragedy half a century ago versed historians, politicians and other lovers of conspiracy theories. We also thought that the fiftieth anniversary of Kennedy's last car - a worthy occasion to remember other very remarkable model of the garage special purpose US presidential administration.
The first machines ordered in the presidential garage William Taft, were two Pierce Arrow, among which was shown in the picture Model 48 Suburban
Generally speaking, the advantages of the new mode of transport in the late 19th century had time to evaluate William McKinley. It is known that the 25th president of the United States as a passenger ride in a steam car Locomobile, and sat behind the wheel of the chief designer of the machine Frilan Stanley. Preference Parovik another well-known in their time stamps - White gave the following laws and inhabitant of Capitol - Theodore Roosevelt. Yet truly automotive era for American presidents began in 1909, when the newly elected William Taft replaced stables White House garage special purpose. And as a true innovator, open-minded, Mr. Taft in turn exploited the steam White M, the electric double Baker, then a couple of petrol models now forgotten brand Pierce Arrow.
Another vehicle of President Taft - 40-horsepower steam engine White model M. Note the American coat of arms emblazoned on the rear side door
In the early 20th century, the car was considered a fantastic luxury available only to the rich and the lucky chosen. Not surprisingly, many politicians called the car a striking symbol of class stratification. During the political youth of the 28th US President Woodrow Wilson publicly denounced "samobeglye crews" as "the main perpetrators of the growth of the socialist sentiments in society." Yet who entered the White House, Mr. Wilson quickly forgot about the pathetic, having acquired several vehicles at once. In the garage, who ruled the country from 1913 to 1921 he was considered the first president not only quite expensive limousine Pierce Arrow 1919, but also phenomenally expensive Rolls-Royce 40/50 h. p.
President Coolidge near 24 Buick equipped with radio. Clearly visible antenna and a speaker on the steps
In all of this the first owners of the garage special purpose vehicle can not be called fans. It only came to power in 1921, Warren Harding was able to drive. It is curious that in the second half of 20th car garage number 1 are special-purpose vehicles in the full sense of the term. Until now, the presidential model is not fundamentally different from their civilized brothers, with the possible exception of decorative stars and stripes flags on the hood. But cars garage, John Calvin Coolidge, who led the country from 1923 to 1929-th, markedly changed. Suffice it to recall Buick 24, laced with radio equipment, so the president has always remained in touch with the office.
First created by the order of President Car - Lincoln Sunshine Special. In fact, it is a custom box from the company Brunn & Company on the chassis of a standard Lincoln Series K
You've probably already noticed that the first government of the garage park colorful palette of different brands, among them from time to time come across foreign car brands. "Ugh, how unpatriotic!" - Decided in Washington, and by the early 30-ies on the role of transport No. 1 claim only products of the American automobile industry: Packard, Hudson and Plymouth, but increasingly Cadillac or Lincoln.
After the US entry into World Franklin Delano Roosevelt moved from beautiful, but lacking in armor Sunshine Special obsolete, but safe as a safe Cadillac 341A, seized near the Al Capone!
Thus, the 31st US President Herbert Hoover, in spite of the terrible impoverishment of the people caused by the Great Depression, do not hesitate to unroll a 16-cylinder Cadillac with a body of the company Fleetwood. But the first car made specially commissioned by the government of the garage and, among other things, taking into account the wishes of the FBI, was a unique Lincoln Sunshine Special. Elegant Convertible Limousine appeared in the garage of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939. However, at present not so, and it was "speshel." In fact, the handsome 12-cylinder differs from conventional models Runoff presence siren, speaker, radio, and, of course, a registered body. In addition, Lincoln was wider sills and a handle on the back to the guards of the escort had something to hold on, accompanying the machine. But about any reservations and out of the question!
However, at times, Roosevelt traveled on the most common vehicles. The picture shows the US president (next to the driver) in the salon convertible De Soto S8 1941 during a visit to the plant Boeing
Not surprisingly, immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the US entry into World Secret Service, seriously worried about the security of the president, he insisted that Roosevelt changed the car. The elegant convertible Sunshine Special president moved to the armored belly Sadillac 341A, once confiscated not somebody, but his Al Capone! First let '40s car, created back in 1928, looked a little archaic, but the 12-cylinder chariot King gangsters equipped with, respectively, the status of its legendary owner: bulletproof glass thickness of three and a half centimeters, steel plate in the door, even as say, a specially equipped cache of automatic weapons. Better safe than sorry, you know ...
Gary Truman, the 34th president of the United States, and one of its 75 offices of Cadillac Fleetwood
Armored Cadillac 341a cope with its mission. At least for the attempted assassination of the leader of the United States during World War II history is silent. Alas, so it does not always happen. The first president, who are in the crosshairs while in the car, became Theodore Roosevelt - a relative of Franklin. December 14, 1912 during a public speech in the presidential program (Theodore put forward his own candidacy for a third term), he was shot in the chest. Despite the wound, Roosevelt continued his speech and then recovered, but lost the election.
According to the accounts of contemporaries, Truman did not like cars Concern GM, so when it was the turn replace the famous Sunshine Special, created more for Roosevelt, order regained Lincoln. The new president's chariot is based on an extended model of Cosmopolitan 1950
February 15, 1933 an Italian immigrant Giuseppe Dzangara shot five times in the Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who, as usual, spoke to the audience from the back seat of his limousine Convertible. Only by sheer luck, none of the bullets hit the president, however, at the same time proved to be mortally wounded Chicago Mayor Anthony Tsermak. Surprisingly, even this incident did not signal for the Secret Service agents. And when Lincoln in the postwar years, received an order for a new presidential limousine, no one thought to stipulate the possibility of booking.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, who succeeded Truman in the White House in the winter of 1953, was not so scrupulous in choosing a car. In this picture "Ike" as they called the 35th US president, welcomes supporters from interior Cadillac Eldorado Special
So tragically famous Lincoln Continental SS-100-X, created specifically for John F. Kennedy, did not even have bulletproof protection. While in the rest of the machine, designed and built "Ford's" special projects department of Ford in conjunction with BCM company Hess & Ernhardt, turned extraordinary.
By order of Eisenhower in 1954 at Lincoln Cosmopolitan establish transparent plexiglass roof. As such, the car lasted until the emergence of the infamous Lincoln SS-100-X
It is not surprising, because myself Lincoln Continental 1961 (factory index 74A), which is built on the basis of the president's crew had the reputation of one of the most beautiful cars of its time. This 4-door convertible was awarded the American Institute of Industrial Design - an organization rarely encourage cars and their creators. Even the production version of Continental was one of the biggest - 5 m 39 cm - and heavy - 2365 kg curb weight - models of post-war America. But experts Hess & Eisenhardt significantly increased wheelbase, resulting in long machine vymahala 6 m 40 cm! To cope with the grown up to 3630 kg weight, 7-liter V-shaped "eight" from the standard 300 hp. from. boosted to 350 "horses».
In 1962, the serial 4-door Lincoln Continental, which is built on the basis of SS-100-X, was the most expensive convertible in the United States. The price starts at $ 6700
As you can see, for his frequent trips and Kennedy used the standard version of the Continental
Presidential Lincoln relied multiple variants rear roof - from the soft curtain for good weather to clear plexiglass hood in case of visits to the rain. Special equipment included a radio, telephone, folding footrests and handle employee of the presidential guard, and for the first time in the history of presidential cars and air conditioning system. However, the car was so large that the cooling efficiency of the rear compartment has been extremely low. In hot weather, especially with the set-top plexiglass SS-100-X turns into a sauna. Not surprisingly, 22 November 1963 on a trip to Dallas Kennedy and his wife went with an open top. Day as luck would have turned out to be hot and sunny ...
From left top: Kennedy and the governor of Ethiopia Haile Sillasie inside the SS-100-X during a parade in Washington. The picture is dated October 1, 1963
Right arrow key at the top: The passenger cabin of the Lincoln SS-100-X. Additional armchair in front of the passenger compartment by a partition reclined, and a sofa with electrically can be raised slightly, the president was more visible to voters. Well, apparently, Lee Harvey Oswald, too ...
In the bottom photo: John and Jacqueline Kennedy in the cabin open SS-100-X. Perhaps if the November 22, 1963 at the Lincoln was a plexiglass roof, then the task is to shoot at the president would be more difficult ...
After the tragedy on Elm Street unlucky Lincoln-SS-100-X was waiting for a complete overhaul. First things first booked the car, as they say, from nose to tail, that is from the glass to the hard top - because Convertible Limousine has been a regular limousine. Cheerful dark blue body-color which is so liked Kennedy, changed the strict black funeral, after which a modified SS-100-X again went to serve in the White House. This Lincoln rode the next US president Lyndon Johnson, used car and Ford and Carter administrations. But now, perhaps, the most famous in the history of presidential car is on the eternal docked in the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn.
The upgraded version of the SS-100-X sample 1964. The characteristic features - a rigid roof booking, bulletproof glass and black body color
Lincoln SS-100-X on eternal parking in the museum named after Henry Ford
Of course, since all cars destined for the head of the nation's garage, on a mandatory basis are protected by the very highest level. However, the most desperate hand does not stop and it is. Since 22 September 1975 some Sarah Moore shot at Gerald R. Ford, mounted, in a Lincoln Continental, and six years later, the same car was the cause of injury of Ronald Reagan. And in this case, well made book limousine played a cruel joke with his master. After all, none of the bullets fired by John Hinckley, March 30, 1981, did not hit the target. Only one of them, ricocheted from the armor, the president landed in the chest. However, in less than a fortnight Reagan was discharged from the hospital and Hinckley still serving a life sentence in a specialized psychiatric hospital.
Cadillac Fleetwood 1982
Curiously, this turned out to be the penultimate Continental limousine Lincoln, who served in the garage special purpose. Not only as the people from the secret service turned superstitious and decided to change the brand board number 1. So, shortly after the assassination attempt on Reagan moved elongated Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham, and since 1993, all American presidents travel by car this premium brand.
Since the 80s of last century began to displace Cadillac Lincoln from the garage special purpose. Pictured Fleetwood limousine 1983, created in touring car company Hess & Eisenhardt
Lincoln Continental Town Car 1989 - the last limo this brand, in the service of the White House
And now the creators of special vehicles do not listen to any stranger whose opinion, even if it is the opinion of the president. So, Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham, who in 1993 went to the garage, Bill Clinton, at the insistence of the Security Service, are not equipped with running boards on the sides and roof hatch. This fashion, once introduced by Richard Nixon, who loved to greet supporters, leaning out of the hatch, guard considered potentially dangerous. Incidentally, Fleetwood 42 th President of the United States (now the machine is in "the heart of the Clinton Presidential"), quite possibly, the last of the boards spetsgarazha that on display. In the future, served their limousines planned to send to landfills and shooting to studying more effective protection systems, and then destroy ... so that agents of the terrorist groups have learned all the secrets.
Photo: Richard Nixon (pictured right) greet the audience loved, leaning out of the sunroof of his Lincoln Continental
Cadillac Fleetwood Brougham 1993 faithfully served Bill Clinton
And this decision can hardly be called reinsurance. Even a glance at the official transport of the current president is enough to understand - perfection has been reached. The latest Cadillac One presented exactly to the inauguration of Barack Obama January 20, 2009. Limo, who bears the title of "Official US presidential car" looks like an elongated version of the sedan DTS. But it's much, much harder. First, attention is drawn to headlights and mirrors from the Escalade, and the rear optics of sportsedan STS. But the most important thing is that the car is built on the chassis of full-size pickup GMC Kodiak C4500, endurance load frame is wearing stylized Cadillac bodywork. And gain here will not interfere, because due to the total weight of the car reservation is about 7-8 tons! Instead, and is protected by "board number 1," cleaner than Fort Knox.
The car of the current occupant of the White House Cadillac One in service since 2009. By the way, this is the first in the history of US presidential limousine model with a diesel engine. The car looks like a serial Cadillac - Obama's limousine was built on the chassis of a pickup truck GMC Kodiak
For example, the driver's door of the presidential Cadillac weighs as much as the cockpit door and passenger jet Boeing. The thickness of armor in some places reaches 18 cm, which allows you to withstand even a direct hit from a grenade launcher. Bottom limousine Kevlar-reinforced, designed for anti-tank grenade explosion, and not afraid to puncture tires Good Year run flat do not lose their properties even with bullet holes. Interior is completely isolated from the outside world, and thanks to the autonomous system of ventilation and air conditioning will not harm the president even attack using biological weapons. In the trunk there is a supply of oxygen, fire extinguishing system, and even - just in case - the present bank of blood group and Rh which corresponds to the presidential. It has an advanced driver's night vision system, moreover, is hidden inside the small arsenal of small arms.
Where are you, where I am. Cadillac One accompanies the president during all international visits
After 18-centimeter glass Cadillac One our youngest daughter smiling Barack Obama - Sasha
Another thing is that the dynamic performance Cadillac One not very impressive. We know that the machine is equipped with 6, 5-liter V-shaped eight-cylinder turbodiesel. Engine power is not reported, but in the standard version, this engine develops 250 to 400 liters. from. In any case, the maximum speed of the presidential limousine does not exceed 100 km / h, and up to this very hundreds of car accelerates in 15 seconds.