Top battleships of World
By the end of the Second World class fast battleships reached the limit of its development, combining a profitable destructive power and security dreadnoughts high speed battle cruisers, these samples naval weapons made a lot of amazing feats under the flags of all the belligerent countries.
Create a "rating" battleships of those years is not possible - in the first place claimed just four favorite, and each of them has the most serious reasons. As for the other places of honor pedestal it is impossible to make a conscious choice. Only individual tastes and subjective preferences. Each battleship is characterized by its unique design, the chronicle of combat use, and often tragic history of death.
They each created their own, specific tasks and conditions of service, a certain opponent, and in accordance with the selected concept of the use of the fleet.
Other theaters of hostilities dictate different rules: inland seas and the open ocean, proximity or, conversely, extreme remoteness of bases. Classic squadron fights with the same monsters and bloody mess with reflection endless air attacks and shelling fortifications on the coast of the enemy.
Ships can not be viewed in isolation from the geopolitical situation, the state of scientific and industrial and financial spheres of - all this has left a considerable mark on their design.
A direct comparison between some Italian "Littorio" and the US "North Caroline" is quite possible.
However, applicants for the title of best battleships invisible to the naked eye. This is the "Bismarck", "Tirpitz", "Iowa" and "Yamato" - ships which are heard, even those who had never interested in the fleet.
Life on the precepts of Sun Tzu
... Battleships Her Majesty "Anson" and "Duke of York" carriers "Viktories", "Fyuries" escort carriers "Sichero", "Empyuer", "Pesyuer", "Fenser" cruiser "Belfast", "Bellona" "Cavalier", "Sheffield", "Jamaica" destroyers "Javelin", "Virago", "Meteor", "Swift", "Vigilante", "Ueykful", "Onslaught" ... - only about 20 units under the British , Canadian and Polish flags, and two tanker fleet and 13 Squadron based aircraft.
Only in this format in April 1944 the British ventured closer to the Alta fjord - where under the gloomy vaults of Norwegian rocks rusted proud Kriegsmarine, Super Battleship "Tirpitz».
Results of Operation "Tungsten" assessed as controversial - deck aircraft managed to bomb the German base and add-ins to cause serious damage to the battleship. However, the next "Pearl Harbor" could not - put "Tirpitz" British mortal wounds could not.
The Germans lost 123 men killed, but the battleship is still a threat to shipping in the North Atlantic. The main problem is not so much taken numerous hits bombs and fires on the upper deck, as newly discovered leak in the underwater part of the case - the result of a previous British attacks using mini-submarines.
... Just the stay in the Norwegian waters of the "Tirpitz" withstood dozens of air strikes - in total, during the war in the attacks on the battleship was attended by about 700 aircraft of the British and Soviet aviation! In vain.
Hiding behind torpedo network, the ship was invulnerable to torpedo allies. At the same time, bombs proved ineffective against such a well-protected targets; could indefinitely raid armor citadel of the battleship, but the destruction of the superstructures could critically affect the combat capability "Tirpitz».
Meanwhile, Britons stubbornly rushed to a parking lot of the Teutonic beast: a mini-submarine and man-torpedo; raids deck and strategic aviation. Agents, informants from local, regular monitoring of the air base ...
"Tirpitz" became a unique embodiment of the ideas of the ancient Chinese general and philosopher Sun Tzu ("Art of War") - without firing a single shot at the enemy ships, he forged three years all the actions of the British in the North Atlantic!
One of the most effective battleships of World invincible "Tirpitz" has become a sinister scarecrow for the British Admiralty: planning of any operation begins with the question "What if
"Tirpitz" will leave his camp and out to sea?
It is the "Tirpitz" scared escort the convoy PQ-17. He was hunted all battleships and aircraft carriers Fleet in the Arctic. He was shot Boat K-21. For him, "Lancaster" from the Royal Air Force at the airport Berry settled near Arkhangelsk. But it was useless. The British were able to destroy the super-battleship until the end of the war by a monstrous five-ton bombs "Tollboy».
Tallboy («big man»)
The spectacular success of the battleship "Tirpitz" - the legacy left over from the legendary "Bismarck" - a sister ship of the line, a meeting which forever instilled fear in the hearts of the British: the sight froze funerary pillar of flame shot up over the British battle cruiser HMS Hood. During the battle in the Denmark Strait gloomy Teutonic Knights it took only five volleys that have accounts with the British "gentleman».
"Bismarck" and "Prinz Eugen" in the combat campaign
And then came the day of reckoning. For the "Bismarck" chased squadron of 47 ships and submarines 6 Her Majesty. After the battle, the British have calculated to flood the beast, they had to release the 8 torpedoes and 2876 rounds of the main, secondary and universal caliber!
Character "faithfulness." Battleships type "Yamato»
In the world there are three useless things: the Pyramid of Cheops, the Great Wall and the battleship "Yamato" ... Really?
With battleships "Yamato" and "Musashi" occurred here what history they have been unjustly slandered. Around them formed a stable image of the "losers" useless "vendervafel" shamefully killed in the first encounter with the enemy.
But in fact we have the following:
The ships were designed and built in a given period of time had to war and finally took a heroic death in the face of a numerically superior enemy forces.
What more is required of them?
Bright victories? Alas, in a situation in which Japan was in the period of 1944-45., Even the king of the sea, Poseidon is unlikely to be able to do better than battleships, "Musashi" and "Yamato».
Yes, especially the weak air defenses - not monstrous fireworks "sansiki 3" (anti-aircraft projectiles caliber 460 mm), nor the hundreds of small-caliber automatic magazine-fed can not replace modern anti-aircraft guns and a control system to adjust the fire according to the radar.
I beg of you! "Musashi" and "Yamato" died after 10-11 torpedo hit - many would not stand none of the battleship in the world (for comparison, the probability of death of American "Iowa" by hitting six torpedoes, according to the calculations themselves as Americans, estimated at 90%) .
Otherwise, the battleship "Yamato" corresponded to the phrase "very, very»
The biggest battleship in history and, concurrently, the largest warship, took part in World War II.
70 thousand tons of the total tonnage.
Chief Caliber - 460 mm.
Bronepoyas - 40 centimeters of solid metal.
The walls of the conning tower - half a meter of armor.
The thickness of the frontal part of the tower of the Civil Code even more - 65 centimeters of steel protection.
The grand spectacle!
The main miscalculation of the Japanese - the veil of extreme secrecy enveloping everything that was associated with the type of battleship "Yamato". Today there are only a few photos of these monsters - mostly taken from aboard the US aircraft.
And in vain!
Such ships should be proud of and not a little scare of the enemy - in fact the Yankees until recently were confident that they are dealing with conventional battleships with guns caliber 406 mm.
With proper public relations policy, the very news of the existence of the battleship "Yamato" and "Musashi" could cause panic among the commanders of the US Navy and its allies - as happened with the "Tirpitz". The Yankees have rushed to build similar ships with a half-meter armor and cannons of 460 or 508 mm - in general, it would be fun. The strategic impact of the Japanese super-battleship could be much higher.
As died leviathans?
"Musashi" walked all day in the Sibuyan Sea under heavy attack aircraft from five US aircraft carriers. It was the whole day and in the evening died, having variously estimated 11-19 10-17 torpedoes and bombs ...
Do you think there were large security and military stability of the Japanese battleship? And who among his peers would be able to repeat similar?
"Yamato" from the height of death ... was his fate. Traces torpedo planes from the sky black ...
To put it bluntly, "Yamato" made honorable seppuku, leaving a part of a small fleet to eight aircraft carriers 58th task force. The result is predictable - two hundred aircraft devoured battleship and a few escort two hours.
Museum "Yamato" in Chur. Japanese people cherish the memory of the "Varyag
The era of high technology. Battleships like "Iowa»
What if instead of "Yamato", towards 58 th operatively connected battleship Admiral Mitshera went identical to the American "Iowa"? What if the Japanese industry managed to create air defense system similar to those that were available at that time on the USS?
Whatever it ended in a fight between a battleship and American aircraft carriers, whether the Japanese sailors of similar Mk.37, Ford Mk.I Gunfire Control Computer, SK, SK-2, SP, SR, Mk.14, Mk.51, Mk.53 ...?
For dry indices hidden masterpieces of technical progress - analog computers and automated fire control systems, radar, radio altimeters and shells with a radar fuze - thanks to all these "chips" flak "Iowa" was at least five times more accurate and effective than shots Japanese gunners .
And considering the appalling rate of anti-aircraft guns Mk.12, highly effective 40 mm "Bofors" and automatic "Oerlikon" with belt-fed ... There is a significant chance that the attack by US aircraft could drown in the blood and the damaged neo-Yamato could hobble to Okinawa and run aground, becoming invincible artillery battery (according to the plan of operation Ten-Ichi-Go).
It could be ... alas, "Yamato" went on the seabed, and an impressive range of anti-aircraft fire was the prerogative of the US "Iowa".
Accept the idea that the best ship - again the Americans, is absolutely impossible. Haters US in a moment will find a dozen reasons why "Iowa" can not be considered the most advanced battleship.
"Iowa" heavily criticized for its lack of medium-sized (150 ... 155 mm) - in contrast to all German, Japanese, French or Italian battleships, American ships have been forced to fend off the attacks of the enemy destroyers only universal anti-aircraft guns (5 inches, 127 mm). < br />
Also, among the disadvantages of the "Iowa" refers to the absence of transfer offices in the towers of the Civil Code, the worst seaworthiness and "vskhodimost to wave" (as compared with the same British "Vanguard"), the relative weakness of their PTZ to the Japanese "Long Lance", "muhlezh" with the stated maximum speed (measured mile on battleships barely accelerate to 31 nodes - instead of the declared 33!).
But perhaps the most serious of all the accusations - the weakness of reservations than any of their peers - especially a lot of questions cause traverznye bulkhead "Iowa".
Of course, defenders of the American Shipbuilding Now shall proceed forth steam, arguing that all of the disadvantages of "Iowa" - just an illusion, a ship designed for the specific situation and is ideally suitable for the conditions of the Pacific theater of operations.
The lack of medium caliber was the advantage of American battleships: to deal with surface and air targets lacked universal "pyatidyuymovok" - to take on board 150 mm gun as a "ballast" did not make sense. And the presence of "advanced" fire control systems completely offsetting factor is the lack of "medium-caliber».
Reproaches bad seaworthy - a purely subjective opinion, "Iowa" has always been considered extremely stable artillery platform. As for the strong "entanglement" the bow of a battleship in stormy weather - the myth was born in our time. Modern sailors were surprised by the armored monster habits: instead of quietly rocking on the waves, heavy "Iowa" was cutting the waves like a knife.
Increased wear trunks GK explained very heavy shell (which is good) - armor-piercing shell weighing Mk.8 1225 kg is the heaviest in the world of his caliber ammunition.
With an assortment of shells from the "Iowa" I never had a problem: the ship had a set armor-piercing and high-explosive ammunition, and charges of different power; After the war there were "cassette» Mk.144 and Mk.146, stuffed with explosive grenades in the amount of 400 and, respectively, 666 pieces. Later it was developed spetsboepripasov Mk.23 nuclear warhead with a capacity of 1 kt.
As for the "shortfall" in the design speed measured mile, the tests "Iowa" were carried out at a limited capacity GEM - for no good reason, to force the machine to project 254,000 hp thrifty Yankees refused.
The overall impression of "Iowa" can ruin only their relatively low zaschischennnost ... however, this shortcoming is compensated by a lot of other advantages battleship.
"Iowa" have seniority Pobol than all the other battleships of WWII combined - World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Lebanon, Iraq ... Battleships this type have experienced all - the modernization of the mid-1980s made it possible to extend the life of veterans to the beginning of the XXI century - battleships lost part artillery weapons in return for 32 SLCM "Tomahawk", 16 anti-ship missiles "Harpoon" SAM "SiSperrou" modern radars and systems melee "Phalanx".
However, the wear and tear of the mechanisms and the ending of the Cold War played a significant role in the fate of the most famous American battleships - four monster left early part of the US Navy and turned into a major naval museum.
Off the coast of Iraq
Well, the leaders are determined. Now it is time to mention a number of other armored monsters - because each of them is worthy of their portion of surprise and admiration.
For example, «Jean Bart» - one of the two built battleships of the "Richelieu".
Elegant French ship with a unique silhouette: two chetyrehorudiynye tower at the bow, a stylish superstructure dashing backward curved chimney ...
Battleships of the "Richelieu" is considered one of the most advanced ships in class: having less 5-10 thousand tons of displacement than any "Bismarck" or "Littorio", "French" is almost not inferior to them by the power of arms, and the parameter " security "- the thickness of the circuit and the reservation" Richelieu "was even better than many of its larger peers. And all this was successfully combined with the speed of over 30 knots - "French" was the fastest of the European battleships!
The unusual fate of these battleships: the flight of unfinished ships from the shipyard in order to avoid capture by the Germans, the naval battle with the British and American navies in Casablanca and Dakar, repair in the United States, and then a long happy service under the flag of France until the second half of the 1960s.
But a great trio with Apennine peninsula - Italian battleships type "Littorio».
These ships are usually the subject of fierce criticism, but if you apply an integrated approach in their assessment, it turns out that the battleship "Littorio" not too bad on the background of their British or German peers, as is commonly believed.
The project lay ingenious concept of the Italian navy - to hell with greater autonomy and fuel supply! - Italy is located in the middle of the Mediterranean, all the bases at hand.
Savings reserve load was spent on weapons and armor. As a result, "Littorio" were 9 major caliber guns in three rotating turret - longer than any of their European "colleagues».
"Roma & quot;
Noble silhouette contours quality, good seakeeping and high speed - in the best tradition of Italian shipbuilding school.
Clever torpedo protection based on calculations by Umberto Pugliese.
At least noteworthy scheme with spaced booking. Generally, in all that relates to the reservation, the battleships of the "Littorio" deserve the highest ratings.
And the rest ...