In May 2008, archaeologists from the University of Bristol, conducting excavations in the castle Château Gaillard (France), made a sensational discovery. At a depth of two meters was discovered complex iron objects, constitutes the protective armor of a warrior. Archaeologists have discovered a number of second burial, a well-preserved skeleton of a horse. In the excavation were also found coins Denier Tournois (frants.denier tournois - Tours denier) French type denarius minted by Philip II Augustus (1180-1223), as well as coin minting of the duchy of Aquitaine named Richard, suggesting that the results apply to armor the period of the reign of Richard I of England (1189-1199gg.). Château Gaillard was the favorite castle of King Richard. He did not spare him neither the means nor forces. They say that the King personally chose the site for its construction and actively participated in the development of the project. As conceived by Richard Château Gaillard was supposed to protect the British possessions in the north-western part of France, as Richard the Lionheart, being the English king, and carried the title of Duke of Normandy.
"At the chalk cliffs, resembles the shape of his spur, at the foot of which lies the town of Petit Andelys, stands the Château Gaillard,
reigning over the whole Upper Normandy. Just at this point Sen among obese grassland forms a wide bend, and Château Gaillard, as guardian, looking around her expanse of water for ten leagues up and down the river. By order of King Richard the Lionheart built it for two years, bypassing the contracts and in order to threaten the king of France from here. Seeing his creation, built on a cliff, sparkling white fresh masonry, surrounded by a double ring of fortifications, reconciliation bleed bars, loopholes, with thirteen towers and two-story main tower, Richard exclaimed: "What a merry castle!" - Hence the name of the Chateau -Gayar (Chateau-Gaillard - »cheerful lock & quot; (FF.)) & quot; describes the so-locking Maurice Druon in the" prisoner of Château Gaillard »
"My soldiers will take the castle, even if its walls are made of iron" - foretold the French King Philip II Augustus. "My soldiers will defend it, even if its walls are made out of oil" - defiantly replied King Richard the Lionheart.
Ten years later Philip II Augustus, along with other Norman lands robbed Richard and his favorite krepost.S since Château Gaillard has ceased to be a military fortress, it was turned into a royal prison.
Here crammed important state criminals. Moreover, for someone removed the drawbridge Château Gaillard, never destined to see the white light. & Quot; In 1314, the castle is a place of imprisonment of two daughters of the French king Philip IV the Fair, Marguerite and Blanche. During the Hundred Years War the castle was subjected to repeated sieges Gaillard. In 1417 it passed into the hands of the British after shestnadtsatimesyachnoy siege. Companion Jeanne D Arc captures it in 1429. But in 1430, the fortress again came under the rule of the British. In 1449, Charles VII Winner returns it to his possession. At the end of the last siege of Henry of Navarre was a royal decree ordered the destruction of the fortifications. Andelisa believers, "kapusiny" in 1603 and "Penitente" in 1610, obtained permission for the destruction of the castle. The collapse of the walls stopped in 1611, when "kapusiny" felt that they already ruined walls to cover the demand for stone.
In 1852, the castle ruins were found Gaillard historical monument of France. Multiple archaeological excavations carried out in the area from 1885 to 2000. In 2008, scientists from the University of Bristol, led by Professor John Williams, Dr. archeology, reached an agreement with the Government of France to resume excavation and, apparently, not in vain. Found burial was unique and attracted the attention of specialists from different countries: archaeologists, historians and even engineers.
Unusual in this discovery scientists seemed very location of fragments of iron armor. From above they looked like the outline of a bicycle.
What was the astonishment of archaeologists, when carefully managed to clear fragments extracted from the centuries-old layers of soil and Zoom. Without a doubt, these were parts lain in the ground for almost nine centuries knight bike!
"-This Is really a very unusual find - the head of the expedition, Professor of the University of Bristol, John Williams - a bicycle in the twelfth century, it is hard to believe, but in the course of excavations doubts about the authenticity of burial we did not have.
Well-preserved metal fragments, soon managed to explain. Spectral analysis of the samples showed the presence of residues of candle wax. Apparently, before burial ancient bicycle surface has been treated with molten wax, which is not allowed to destroy the metal corrosion process. Speaking of the metal.