The financial crisis, walking up to the world's stock exchanges, now seems to be able to bring to the labor exchange office workers of various ranks. Unemployment, which has long been associated with the miners, knocking helmets on humpback bridge, for the first time in recent Russian history, getting to the "white collar". Moreover, our managers in the labor market are now competing foreigners who lost their jobs at home. And ordinary office staff personnel officers seriously advised to learn some working specialties.
At the global level
If at the beginning of the crisis seemed to be reeling only financial institutions, it is now clear: the dismissal will be many. To a feed mixed messages about spilling American Internet giant Yahoo !, which dismisses 1, 5 thousand. Employees, and the French Institute of Oncology, which, to make ends meet, reduces to 150 people. Thousands of laid off employees, for example, Volvo and Hewlett-Packard.
International Labour Organization (WTO) has calculated that in the world of work lose about 20 million people. In the first place in areas such as finance, construction, real estate, automotive, tourism, services. WTO says that it is time to think about "saving the real economy».
In Russia, mass layoffs have not yet started, about layoffs reported only a few companies, mainly from the financial sector. The rest still prefer not to create unnecessary noise and get ready to meet the crisis, without attracting attention. "White collar" is not very comforting.
Obsolete model unemployed
Typical Russian unemployed former sample - such as it appears to Rosstat, - There is a strong desire to hire him. To early September - the time of arrival of the crisis in Russia - the most in the company of people were graduating from grade school 11 - 34, 8% of the total. Unemployed with vocational education - about 18%, about the same weaned in colleges. Unemployed people with higher education in Russia only 11, 5%. The average age of the unemployed - 34, 8 years. Altogether there are 5, 14 million, or 6, 9% of the economically active population.
However, these data, though coming from Rosstat, have not quite official. The fact that they are collected by the method of the International Labour Organization, that is allow you to see almost real picture of unemployment. The paradox is that Rostrud reality is different: the unemployed to look in the face of the state, you need to register at the labor exchange. At this step are not all lost their jobs: registered in Russia only 1, 7 million officially unemployed (about one-third of the actual number). Registered unemployed in Moscow - 18, 6 thousand. (As of 17 October), the real number is estimated at about 100 thousand.
In each district of Moscow has employment centers, where you can officially become unemployed. Their activities are regulated by municipal employment service, which in turn reports to the Labor Agency.
Functions of the Russian employment services are quite extensive. It not only records the unemployed and pay them benefits, but also helps to find a job, free sends to professional courses and even psychological assistance. In the US, for example, the problem is similar to the service much more narrow. It simply registers the unemployed (for this he needs to lose no fault of their own work and to be in its active search) and pay him benefits. So why is it on the American labor office people are losing jobs, and our - not particularly?
"In Russia, the unemployment benefit - about £ 30 a month - outraged the head of the information department of the Moscow Employment Service, Ph.D. Andrew Grinberg.- This time in 25 lower than in the US or in France, where the unemployed pay about a thousand. Therefore, come to us is considered by some disgrace ».
In the US, the size of the benefit depends on length of service and salary of a particular person to job loss, as well as the laws of the state where he resides. In practice, it turns out $ 200-400 per week. However, after 26 weeks of assistance is terminated because it is believed that this is sufficient time for the job.
Thousand rubles a month (average allowance) is extremely difficult to draw even a person who does not work. And in that employment service can help the unemployed something other than allowances, few believe. To test how our employment service to perform its functions on the selection of works, the correspondent of "Money" was visited by one of its centers.
Capacity of the Russian labor exchanges, it was decided to check on prospective employees, lost his seat because of the crisis turmoil. My friend Anna graduated from the Faculty of International Journalism at MGIMO. A few months studying in Spain, knows the language. Plus English and a little German. In September, she got a job in a large state-owned enterprise editor-translator from Spanish into salary 35 thousand. Rubles. month. Exactly three weeks superiors it was very pretty, the order for a job has already left for the signature "up". But then the company's employees were sent an e-mail that although "we have a large margin of safety and our earnings this year above our forecast, while the situation with the finances of the country remains volatile and uncertain." In this connection - a moratorium on the growth of wages, the reception staff and the beginning of projects. Becoming a victim of preventive measures, Anna went to the unemployment office - the state employment center in its place of residence, in Butovo.
On Monday morning at ten here several years for women 40 years and one man 50. On the walls of the ad: a beauty salon requires administrator salary - 35 thousand. Rub., The driver - 30 thousand. Rubles. In one of the rooms we were told that if a girl has a work book, then it is possible to become officially unemployed. By law, it can make any able-bodied citizen, who has no work and earnings, a leading job search and ready to start working, ten days after he announced himself to the employment service. However, if a girl just out of the institute and the work book she did not have time to start, it will be sufficient to document on education and passport. However, no work experience will benefit the minimum - 718 rubles. Unemployed people with a long experience are paying about 4 thousand. Rub.
Frankly, fill out a form we do not really believe that there will be able to find a job for international journalist with higher education and three foreign languages. Especially that Anna honestly stated that he wants to pay 37 thousand. Rubles. Reality has surpassed expectations. Specialist in recruitment vacancies read profile Anna looked at her bewildered and asked if I did not try soiskatelnits search for jobs on the Internet. And then he agreed to provide their professional help in this search. Database of employment services, as we found out from the same job as the agency type Superjob: at the time of our visit, it contained 177 thousand. Jobs - more than the unemployed in the capital. Specialist employment services easily oriented among this variety. Bottom line: the company "Beiten Burkhardt Rehtsanvaltsgezelshaft mbH" offers Anne translator's work on the 35 th. Rubles. Translator 50 thousand. Rubles. requires "White & Case LLC," and three other companies are looking for managers in public relations and journalists with the knowledge of a foreign language for 30 thousand. rubles.
Came out in
Although it is still possible to find a job, the situation worsens. The staff tries not to hire anyone. It already felt the headhunters. If they had searched valuable personnel, now coming up as the most painless way to dismiss them.
Outplacement service, according to the head of department on work with clients holding "Empire personnel" Yulia Smirnova, grown on the market from 1 September to 40%. Outplacement allows the company to get rid of an employee, saving on severance payments, and to the employee - not remain without work. "The employer, reducing employee must pay him severance pay equal to two months' salary - explains Smirnov mechanism uslugi.- To avoid this payment, the employer becomes a recruitment agency. It convinces the employee to resign (in this case the severance pay will be canceled), is to fire an employee for a new job and receives a fee of one-half to 100% of the monthly salary employee ».
Another cunning scheme called outstaffing. It has become popular in recent years due to the fact that many companies can not fully load employees. And the employer and employee are willing to compromise: waiting out the crisis, the employee will work part-time. However, as explained by Yulia Smirnova, in practice, a part-time employee transfer causes a lot of questions from the inspection bodies. Then the employee is dismissed at his own request and goes to work in a recruitment agency. Only on papers: in reality it works on the old site and the money he is paid the same. The expectation is that the crisis is over and the employee will return to the old place. Agency for such castling receives the agreed commission.
Headhunters themselves, however, note that different types of "outs" can not compensate them for the fallen volumes former activity. On separate growing areas of human, such as the recruitment of staff in the collection agencies, fees not get old. Certain hopes personnel officers linked to the employment of foreigners in Russia.
Ex-tops and expats
Although dismissed senior managers and appear to be relatively protected by a layer of society, the crisis promises to intensify competition among them. Recognized as personnel officers, recently resume flow from abroad has increased dramatically. Yulia Smirnova from "Empire personnel" recognizes that it is usually the company does not deal with foreigners: they are about 0, 5% of total hiring. But over the past two weeks, the number of foreign resume increased tenfold. The crisis has affected Europe more than us - that's eager to us ex-pats from the Old and New Worlds. As a rule, foreigners are better qualified in business.
Managing partner of the British headhunting company Veni Partners LLP Thomas Drury in the summer trying to lure Russian working in London, the Moscow office of "Renaissance Capital". However, more recently "Renaissance" stated that reduces the 100 seats in the Moscow office and the need for English Russian seems to have gone. "In England, all at risk of dismissal in the financial sector, regardless of nationality - sure Dryuri.- Given that London is a very expensive city, and work is now virtually impossible to find, there is a huge temptation to go home. Russian will return to Moscow from Europe ».
One of the interesting ways to ride out the crisis for top management - to learn. For example, the London School of Cass notes that in recent years the number of applicants to the MBA programs has increased by about 15%. "The financial crisis will inure to the benefit of business schools at least as long as people believe that the crisis will ever end - explains the director of MBA programs at Cass Stephen Szhimanski.- People view business school diploma as a competitive advantage, and they are needed now more than ever ».
Discharge of ballast
The most massive cuts will affect all the same "office plankton" - small servants working for 25-50 thousand. Rub. "Employers frankly admit in private conversations that they will act on the 1998 model - says Julia Smirnova.- That is 30-40 per cent reduction, reallocation of resources, audit costs. Openly said that it is time to get rid of the ballast office ».
"Due to the fact that there was too much money, revenue in the unreal, the tertiary sector (financial, insurance companies, marketing, advertising) were artificially inflated every two and a half - says Andrew Grinberg.- For the same reason, enterprises have accumulated a lot of inefficient workers in foreign science is called overmanning. And now these people will be released ».
The first working head flew in the financial sector. This was followed by retail trade: they get rid of the customer service staff, middle managers, administrators halls, procurement services. Next in line were the developers: develop projects without free money nobody wants. All new projects are closed or frozen. Another victim - the auto industry. Virtually all known foreign car brands have already announced redundancies.
Even in the middle of the year on the labor market has been the shortage of personnel among junior managers and their salaries soared. According to statistics, the recruiting agency Headhunter, the market has been significantly more job offers than free workers in specialties such as financial manager, an insurance agent, secretary, accountant, sales representative. The crisis has changed the situation dramatically. Now the number of resumes online headhunter.ru greatly exceeds the number of vacancies: 2 million, compared to 70 thousand. Further statistics even more interesting. In early September (and crisis) to position "banks and investment" resume online was more than vacancies in 1, 29 times. By October 19, the ratio changed to 1, 89. At the beginning of September lawyers CV was greater in 1, 5 times, on October 19 in the 2, 29. resume in September was almost as much as the jobs for them to 19 October was a resume and a half times more. Even more clearly compared to the beginning of 2008: while experiencing an acute shortage of accountants - 0, 22 CV per vacancy.
Hard hit marketers, advertising, public relations, lawyers: their resume in two times more than jobs. A reduction champions became an employee of the recruitment. As for employment, most companies are going to forget partially, HR-specialists dismiss as superfluous. Offer HR specialists three times more in demand, and on the forums HR panic message: "We have already reduced the personnel department by 50%, yet I have left, but a job no one take, the state continues to decline ... I sit without work, here waiting and when my turn comes up, and the job market is really empty ... To hr-and now to be on the street - it was suicide ... »
Impact of the crisis on wages can be seen in a separate specialty - architecture. Architects work is needed in the initial stages of projects, and this is precisely the problem. Head of Recruitment, specializing on architects, Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Ayrat Gilmutdinov there is a strong inflow of workers into the labor market, which began a few weeks ago. "Earlier in the day received five resumes on Architectural specialty, now they twice as many - says Ayrat Gilmutdinov.- there are many candidates, previously unpublished your resume, finding a job on the recommendations or an acquaintance. Previously published a third resume again, now dominated by new resume ».
The employer now spends much less effort on the selection of a suitable candidate, and by the architects pay less. "Earlier in this market experts consistently lacked architect even with little experience could count on a good salary. And most importantly, when you change the architects used to work every time to add to his previous salary of 20-30%, - says Gilmutdinov.- now very much lower the bar, ran a month interviews. If an ambitious specialist exposes salary expectations to 120 thousand. Rub., He made in the best case for 90-100 thousand. ».
Crisis, personnel officers say probably not affect unless the public sector: doctors, teachers, military and so little to lose.
Director, Center for Employment in South-Western Administrative District of Moscow Eugene Levitsky said that his life will soon begin hot days. "According to the information that reaches us through the various city services, the peak of layoffs will be in the spring - says Levitskiy.- This is due to the inertial nature of the crisis: it does not directly affect the situation on the labor market. So far, we have registered unemployed are not more people than in the summer. But I'm sure more will come running to us unemployed ».
Employment Service, says Levitsky, offers some 160 programs for retraining. "I think in the near future will be useful such a specialty, such as accountants for audit, which we cook - predicts on.- And we cooperate with such institutions as the Plekhanov Academy, Bauman University, that is a high-quality training courses. For registered unemployed retraining free ».
It seems, however, that many will have to retrain more thoroughly.