Retro bike (31 pics + text)

In May 2008, archaeologists from the University of Bristol, conducting excavations in the castle Château Gaillard (France), made a sensational find. At a depth of two meters was discovered a complex of iron objects, constitutes the protective armor of a warrior. Nearby, archaeologists have found the second grave, well-preserved skeleton of a horse. At the excavation site were also found coins Denier Tournois (frants.denier tournois - Tours denier) French type denarius minted by Philip II Augustus (1180-1223), as well as coin minting of the Duchy of Aquitaine named Richard, suggesting that the results relate to the armor the reign of Richard I of England (1189-1199 gg.).

Château Gaillard was the favorite castle of King Richard. He did not regret it nor the means nor the strength. They say that the King personally chose the site for its construction, and actively participated in the development of the project. As conceived by Richard Chateau Gaillard had to protect English possessions in the northwestern part of France, as Richard the Lionheart, being an English king, and carried the title of Duke of Normandy.

"At the chalk cliffs, its shape reminiscent of a spur at the foot of which lies the town of Petit-Andelys, stands the castle of Château Gaillard,

reigning over the whole Upper Normandy. It was in this place among obese Hay meadows forms a wide bend, and Château Gaillard, like a sentinel, looking around her expanse of water for ten leagues up and down the river. By order of King Richard the Lionheart built it in two years, bypassing the contracts and in order to face the king of France from here. Seeing his creation, built on a cliff, sparkling white fresh masonry, surrounded by a double ring of fortified walls, flashing, drain grates, loopholes, with thirteen towers and the main two-story tower, Richard said: "What a merry castle!" - Hence the name of the Chateau -Gayar (Chateau-Gaillard - »cheerful lock & quot; (fr.)) & quot; describes the so lock Maurice Druon in the" prisoner of Château Gaillard »

"My soldiers will take the castle, even if the walls are made of iron," - foretold the French King Philip II Augustus. "My soldiers will defend it even if the walls are made out of oil," - defiantly replied King Richard the Lionheart.

Ten years later, Philip II Augustus, together with other lands Norman wins Richard and his beloved krepost.S since Château Gaillard has ceased to be a military fortress, it was turned into a royal prison.

There are crammed important state criminals. Besides, for someone removed the drawbridge Château Gaillard, never destined to see the white light. & Quot; In 1314, the castle serves as a place of imprisonment of two daughters of the French king Philip IV the Fair, Marguerite and Blanche. During the Hundred Years War the castle Gaillard was subjected to repeated sieges. In 1417 it passed into the hands of the British after shestnadtsatimesyachnoy siege. Companion of Jeanne D Arc captures it in 1429. But in 1430, the fortress once again came under the rule of the British. In 1449 Charles VII winner returns to his possession. At the end of the last siege of Henry of Navarre was a royal decree ordered the destruction of the fortifications. Believers Andelisa "kapusiny" in 1603 and "Penitente" in 1610, obtained permission for the destruction of the castle. The collapse of the wall had stopped in 1611, when "kapusiny" felt that they already ruined walls to cover the demand for stone.

In 1852, the ruins of the castle Gaillard were recognized historical monument of France. Multiple archaeological excavations were carried out in the area from 1885 to 2000. In 2008, scientists from the University of Bristol, led by Professor John Williams, a doctor of archeology, was able to negotiate with the French government on the resumption of the excavation and, apparently, not in vain. The found burial was unique and attracted the attention of specialists from different countries: archaeologists, historians and even engineers.

Unusually in this discovery scientists it seemed very location of fragments of iron armor. From above they looked like the outline of a bicycle.




What was the surprise of archaeologists, when carefully managed to clear the fragments extracted from the centuries-old layers of soil and see more. No doubt, it was a part lain in the ground for almost nine centuries knight bike!
"-It Is really very unusual find - the head of the expedition, a professor at Bristol University John Williams - a bicycle in the twelfth century, it is hard to believe, but during excavations of burial doubts about the authenticity we did not have.

The well-preserved fragments of metal, soon managed to explain. Spectral analysis of the samples showed the presence of remnants of candle wax. Apparently, before the burial of the ancient surface of the bike has been treated molten wax, which is not allowed to destroy the metal corrosion process. Speaking of the metal.



What was the surprise of archaeologists, when carefully managed to clear the fragments extracted from the centuries-old layers of soil and see more. No doubt, it was a part lain in the ground for almost nine centuries knight bike!
"- This is a really unusual find - the head of the expedition, a professor at Bristol University John Williams - a bicycle in the twelfth century, it is hard to believe, but during excavations of burial doubts about the authenticity we did not have.

The well-preserved fragments of metal, soon managed to explain. Spectral analysis of the samples showed the presence of remnants of candle wax. Apparently, before the burial of the ancient surface of the bike has been treated molten wax, which is not allowed to destroy the metal corrosion process. Speaking of the metal.

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