Doctor psychoendocrinology Mikhail Bogomolov: How to minimize risks if you want to lose weight
Before you go on a diet, decide why you need itNutritionists estimate that today there are almost 30 thousand diets. Two-thirds of women in one way or another experimenting on myself, trying to change the power scheme, and thus often do not think about the consequences. As a result, each year from the overuse of weight loss on the planet, killing tens of thousands of women under the age of 35 years and more harm to their health.
Is it possible to minimize the risks, if you are so impatient to lose weight by summer, for a holiday or just to unload the body? This was told by the doctor psychoendocrinology, the President of the Russian diabetes Association Mikhail Bogomolov.
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—Mikhail Vladimirovich, why attempts to lose weight so often fail? People go on diets, refusing favorite foods, restrict calories — but then again begin to fat. What a vicious circle?
— One of the reasons could be the type of metabolism that is dependent on sex, age, physical activity, genetic predisposition and other characteristics of the organism. The intensity of basic metabolism may vary greatly — from 600 calories a day to 6000 and more. If you have a low intensity to lose weight through diet would be extremely difficult and even dangerous. 600 calories is only 5-10 apples or a piece of lean beef that can fit in the palm. And how then to take the vitamins and minerals needed by the body for normal life?
For example, today very popular low-carb diet — Dukan, Atkins, "the Kremlin", etc. However, the exclusion of carbohydrates from the power supply circuit provides only short-term effect. If you do not change the structure of the muscle tissue, which is adapted to use carbohydrates as energy, after a few weeks your body will begin to decompose already not fat, muscles and internal organs — liver, heart, kidneys.
The people who are on carbohydrate-free diet for a long period of time, you lose 3,5, or even 15 kg, stand on the scales and rejoice in the numbers. But in vain! If the wrong person loses weight, the body begins the problem: for example, because of lack of calcium with reduced body mass and bone mass. Bones become thin and brittle. And what happens? He lived to 65 and went hip fractures, etc.
—Some believe that a diet is a temporary measure, saying that to throw off those extra pounds and get back to his former life. And how do you to diet?
— The question should be put differently: how and, most importantly, why change your power scheme. We are not talking about changes for a week, a month or two. And that is all and for all.
— But forever-and it's usually not out…
— Nutritionists say that it is easier to change religion than his food habits. You must have internal motivation to maintain a normal body weight every day, throughout life. In men, this motivation is most often negative. Women watch their weight more closely, however, and overdo diets also often much stronger.
Physicians have long to warn dieters about the dangers of mono-diet, including low-carb, which, if abused, lead to cardiovascular, digestive and other diseases. Why is this happening? The problem is the imbalance that occurs due to an abrupt change in the power circuit.
For example, if you limit yourself to carbs, and thus to exclude from the diet of fruits and cereals, as a rule, an inevitable deficiency. So you need to take multivitamin complexes, including dry seaweed. Moreover, you should pay attention to the lack of fiber that occurs in the transition to radical diets. There will be no extra foods such as parsley, dill, lettuce, apricot pulp, peach, Apple. If you make freshly squeezed juices from vegetables and fruits, then make it a rule not to throw away the pulp and use it in cooking some dishes. Without fiber the body leads to dysbiosis, and then and obesity. That is like saying a always slimming, the pounds will return — and with friends.
— How to behave so they didn't come back?
A key moment comes when, for example, a woman goes to the grocery store for the whole family. Nutritionists set up an experiment: tracked on the cameras in supermarkets approximate weight of buyers who go directly to the departments where they sell meat, butter and cheese, and compared it with the weight of those who primarily goes for vegetables and fruit. As you might predict, the average weight of the second group were much smaller... So tune in advance that you will not buy high-calorie foods, and do not include possible them to your list.
—Some people are trying to lose weight, and not resort to starvation. How does it affect the stomach?
— It depends on the state of the gastrointestinal tract. If you have a predisposition to peptic ulcer disease, the risk, of course, not worth it. With a sharp restriction of the diet in the body starts emergency the breakup of adipose tissue with the formation of ketone bodies — simply put, acetone. His blood levels start to rise, ketones will stand out with the exhaled air and the smell of acetone is felt from the mouth. You need it? In addition, there may be "hungry pain", familiar to all ulcer... So it is better not to starve outright, and eating small meals, 5-6 times throughout the day.
— Nutritionists say that any radical diet eventually leads to slower metabolism. Why?
Is a normal physiological effect. This disaster follows the body as it is insured against future stress and hunger strikes, stretching the number of received food for a longer period. If you actively exercise, the exchange will not slow down. And if you just sharply limit yourself to food, but to lie on the couch, then everything will turn out exactly the opposite.
Weight loss can and will happen, but unhealthy — that is, the mass of adipose tissue will remain or even grow... Recently I came to accept a woman of 32 years, who complained of excess fullness. Her weight was 96 kg — in principle, not so much. But as much as 56% fat!.. If you just put her on a diet, nothing good, most likely, will not. To cope with the amount of fat, you need muscle mass, and it is developed by exercise…
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And in General, any too drastic measures to change the usual scheme of power are doomed to failure. Only six months later, the body is able to use changes in diet to start to reduce body weight through fat. If you hurry — get repeated, so-called visceral obesity: the fat will be deposited primarily on internal organs, hindering their work, peredelyvala blood flow…
— People who torture themselves with weight loss, often do not take into account their health, say, or genetic characteristics…
Genetics are important, but do not forget about the rest. For example, about the social factor. Often come to a complete woman and says, "me and mom were full, and grandma the same. I went to..." But fails to mention that in their family it was customary, for example, to cook the dumplings "fat way" — a pound of meat, two packs of margarine. This is a family food habits to overcome that is even harder than heredity. By the way, a genetic predisposition to obesity is quite rare — it has less than 5% of the population.
Often at fat people is this excuse: me, they say, were treated with hormonal drugs since I started (started) to gain weight. But here, too, to talk about the genetic predisposition is not necessary. It's an acquired taste.
— What do you need to know about yourself to choose the right diet?
— Find out if you have cardiovascular problems, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and diabetes of the second type, the existence of which people with overweight often do not know as in Russia, by the way, about 10 million people.
Not be amiss for some time (say within one month) to conduct a "psychological food" diary, recording not only what, when and how much you ate, but why. Try to calculate the calorie content of foods, find out the skewed ratio of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. And see what it will cost the sudden change of diet. Maybe it will be unaffordable for your budget — so is the game worth the candle?
It is also important whether to resist your immersion in the diet of other family members. After all, it somehow can affect their food preferences.
—Rushing from one diet to another, women make your body too frequently and dramatically to rebuild. How dangerous is it?
— People — very stable structure. In its genome, is the ability of the restructuring of synthesis of enzymes for abrupt changes in the power circuit. But adaptation still takes time. For example, there is such a thing as a travellers ' diarrhoea — when tourists in a new place, there is a disorder of the stomach. Sometimes it is not because the local water and food have bacteria, but just due to lack of acclimatization.
The same with weight loss. You should not try to reduce your weight more than 1 kg — 800 grams per week, respectively, for the year can be removed 10-12 kg more dramatic changes, the body will react to stress, and weight, the time lost will soon return.
Well, if the desire to lose weight becomes pathological and leads to anorexia, exhaustion, you have to ask for help not to the nutritionists, and psychiatrists…
—Apparently, "diatomeya" in General is bad for the psyche. People that lose weight, then gaining again, if this fails, annoyed, begins to suffer, liable to the ridicule of others, lose faith in themselves. And eventually goes into depression, which in itself is worse than overweight and related problems…
— It usually is. Restriction of the diet, particularly caloric, causes insomnia in the first half of the night, the feeling of anxiety, anxiety. Sometimes diet subconsciously start not to reach result, and to say to others: "look, I honestly tried, followed all the recommendations, tortured himself for two weeks, but ended up gaining 6 pounds a month later. So, thank you, I will live as before..." So it will be better if you will not lose weight alone and with a group of like-minded people who support you, or at least paired with someone.
— Probably an obsessive desire to lose weight at any cost is akin to psychosis?
If it leads to anorexia — of course. And the flip side of excessive weight loss — obesity — by the way, too. Czech Professor and doctor of medicine, Jan Taton in his book "Obesity as a mental illness" has been proposed to treat obesity by psychotropic drugs…
Weight reduction will be successful from a psychological point of view only if it is not an end in itself. Weight loss should be a means to achieve other objectives: for example, learning to water ski, to marry well, to take a walk in your favorite dress, which was little, to get in shape before beach season etc. Then the probability of success will be much higher.That is, you have to ask yourself the question: "why do I need it?"and to answer it correctly. published