Fructose, which you don't eat: what you need to know in order not to harm health
Fructose has recently received much attention as a potential cause of many modern diseases, especially obesity. It looks quite reliable: 200 grams of fructose per day for two weeks – and voila – you have a full metabolic syndrome.
As you know, drinking large quantities of fructose leads to a strong increase in the level of uric acid in the body that inhibits the ability of insulin to regulate the use and accumulation of cells of carbohydrates and other nutrients. According to the American services, controlling health and nutrition of citizens, followers of the Western diet consume 85-100 grams of fructose per day.
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All just? Nevertheless, there is some evidence that her fault may be exaggerated. Why such uncertainty? All the matter in the absence of context and of evolutionary understanding. But, as you know, "everything in biology only makes sense in the context of evolution." Today I will talk about why fructose may continue to harm you even if you are completely abandoned.
Not harm: two fructose the way. The fact is that fructose breaks down two types of enzymes, fructokinase (ketohexose). There are fructokinase A (slow) and fructokinase With (rapid and uncontrolled). If you remove both enzymes, how many do not eat fructose, no problems. Fructokinase And distributed widely in the body and has a low affinity for fructose.
If udaliti fructokinase And then the problems will become much stronger. Ie fructokinase And has a protective effect on our health! But fructokinase located in the liver, intestines, kidneys and has a very high affinity for fructose, it quickly involves in the metabolism, resulting in oxidation through fructokinase occurs With the disruption of energy metabolism in cells. Now I tell you why.
So, fructokinase C, which is denoted in Latin letters KNK-C. This enzyme responds to the concentration of the final reaction products and works while you are managed with all the available fructose. It is an important feature!
Of pyruvate further formed acetyl-COA, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, and in the case of fructose, the synthesis of this uncontrolled. In addition, because of the "lack of control" KNK in the cell depletes ATP and phosphate.
But AMF (product of cleavage of ATP) becomes in excess and decomposes with the formation of uric acid — a byproduct of fructose metabolism. Due to the uncontrolled activity of KNK in humans, potrebovala a lot of fructose, immediately after a meal significantly increases the content of triglycerides and uric acid in the blood.
Perhaps this strange metabolic feature originated in the time when suitable food appeared suddenly and rarely, I had to eat a lot at once and eaten by stock. With the constant threat of hunger ability to eat for the future is vital, but excess food the ability, and most importantly, the desire to overeat has serious consequences.
That is why small amounts of fructose even useful. And the overload of fructose, especially chronic leads to serious problems.
Fructose, which you don't eat.
When disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, fructose will harm you, even if you eliminate it completely. Why? Disruption of insulin and reduced sensitivity to the tissues will lead to hyperglycemia, which in turn will switch the biochemistry so that your body will start to synthesize fructose from glucose.
Yes, chronic increase in glucose in the blood, resulting from eating foods with high glycemic index causes a so-called paleology way of glucose metabolism, resulting in her transformation into fructose.
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A new study by Richard Johnson and his colleagues from the University of Colorado in Denver (USA), only adds to the downsides of fructose. In Nature Communications the authors reported that causes of excess weight and reducing the tissue sensitivity to insulin (which is the main symptom of type II diabetes) may be fructose, which appeared in the body as a result of internal biochemical reactions. That is, you can not actually have fructose in the form of something sweet enough to lean on the same glucose, which is then transformed in the liver in fructose (such as the transformation of one sugar into other biochemists known for a long time is paleology or sorbitolovy way).
Fructose accumulates in the liver, causes metabolic changes leading to the increase in the proportion of adipose tissue, accumulation of fat in the liver, etc. If mice suppressed the further way of transformation of fructose, and insulin levels have remained normal, and fats are not accumulated, even if they ate foods with a high content of glucose.
That is, to prevent harm from glucose, it was necessary to suppress the metabolism of fructose. In other words, if we eat bad glucose sweets (or foods with a high glycemic index), then the damage from them comes to us through the "healthy" fructose, which is considered low-glycemic compound.
The transformation of glucose in fructose in the liver is not the only cause of metabolic disorders that accompany obesity and diabetes. In the end, the excess calories and excessive insulin production caused by glucose, also contribute. However, glucose-fructose transformation, as suggested by the authors, may seriously complicate the situation and to keep metabolic disorders under control, you should get rid of illusions about the "safety" of fructose.
Hyperglycemia activates paleology the path of glucose metabolism with increased accumulation in the nerves of the products of this exchange — sorbitol and fructose. The rate of conversion of glucose to sorbitol significantly — up to 1% of the cellular content of glucose. When glucose that is observed in hyperglycemia and its transformation in sorbitol increases to 7-8%.
Under the influence of a key enzyme arbitrage way — aldozoreduktaza — defosfaurilirovnie glucose is converted to sorbitol, and he was under the influence of arbitrairement in fructose. Activity arbitrage way regulated by the intracellular concentration of glucose, it does not require the presence of insulin.
Experiments on animal models showed that mice with blocked polyolefin by glucose metabolism within two weeks received a 10% sugar solution, were completely protected against development of metabolic syndrome.
Sorbitolovy, or paleology, path, active in insulin-independent tissue: the endothelium of blood vessels eyes and kidneys, nervous tissue (Central and peripheral nervous system). The formation of sorbitol occurs in normal, but significantly activated during chronic hyperglycemia.
Under the influence of the enzyme aldozoreduktaza the formation of polyhydroxy alcohol sorbitol, which, under the action of arbitrariamente is converted into fructose.
Fructose and sorbitol are beginning to accumulate in these tissues in non-physiological amounts, causing deformation of the cells, their hyperextension, accompanied by the violation of their functional activity. Being an active osmotic substances, fructose and sorbitol attract water, causing pronounced edema and hyperosmolar further violations in the concerned tissues.
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Research in recent years shows the importance of metabolic glucose paleologou way, this requires additional, in addition to the accumulation of fructose and sorbitol, mechanisms. Increased activity aldozoreduktaza leads to depletion of NADPH and impairs the formation of glutathione, which is one of the most important antioxidants and reduces free radicals in excess during oxidative stress. In addition, NADPH is a necessary component of NO-synthase, produced in endothelial cells and required for the synthesis of nitric oxide — a potent local vasodilator.
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1. Number. A day is recommended to drink no more than 30-40 g of fructose (optimum 10 to 20 grams). To completely remove fructose also wrong. A small amount of fructose in the diet (10 to 20 grams) improve carbohydrate metabolism, and even improve insulin sensitivity
2. View. Eat fructose from solid foods, not from drinks. The beverages (Cola, juices, etc.) contained mega-doses of fructose that are absorbed very quickly.
3. Organic food. Vitamin C protects against some side effects of fructose and uric acid enhances the negative effects of fructose. Fiber also slows the absorption of fructose. One Apple has about 80 calories, you would have to consume 3 large apples just to get 23 grams of fructose. Therefore, moderate consumption of whole fruits is not a threat (in comparison with sugar, juices, etc.).
4. Human health. Person with good insulin sensitivity more fructose, it is safe for him. Impaired insulin sensitivity – not more than 20 grams a day from whole fruits.
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5. Calorie diet. The more glycogen in the liver, the higher the risk of fructose, as she had nowhere to go except to the formation of fat. In fact, there is a direct correlation between the glycogen of the liver and the speed with which your liver forms fat. When diet moderate in calories and high physical activity fructose is safer.
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6. Periodicity. Fructose is safer if consumed occasionally, but not uniformly. Eat fruits in one meal. Make days whole bezrobotne.published