A physician cannot become a really good doctor until you kill one or two patients.
Without exception, all modern medicines are mandatory tested on volunteers.
But what to do when such a test is impossible?
How ethical experiments on human beings without their consent and that this tells the story? The human body is 78% water. A truism, aphorism, who is known to all. This fact was established in mid-1940-ies, the honor of its discovery belongs to Lieutenant Colonel of the Japanese Imperial army, agouti. The experiment was as follows: a living man tied to a chair in a closed room and pumped, pumped, pumped dry hot wind...
Over 15 hours of test subjects turned into a dried mummy. It usually died on the sixth-seventh hour, when the body had already evaporated most of the water. 22% of initial body weight — average dozens of victims. Now on the first biology lesson at school the teacher tells: the person on 80% consists of water. "Seventy-eight!" — I once corrected. "Thank you," replied the teacher.
Modern ethics and the many laws on human rights prohibit experiments on living people, at least without their consent. For the money — please. There is not one pharmaceutical company that has not conducted experiments on people, no. And we are silent because we know that if today a new drug don't try it on volunteers, so tomorrow will not be released to the market, and someone will die because ethics outweighed logic and common sense. A friend of mine in 2007 gave his body "for rent" German pharmacological laboratory. Paid 300 euros a day and within two weeks they were fed a new tranquilizer, sometimes in combination with other drugs, sometimes on an empty stomach, sometimes after a hearty lunch. Week of oblivion, a week of discomfort, the money in his pocket, the drug is on the market. Everyone is happy. All tablets without exception, are tested on volunteers who receive for participation in experiments money. It is legal and yet indispensable practice.
Jacques Ponto injected himself with the serum, and then were substituted by the bite of a rattlesnake, the result of the experiments was the opening of a working antidote.
But not every experiment will be volunteer. For good money, many are willing to take any medication, to serve science. And how, for example, to find out the behaviour of the Bacillus in the human body? You agree to voluntarily become infected or weak? Of course, the lion's share of such heroic experiments scientists have conducted on myself. The last example. Thirty years ago nobody really knew what gastritis, ulcers and especially stomach cancer. They were treated, had surgery, was making drugs, but nobody understood why gastritis generally occurs. In 1982, Australian Professor Barry Marshall said that the gastritis is causing in the first place is mushrooming in the body culture of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (although, of course, she is not the only reason). The scientific community ridiculed scientist. Marshall experimented on pigs and other lab animals, but it came to nothing lead. And then Marshall put the experiment on themselves by taking a dose of culture Helicobacter pylori and thus infected. The results of the experiment were published — and became one of the most famous medical articles 1980-ies.
The staff of unit 731 in working clothes.
All that remains of the ambitious and cruel projects, photocopies of documents and not all. The strictest secrecy was not able to violate even criminal proceedings against the leaders of the experiment.
manipulation with consciousness
Thirty years ago nobody believed in the existence of Helicobacter pylori. However, here it is, open Barry Marshall's experiment, put on himself.
History has known many cases where the victims of experiments had become mentally abnormal and therefore does not always understand what is happening, people. The much-publicized two similar American project, conducted under the auspices of the CIA — Bluebird (1951-1953 gg, later renamed Artichoke) and МКULTRA (late 50's-early 60's). Actually, the goal of both projects was to obtain control over the human mind. As a test involved patients of neurological clinics anyone voluntarily, hoping to be cured (it was reported that the experiments are a new kind of therapy), others unconsciously, without the permission of the relatives and with the tacit connivance of doctors. The experiments were carried out mostly under various psychotropic drugs, in particular LSD and cocaine, as well as with the active use of electroshock therapy. Bluebird had a priority the establishment of absolute truth serum; during the experiments, the doctors learned to give people artificial amnesia at the specified intervals, and "implanting" false memories hypnotic way. For example, in the descriptions of the project appears in the case of artificial multiple personality in 19-year-old girl. Another document describes a situation where a female volunteer (the CIA employee) hoisted a false identity; the patient had forgotten all about his past life and zealously defended the new, invented. After the procedure she didn't remember anything about the second "I". In most cases, the experimental project Bluebird remained more or less healthy (or as sick as in the beginning of the experiments). Much more serious was the second project Management — МКULTRA.
Officially opened on 3 April 1953, renamed MKSEARCH in 1964, he was with the scandal collapsed in 1972, and the lion's share of the documents were secretly destroyed to prevent investigation into anti-social activities of the CIA. The last took place three years later but to what really failed. The project was divided into 149 (!) sub-projects, the budgets of many of them exceeding several million dollars, which in those days was unheard of. For example, in one of the sub-projects with more than 1,500 U.S. army soldiers receive in your daily diet portion of LSD in order to test their performance and awareness under the influence of drugs. МКULTRA explored all the possible ways of influencing the mind — chemical, biological, radiological and even hypnotic. The scandal arose when it was revealed records of numerous experiments on children, including reproduction of still undeveloped consciousness under the influence of psychotropic substances and radiation.
It should be noted that the experience gained in the course of both projects, still used by intelligence agencies and some medical organizations. In particular, a number of serums of truth, developed in the framework of the Bluebird, is armed with various countries of the world.
Today any clinic take the test on Helicobacter pylori and in the case of a positive analysis of the direct treatment on their destruction, as the fight with the cause allows you to eliminate the consequence. In 2005, Marshall received the Nobel prize in medicine — not only because he is a brilliant scientist, but because he is brave, very brave man. There were lots of people willing to sacrifice themselves for others. The American Roger Smith himself explored the properties of curare, the Frenchman Jacques Ponto tried to imagine sera against snake venoms, German Emmerich Ullmann has proved the efficiency of the vaccine Pasteur rabies, a Frenchman Nikolaus Minovici myself researched the symptoms of asphyxia... Examples so that does not count. And thanks to these people medicine moved and continues to move forward. There are experiments that cannot be put on myself. They can be placed only on the other. Is it possible — for science, for progress, for the salvation of thousands of people?
Anatomical reference Vesalius was, among other things, is perfectly illustrated.
Not always ethics to interfere with the conduct of experiments on live patients. It is often the forbidden things, without which it is simply not enough. The great Andrew Vesalius, father of anatomy in the sixteenth century had violated all the prohibitions of the Church, redeeming the buried bodies from the cemetery guards and showing them his anatomical theatre. During the experiments, he found more than 300 (!) errors in the works of Galen, taught medicine for more than ten centuries before Vesalius. Galen only worked with dead animals, because ethics do not allow him to work with a human. And because the structure of many organs he described the "image and likeness". But Vesalius was considered the present human body and created a voluminous work On the structure of the human body" (1543), which formed the basis of anatomy as a science. The Inquisition never forgave the great physician — but that's another story.
The ruins of the crematorium in Pentane.
THE DEVIL'S KITCHEN
Once lived in Japan a man named Ishii Shiro. Ishii is a surname, but in Japanese language it is written before the name. He was born in 1892, graduated from the medical faculty of the Imperial University in Kyoto, and then the post-graduate school of serology, bacteriology, epidemiology and pathology. He chose the path of war and by 1935 was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the medical service. And in 1936 was appointed the first head of the Department of water supply and prevention parts of the Kwantung army. Twice he left this post and returned again.
In the background is the legendary truck of unit 731, where the "logs" were delivered from the city to the location of the part. Under a decorative tent — an all-metal body with no Windows.
About unit 731 and its chief of "World of fiction" wrote in №99 — the material was devoted to the developments and experiments in the field of biological weapons.
In the Management of water and prevention parts of the Kwantung army had only one division, the third, which directly dealt with the supply and manufacture of filters for water in particular. The remaining three sections (No. 1, 2 and 4) had no water nothing. They were related to medicine. In fact, in the history Management known as "unit 731". After the book the Morimura Seiichi "the devil's Kitchen" this name became a household word. A detachment was based near the village of Pinfang (today a suburb of Harbin, China), in the occupied territories, and over the years its activities in the heinous experiments killed more than 3,000 people. The main task of the detachment was the creation of biological weapons (in fact, by 1944, Japan was ready to use it against US, but decided not to). Simultaneously conducted purely scientific research, created a vaccine against rickettsiae and viruses of typhus, Manchurian fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, smallpox. Studied methods of treating frostbites and burns, determined the ceiling for pilots in different conditions and so on. The moral question: was it worth it? How many people need to destroy in order to save others from the plague?
Polygon Anda. Tied to a pole test in anticipation of the explosion of bombs with plague-infected fleas.
Unit 731: quick disinfection test subjects with a special solution between experiments.
Unit 731: the guard near the warehouse of bodies destined for disposal.
The head of unit 731 Shiro Ishii, immediately after the surrender of Japan surrendered to the U.S. authorities. Their freedom and immunity from jurisdiction he bought the transfer of US all the results of the work group and biological weapons, and medicine. He died in 1959, secured and free. Just a few of the doctors from 731-th came under the court — those who were captured by the Soviet regime. More than 2,500 employees quietly lived their lives in high esteem, became professors, doctors of Sciences, and has received numerous grants and awards.
The Nazi experiments on hypothermia. Right — Sigmund Rasher, on the left, Dr. physiology Holzlohner, "invited specialist."
One of the classic experiments "kitchen devil" was the opening alive. In the lab brought a man introduced him anesthesia, dissected and divided into organs, skillfully not to damage anything. It was done with different purposes. For example, on opened, but still a living person you can learn how to multiply inside the bacteria of a particular disease. One just planted plague, another plague instilled and gave the serum to a third — a different kind of serum. And compared. So it became clear efficacy of vaccines.
The famous Sigmund Rasher: the good doctor with his adopted son.
Surgeons, trained to such work subsequently became very, very good doctors. They saved many lives. But more lives are saved by vaccines developed by the Japanese. The victory over cholera, the final massacre of plague and typhus is largely due to the efforts of unit 731. We still use their development. We are not ashamed?
Subjects were called "logs". Convicted criminals, spies, Russian prisoners — all of them were material. Most affected, of course, Chinese. At the site near Anda station carried out tests of bombs containing plague-infected fleas and the pathogens of gas gangrene. Guinea pigs were tied to poles at a certain distance from the planned reset. Some clothed, some naked parts of the body. And measured the time in which plague-infected fleas are able to cover the distance from the explosion point to immobilized the victim...
Dr. Mengele, the most famous of the Nazi beast-the experimenter. It is characteristic that, in contrast to the experiments of Rusher, experiments Mengele almost never pursued any particular goal.
There are things about which to speak aloud is not accepted. There are experiments, which hold in a democratic society impossible. There is a contribution to science that cannot be denied. This contribution was made by the Nazis.
Let's be honest: the lion's share of what we know about medicine of extreme States, we know from the experiments conducted during the war by Dr. Sigmund Rasher in the camp of Dachau and Dr. Yoshimura, Hisato of the Japanese unit 731. These experiments were conducted independently from each other, and with different goals. Rusher received from the management task to determine the effect of hypothermia on the human body to use this knowledge to treat injured soldiers. Yoshimura conducted experiments in order to create a "cooling" of the bomb, Packed with liquid nitrogen. About unit 731 and so much; refer to the experiments of the Rusher.
Unlike Japan, where all experiments were performed in one place in a specially equipped laboratory complex, the German experiments were a bit chaotic in nature. If the camp was to create laboratory conditions for experiments — they were created. Poisons were tested in Buchenwald, mustard gas in Sachsenhausen, hypothermia in Dachau and so on. Sigmund Rasher was a very peculiar man. He got under the hot hand of their own leadership and was close to expulsion from the party, and even death. Known medical Scam of the Rusher is the assertion that the woman gives birth to old age (up to 80 years); research in this area has been allocated huge amounts of money, subsequently, has a clever doctor. Actually, in 1944, his career ended in the same camp of Dachau, where, ironically, was raised by the Nazi experiments.
But in 1942 it disgraced Rusher was engaged in experiments on frostbite. In the first series of experiments, prisoners were immersed in ice water — some on the chest, others on a neck, third — down back. In different circumstances the death occurred at different times. Some tried to revive in its final report, the Rusher described in detail methods of recovery of survivors of severe hypothermia. In the second series of experiments investigated the local frostbite and cold burns. People poured cold water and exposed to frost, bringing the limbs to frostbite of varying severity and tried to return them to their normal state. As already mentioned, in Japan, was conducted exactly the same experiments. It was the German and Japanese records still serve as the basic material for the treatment of frostbite and resuscitation of victims of hypothermia people. Was it possible to achieve such results without a human sacrifice? Unknown.
The same Rusher initiated a series of experiments to ascertain the practical ceiling for pilots by the conclusion of the test in the sealed chambers and the vacuum. In the chamber were simulated conditions at various altitudes — up to 20 kilometers. Unit 731 conducted exactly the same experiments, only sometimes brought them to the point of absurdity. Air from the chamber was pumped to such an extent that the person inside just broke off.
One of the problems of the Nazi research was, oddly enough, Himmler — their immediate boss. Not being very versed in this science man, he regularly interfered in the work of doctors, covered for advanced research and funded meaningless, for example, the warming of frostbitten female body (in these experiments had spent a lot of money).
It is worth noting that we intentionally do not focus on the infamous experiments of Dr. Josef Mengele. In the process of the study materials we were unable to find any justification for most of the experiments conducted in Auschwitz and other death camps. Attempt stitching the twins, transplanting organs from one twin to the other, change eye color by injecting chemicals nothing medicine. All the evidence suggests that Mengele was no more than a high-ranking madman.
what is happening today
The main document governing the relationship between physicians and participants in medical experimentation is the Helsinki Declaration adopted in 1964 and since then has undergone many amendments and changes. Its last edition came out in 2008. The basis of the Declaration laid down the Nuremberg code adopted during the trial against Nazi war criminals. The code prescribes that "... before making an affirmative decision, the object of the experiment was informed of the nature, duration, and purpose; the methods and modes by which it will be conducted; all inconveniences and risks; about the consequences for his health or person". In addition, the code demanded "respect for the right of the subject to refuse participation in the study at any stage of its carrying out".
However sometimes there are cases which do not fall under the legislation, but still remain unpunished. Wide publicity was the story of a girl, Stephanie faye Bokler nicknamed "Baby FAE". Fay was born in California in 1984 with a syndrome called hypoplastic left heart instant she needed a transplant. A suitable donor for a newborn is not found, and surgeon Leonard Bailey transplanted the baby for the first time in history! — baboon heart. The girl died after 21 days from kidney infection, and heart work. Do the ethical thing. Bailey? Legitimate? The discussion did not stop for ten years after surgery, but then disappeared. In principle, the same persecution had been the great surgeon Christiaan Barnard, who spent the first ever successful heart transplant.
In Russia, experiments on human beings there is a serious loophole in the law: the Federal law "On medicines" includes the notorious article 40, allowing the "testing of drugs intended for the treatment of mental illness, mental patients deprived of their legal capacity". That is, in fact, the article allows to carry out experiments on people without their consent.
So, experiments with participation of volunteers held today — there is no legal or moral problem. What to do with the research for which volunteers cannot be found? How to explore what poses a real risk to the life or guaranteed injury? The answer is no. Ethics against science is an eternal conflict that humanity is unlikely to allow.
Christian Barnard, the doctor who committed the first successful heart transplant from person to person.
View of the Dachau air: sample of German orderliness.
The most controversial medical "event" in US history is not even the acceptance and justification of Japanese medical criminals from unit 731, and own American experiments aimed at studying the development of syphilis. Since 1932, the Division of venereal diseases of the public health Service, the United States conducted a study of syphilis in the negroe population of the city of Tuskegee, Alabama. Why black? Because the illiterate and uneducated blacks didn't know that there are ways to treat this fatal disease. Moreover, when treatment for syphilis became widely used penicillin (about 1947), doctors intentionally hid this fact from patients, while continuing research. The ratio of doctors to the test subjects clearly expressed Dr. John Heller. "They were subjects, not patients, clinical material, not patients," he said in an interview, the data after the termination of the project.
The end of the experiments put in 1972 the press. Specialist for research of sexually transmitted diseases Peter Buxton published a scathing article about the Alabama experiment. The article was published on the front page of major American Newspapers, including the New York Times, and under public pressure, the experiment was terminated, the survivors provided with medical assistance, and all participants-doctors were denied the right to practice medicine. It should be noted that many data about the development of syphilis, its transmission from mother to child and about the possibility of Contracting obtained due to this nasty episode in American history.
The 1950-ies: the doctor inserts the Tuskegee test subjects from the placebo under the guise of this medication.
Dr. Bailey is feeding the baby faye after a successful operation to transplant a monkey heart.