The world community and look warily awaiting the emergence of unmanned vehicles roads. Too unusual concept - the machine, the control itself. The basis of these techniques lies mobile cars interact with each other and with the surrounding space. Unmanned vehicles will soon know what is happening around the corner; will warn each other of danger ahead; will be able to exchange data on the optimal speed, not to stand at traffic lights, to inform about the need to restructure, and at the same time will monitor the status of their passengers. It sounds too good. But it is almost a reality.
The first experiments on the interaction of vehicles with each other and with infrastructure (roadway, traffic lights, crossroads, etc.) refer to the 1990-th year. In the United States passing the National Leadership Conference discussed the possibility of creating a "smart" road network, the ability to make travel safer in cars. In 1991, there was a large non-profit Society of ITS America (Intelligent Transportation Society of America), has rallied numerous private and public companies. Then, similar organizations have arisen in Japan (ITS Japan) and Europe (ERTICO-ITS Europe).
Through continuous exchange of data between the vehicle and infrastructure it will be possible to predict and avoid maneuvers
Automakers have shown interest in this subject after about ten years. BMW and DaimlerChrysler set a goal: to create by 2020 single information environment that includes all of the drivers, the cars, and the external environment But even the two giants of the automotive industry such a project proved to be quite capable. Therefore, in 2004 there was a consortium of automakers Car 2 Car Communication (aka Vehicle2Vehicle, aka Car2X). Initially, only a few large companies included in it, and now under his wing gathered almost the entire global auto industry: BMW, Volkswagen, Audi, Daimler, General Motors, Ford, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, Nissan, Land Rover / Jaguar, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Toyota, MAN, Volvo, Tesla. Add to this the electronic components manufacturers Bosch, Siemens and the LG, public transportation agencies, educational institutions and many other organizations. C2C - international project, as the cars around the world need to communicate in the same language.
How does it work?
Ideally, all members of the movement and infrastructure must continuously, in real time, to exchange large amounts of data. On this basis, and the algorithm will generate alerts.
hardware upgrade small car - antenna and compact on-board computer
At first glance, nothing particularly complex: installed on each car antenna, GPS-module, and a computer for data processing, analyzing the coordinates and parameters of movement of the car, his job stabilization system, wipers, lighting fixtures, etc. But a thin spot in this scheme is the software, which should very quickly process incoming information and to develop the right solutions: alert the driver and voice messages on the display, and in exceptional cases - to work on the car controls. It turns out that the we are talking almost about creating artificial intelligence
Some system features Car 2 Car
Another video that demonstrates the capabilities of C2C system. For example, a machine with enabled "emergency gang" warn the oncoming cars, so that they can avoid a collision or reconstructed
Despite the complexity of the task, the world's first communications system already in place. It was established in Toyota, and was named ITS Connect. System is based on the cloud network, communicates with the vehicle and allowing them to exchange data. For example, ITS Connect is able to adjust the cruise control, warn drivers of approaching cars "emergency" and the police, and also helps to safely maneuver at intersections equipped with communication facilities.
Volvo Corporation jointly with the Swedish Ministry of Transport has launched a project to combat the accident rate on the icy roads. When the car gets on how much land it by Volvo Cars interior mobile informs the data processing center and notify the hazardous area nearby cars.
communication system will be useful for both drivers and utilities.
Because innovation is more Volvo note system to prevent collisions at intersections. When your car goes to the intersection, the sensors and the camera scans the oncoming lane. If you meet the car rides, which you can turn to intercept or go to your lane, the system can automatically slow down to avoid a collision.
Concern General Motors uses C2C system to create a function warning of the danger of overtaking moving into the oncoming lane. Every driver knows how it is a risky maneuver, especially when you have to overtake a truck with a trailer, because of which the review is closed
Audi has developed Travolution function where the display shows the distance to the nearest traffic light and speed that you need to hold to drive the green signal. This improves the order on the roads, saving fuel and reducing exhaust emissions.
US traffic safety management believes that such systems can not only optimize the congestion, but also prevent many accidents. Therefore, in 2016 the US Department of Transportation plans to oblige manufacturers to equip new cars Sar Sar 2 systems.
Like any great undertaking, C2C system plagued by implementation problems. To be effective, the system must be equipped with a wireless connection is not less than 20% of all vehicles with enough advanced electronic stuffing. This one set of equipment worth 300-500 dollars. It is also necessary to make a "smart" infrastructure, which are innumerable.
But even if tomorrow equip all cars and motorcycles C2C system, then what to do with cyclists, pedestrians and animals that go on the road, it is not clear. The system is not able to predict their appearance on the roadway, from her point of view, it is an unexpected obstacle.
motorcycles - one of the first candidates for the installation of 2 Sar Car system, because they get in an accident 29 times more often than cars
Finally, in this age of leaks and data loss is very important issue of information security. After all, wireless signals can be wholesale intercept on the slopes. Therefore, developers will have to try to create a serious information security system.
Other vehicle interaction with the world
The Mercedes-Benz has introduced a new roadway system of control and management of the suspension: a stereo camera and sensors monitor irregularities and the computer adjusts the suspension in a timely manner and position of the body, greatly reducing the shaking and rolls. Today, this system can boast of almost all the flagship model of the S-Class.
Logically, the system must meet the C2C and unmanned parking. For example, you come to work out, pressed a button, and the machine itself is parked on a pre-allocated space. More steeper if the car itself will go to look for free space, guided by radar, cameras and GPS-navigator. Beautiful picture would be: hundreds of cars without drivers restlessly travel through the city center on a Friday night, trying somewhere perch oneself, while their owners relax after a week of work
The first step has already been made: some models of Mercedes-Benz and BMW cars have to park remotely controlling a mobile app
An interesting system has offered the company Ford. Its engineers have equipped the driver's seat with six sensors, registering a pulse. The car is able to detect that the driver is now with blood pressure problems, and even detect a heart attack. In an emergency, the machine will turn on the alarm, stop and call "fast».
The Jaguar Land Rover developing Driver Monitor System (DMS) technology: the car detects facial expressions and the direction of the driver's sight by means of sensors and cameras. DMS analyzes the position of the head, blinking rate, breathing rhythm. Based on these data, the system can offer the driver, for example, to stop and rest. And if he suddenly fell asleep, then wake up his car with a loud signal.
An interesting idea and implemented in BMW: Transmission receives data about the route of the of GPS-module and adapted to the characteristics of the road. The machine knows in advance that the driver will change the speed before the turn, and turn on the required precautionary gear. This feature is available as a compact BMW 1 and on the Executive Rolls-Royce Wraith.
Of course, we still waiting for a lot of innovations in the field of automotive communication. And although this development direction has its opponents, progress does not stop - cars will soon travel without our help, and the roads will be much safer