Sergey V. Saveliev - a famous Russian professor, Doctor of Biology, Head of Embryology Institute of Human Morphology RAMS. The world's first ever to examine and photograph the 11-day human embryo. The scientist was able to establish up to days of the crisis phase in the formation of the nervous system of the embryo, leading to the different pathologies.
Do not put important task the brain - we are powerless against biology
- Doctor, I die
- Be sure to
This "black" joke on the opinion of Professor SV Saveliev - Doctor of Biological Sciences, and concluded the answer to the question of whether our resources are limitless
There is the so-called death a fact: there is a special structure of the additive within each of our cells - the so-called telomeres, encourage this very cell division. For a normal life, there should be 50, maximum 55.
But telomeres with each division is less than one (they are disengaged particular enzyme): 49, 48 and so on down the line. It does not matter: you are fighting whether forehead, meditating whether Tibetan mountains, there crosses kiss in Rome - when ends the ability to cell division, that is running out of telomeres, the natural biological death occurs
50-55-fold division cycle - that is our limit (for plants it may be 75-95, but also do not last forever). On average, it is a ton of cell - produces as much our bodies for life. The next time you turn on a counter just after the merger of two reproductive cells - at reproduction
In principle, these resources allow to live and 150 years. But - far from civilization, in favorable environmental conditions and, as a rule, such as the earthworm. When the activity of the active abilities of the body is seriously reduced. Limit - 80-90 years, we will just go slow death. Note: the aged skin is parchment, there are dark spots in the field of old burns, shock? A simple cell produces less and less.
Our skin (the outermost layer of the epithelium) updated: - by hand - every day; - On the face and head - every three days (do not be advertising exhortations to use shampoo every day); - Body - once a week (and do not force him more often washcloth)
Red blood cells are replaced:
the average person - every 80 days;
the athlete - every 40 days
The heart is able to cut only 800 million times over the life of (approximately the same as a mouse and an elephant).
Do not infinite and the number of cuts the tongue muscles.
But the muscles of the body are able to develop such a huge effort if not constraints, would have long ago crushed own skeleton.
So the physiological human resources are very modest, and there is no reason to exceed them: sports results - self-destruction that reduces the average length of life of athletes up to 50 years
In search of the eternal cells
We also have a non-renewable system - nervous. Any ideas as if the brain cells multiply and almost every day there is a million of new neurons, built on flawed experiments szhivotnymi - 25 years ago, researchers discovered that rats division of nerve cells retained only 2-3 months after birth
Tampering and that can increase the number of neurons from stem cells. As a rule, these are addicted to psychologists and physiologists, poorly versed in the structural organization of the brain, and, of course, speculators from medicine, to do business in the sufferings and aspirations of patients.
And how tempting: stem cells, supposedly infinitely divisible, capable not only to cure for baldness, but also for all ills! There are already a lot of legal and illegal firms, where for decent money doing such transplants. It hurts the liver? Please liver cell! Brain? Brain cells! And not necessarily in the brain - can be much softer and
About the problem of finding "eternal" cell written thousands of articles. In the US, there is even a scientific institute, which allege that researchers were able to isolate from the cells of the blood of it, whether fat "always living" cells that can be placed in different chemical conditions and thus obtain different types of cells - heart, lungs, liver, and even different types of fabric!
The famous Katherine Verfayl "proves" that by taking a cell from an adult male, has already received about 140 types of cells, living forever. Nonsense! Cell differentiation such "tricks" just can not run! And grow the tissue, the more three-dimensional, which, I note, as long as no one can boast even more difficult to decipher than the same gene.
How do manage to fool all of the head? It's very simple. For instance, one hundred and receive cells and frozen. Then, when the first in the legs and is about to stop sharing, from the refrigerator take out the same second, third ... Bezotboyny experiment! And to prove that the cell is slowly converted, for example, in heart, it is placed in the hood of cardiomyocytes (heart chapped and filter cloth), where it is, of course, "eats" and stores the corresponding characteristic proteins.
Then this "eternal" cell transplant into a clean environment, show to the public and say that this is the future cardiomyocyte. However, the muscle tissue of the heart yet, but it definitely will, because you see the same specific antibodies specific to cardiac tissue. A cell is simply "ate" what was around. And even ridiculous to think that in this way it will be possible once receive human tissue. Never.
To date, no one works, proving that overcome the 50-fold division cycle. If such happens, pharmaceutical companies would have celebrated a victory: it developed a cure for AIDS, the same is not necessary in cancer, truly immortal, and in healthy cells. But long-term experiments German scientists have shown that none of the somatic tissue in cell culture does not live more than 4, 5 years
For the same reason it is impossible to clone anyone. If the somatic cell nucleus transplanted into the egg, the embryo will simply die of old age, because somatic already developed a significant portion of the resource divisions.
Therefore, the issue of cloning - it is business and mystification, not medicine. By the way, there was the famous Dolly the sheep clone, genetically proven. Serious work speak only about what is possible to achieve nuclear transfer: in this case the embryo for a time divided, and then dies. This fact has been known to scientists for a quarter of a century ago ...
But why, I ask, does not subside and Veterinary journalistic hype about the alleged cloned here and there, cats, dogs, pigs? Alas, this is pure politics. The fact that at the time the British government, having bought at the history of Dolly, has allocated huge money for research, signed by the Queen. When it became clear that all this is, to put it mildly, sell, go fight for "saving face". It was then, and come up with a miracle therapy with stem cells, growing them with the help of organs, tissues and other nonsense that has no relation to reality.
And if to say by and large, and the program "Human Genome" - a purely American show. In the genome, in fact, only 10% of studied genes encoding proteins. The remaining 90% - terra incognita, though it has announced the completion of the program. And those 10% of the genes studied in only one - one! - A person, as for some reason, "forget" say
We have to admit that our brain, being a product of biological, limited. And no new resources can not be created - well, do not multiply brain cells do not multiply. Even if we quietly dozing at the TV, the brain consumes 10% of all that drank and ate for the day. And with the active life, and even depending on body mass flow rate is increased at least twice. Exorbitant costs for the body! He does not know whether the food tomorrow. It is no coincidence that the brain switches off the first under adverse conditions.
Man- "Zaporozhets" and person- "Mercedes»
Some people believe that our brain works on 10%. In fact, it is always running at 100! Even when you read the newspaper and, it would seem, are activated only areas responsible for vision, reading and logic, at the same time working and other neurons, such as those that are responsible for maintaining your posture. However, they are less active, but also transmit signals and are always ready to perform a new task. They ring the doorbell? And now zashustrili neurons responsible for hearing, walking, recognition. If the brain is really working for a tenth of a person would die after 4 minutes. Another thing - how often you activate certain areas
And here we are faced with yet another boundless delusion, if you can develop a person's ability. No! They can only be implemented. And how deeply - is another question. Each brain has its own structural and morphological organization, which determines the character, sensory, motor, other possibilities and limitations. There is absolutely identical convolutions. All the mental, the physical resources of the brain identified with Born as the genes of parents and that of the materials - proteins, fats and carbohydrates - the expectant mother has brought on the construction of a new nervous system. If at this time she was engaged in raw food diet, fasting, a child is likely to be not adequately developed brain.
Figuratively speaking, no matter how much overclock "Zaporozhets," he will not go better and faster "Mercedes". And it makes no sense to seek the geniuses scale - a unique phenomenon. In the individual brain, that is, in each case, have to deal with the problem is not the development of functions that are not, and to realize what exactly went from father and mother.
How to define it? Very simple - show your brain a lot of options. Give it a try different things. The man himself was grabbed by her. If better expressed auditory and vocal area of the brain, will sing. Analytical? Do not tear off from chess, the exact sciences.
But there is a limit: from overburden even the "Mercedes" could stall and fall by the wayside. Instead of putting important task "Zaporozhets" albeit slowly, but surely, will realize their talents. And it is - the most healthy way. Yield of dreams!
From a scientific error before the revolution - one step
The credibility of the French science at the beginning of the XIX century was so great that the utopians, and later Marx, Engels and Lenin have adopted wild theory scientist Flourens. He argued that the brain at all identical and has no localization functions (for example, areas responsible for vision, hearing). The Marxist theory of the scientist moved to the social sphere: times all the same brain, enough to donate two generations, and the third, grown in ideal conditions, with the songs will go to work - only to create conditions
One only Franz Gaal disagreed with Flourens, claiming that the brains of each person is unique and individual. Curious: before his death Napoleon set himself the chief merit not campaign in Russia, and the destruction of Gal. All the powers that be are afraid of one thing - life-time identification of the abilities that Gal theoretically defined by the protrusions (bumps) of the skull
As history has shown, people are really different. And no matter how I beat Makarenko street children for a bright future in his colony revealed a mass nevospituemyh, which was easier to isolate from the "ideal" community. Later, scientists confirmed: gyrus, sulcus are as individual as otpechatkipaltsev.
And we can not all make them think and live the same way. As to achieve the same heights.