Gene warrior, hero, murderer, the monk, entrepreneur and leader. I'll tell you about the warrior gene, which makes us the strongest, how it manifests itself in men and women.
The key to understanding the action of this gene - is dopamine, therefore, depending on the conditions, the human gene can enhance or make it criminal
In addition, more importance is the early education of the child - this also depends on whether the gene is active in an adult or not
You will also learn that people who become heroes in the war, and not people who commit heinous crimes in times of peace too, when there are no opportunities to realize them - they are one and the same people, and that there is a scientific explanation
Warrior gene - what is it
Warrior gene encodes an enzyme - monoamine oxidase (MAO). Monoamine oxidase (MAO) - an enzyme that decomposes amines. It is of two types: A and B. MAO-A cleaves epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, melatonin, histamine, dopamine. These neurotransmitters are responsible for mood and behavior.
However, about 1 in 3 men, this little gene is active or shortened. Professor at Cambridge and Harvard Bruce Hood in his book "The brain is tamed, what makes us human," notes that the "warrior gene" is only called so emotional, in fact, this gene is "lazy": its effect on our bodies is precisely the absence of impact-or. The less active the gene, the higher base level of dopamine and adrenaline in normal conditions and under stress.
Human behavior is very difficult to explain, because it is influenced, in addition to genes, upbringing and different circumstances of each individual situation.
On average, the carriers of the warrior gene variant have, as it turned out, the greater the tendency towards aggressive behavior than men without the said gene.
Jari Tiihonen explains that MAO gene is the main regulator of dopamine, which is an important part of the "reward system" of the brain, because it causes a feeling of pleasure (or satisfaction), what affects the processes of motivation and learning. But his modification, MAO-A, is responsible for the failures in the development of "natural motivator", then it is called "warrior gene" or "gene of aggression." Usually it is in "sleep" state, but is easily activated, for example, in response to the provocation.
By the way, this is what explains the fact that the majority of crimes are committed in a state of intoxication: alcohol in this case is the "agent provocateur." Activate the "bad gene" can and at an early age under the influence of violence seen or experienced by the child. What scientists do a disappointing conclusion: in times of war, for example, it is possible the emergence of a generation of activated "gene of aggression." Or gene warrior, hero, murderer, the monk, entrepreneur and leader.
Do you have any warrior gene?
If you put out nasty little things, but you feel great in extreme situations, chances are you media "warrior gene". And it has a direct impact on your behavior. Tendency to calculated risks, children's desire to be a hero, analysis.
Variant gene MAO-A-L is characteristic of people who are more aggressive than others react to all sorts of insults and provocations. This option is even called "warrior gene". The carriers are 59% of blacks, 54% Chinese, 56% Maori and 34% of Europeans.
"Warrior gene" is also inherent in certain ethnic groups. Its carriers are more common among the peoples, in a culture where militancy and aggressiveness is important - for example, the Maori.
According to scientists, this gene is most common among representatives of peoples, in cultures where aggression takes pride of place. And in today's world, where the media "warrior gene" can not express themselves in major armed conflict, they have to demonstrate their aggressive behavior on the streets.
In another study, men who have ever fought with the authorities, in a fit of rage were breaking things, etc., most carriers were "inactive" form of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA).
The manifestations of the warrior gene action: cruelty
History of the discovery. Warrior gene was discovered in 1993 by Dutch scientist Hans Brunner. Approached by women in families where men are extremely quick temper and a penchant for assault. Brunner extensive studies have been carried out, during which he discovered that all men present a mutated, truncated, monoamine oxidase gene. That he was the reason for the lack of emotional control. "Warrior gene" Later, in 2004, Gibson's publicist Anne gene will be named.
During the research it was found a lot of evidence that "warrior gene" is associated with violence, aggression and antisocial behavior. Doctor of the University of Florida criminology Kevin Beaver conducted a study which showed that the owners of "warrior gene" twice as likely to engage in street gangs. During the observations by the gangs, it was found that the gene carriers is four times more likely to use a weapon in a fight. Also, US studies have found that the "warrior gene" prison inmates is present everywhere.
Warrior gene determines the propensity to use weapons of men. Men with an altered version of the gene monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a gene called "soldier", according to scientists from the State University of Florida are more likely to join gangs and will use weapons. However, women with this genetic feature of the study results do not apply. The genetic variant indicates that gang member who is willing to apply to arms.
Carriers of this variant MAOA often show aggression. Scientists have found that carriers of MAOA increasingly prone to extreme violence, particularly the use of arms, occupy the "commanding position" in street gangs. "Science says that bullies are not only due to the gaps in education and a bad influence. Passion pobuystvovat on the street due to genetic factors, "- scientists say
Prisoners who have committed serious crimes, experts said gene form MAO-A, which is bad regulates dopamine. In this context, this kind of MAO-A was called "warrior gene". It is responsible for a high level of aggression in response to provocation. It is the combination of genetics and environment of human development gives rise to violent criminals, according to experts in the field of criminology.
Warrior gene is located in the X-chromosome, so men inherit from his mother. Since men only one X-chromosome, one of the warrior gene exerts its full effect. Women, by contrast, just two X-chromosomes, so a warrior gene either has a weak effect, or none at all. Action warrior gene women who present in both X-chromosomes is not known. Warrior gene testing is available for both men and women.
Tendency to (not) acquitted
The so-called "warrior gene" (a variant MAOA-L gene) increases the tendency of the owner of the risk and, at the same time allows it to more accurately estimate the chances of success in critical situations.
The study was published recently in which scientists from the California Institute of Technology carried out an experiment involving 83 men. Young people were given a $ 25 and offered to keep the amount received (zero risk of losing it, and no possibility to increase) or use the start-up capital to participate in gambling. During the game, each participant 140 times to choose between risky (to varying degrees) and safer course.
The study showed that carriers of MAOA-L gene variant have a greater propensity to take a financial risk, but only when it is profitable for them. It turns out that these people often manage to make decisions that lead to favorable outcomes.
gene carrier likes to risk, but "raised" media prefers justified (motivated) risk, and "ill-mannered" - unjustified (unmotivated)
The first type - a tendency to reasoned risk. In this case, a person acts according to the situation (as appropriate). He is fully aware of the situation, the potential risks, objectives and persistently goes to the solution of the problem. The result of this risk is to get any benefit - approval colleagues praise the loved one, the growth of the corporate ladder, remuneration and so on
The second type - the propensity to risk unmotivated. This risk is of a different nature. Here, man's task - to adapt to the dangers and get concrete benefits, and eliminate, oppose it. Such an individual of two options - to get away from the risk or to meet him "face to face" will choose the second.
Gene warrior and leader
According to research by Associate Professor of Finance and Business Economics at the University of Southern California Carrie Friedman and his colleagues at the California Institute of Technology, people with "warrior gene" make the most correct choice in critical or difficult situation.
In Friedman's experiment involved 85 young men, who were asked to play a game of chance. As the game progresses, each participant, with three minutes of reflection, was 140 times to make a decision: get two dollars guaranteed, or take the risk of winning with ten dollars and losing five.
Previous studies have shown that bold or discreet solutions with the same frequency can make both men have "warrior gene", and without it. The reason for that - our natural aversion to risk. However, a new test showed who and how often do risky choice with a favorable outcome for yourself. It was found that male carriers of "warrior gene" made a choice more often. They more successfully counted loss, better guided in a critical situation and went to the financial risk with greater certainty.
Researchers tend to think that people with "warrior gene", not so much hostile as more successful in achieving their goals, but sometimes their methods and can be perceived as aggression.
As gene manifested?
However, awaken "sleeping" violence gene is still in the womb. And it is able to provoke an excess of serotonin - the happy hormone responsible for mood, sexual desire, memory, ability to learn social behavior. To excess hormone may, in particular, result in the use of drugs, as well as the concomitant use of multiple drugs that may affect the levels of serotonin (eg, antidepressants). If the expectant mother is fixed excess of serotonin, the brain of the fetus while in the womb, is literally awash in pleasure that activates "gene aggression»
By the way, now it is possible to explain the genetic level, and why among the rapists, repeat offenders more men. "Warrior gene" found in the maternal X chromosome. Girls along with a parent receive a second X chromosome from the father, then the effect of the gene as it weakened. As for the boys, they are the second X chromosome do not get, so potentially more aggressive.
An important role is played by the environment in which people live and grew up. Problems in family, criminal situation, bad company and, according to a Finnish study, alcohol abuse and drug addiction increase the influence of the aggressor gene. So, in 2006, a resident of Tennesti Bradley Uoldrop was found not guilty of murdering his friend and ex-wife. The reason - the defendant is present at the "warrior gene", coupled with a difficult childhood Uoldropa and alcohol intoxication in the day of the murder.
"Warrior gene" can influence our actions, but it does not mean that his vehicle - a potential killer or marauder. Win in nature can only culture and standards of behavior defined by society: media "warrior gene" found among Buddhist monks and peaceful among the nomadic tribes in Morocco. According to the research conducted under the guidance of Professor of Moscow State University, psychogenetics Marina Egorova, ukroschёnny "warrior gene" can work for the benefit of: its carrier having self-control will be different sensitivity and patience.
The pursuit of personal goals.
In some situations, it may look like aggression or impulsivity, but in fact is simply a manifestation of concentration, Friedman said. "If two people play cards, and one of them takes a lot of cards, it looks as if he is aggressive or impulsive. However, you do not know his cards - he can just use a good opportunity »
As says Antonio Rangel, Head of Department, where he worked Friedman: "Previous studies that linked the MAOA-L with aggression and impulsivity, are in need of proper interpretation. The main question is whether the decisions, taking into account the environment, optimal or not? »
In a study published last year, Dominic Johnson of the University of Edinburgh, UK, have found that the gene carriers of MAOA-L were more aggressive, but only in response to someone else's call, and at the same time without excessive impulsivity. As he said, "this new work patterns can explain the results" because they studied people seem to have acted in their strategic interests - namely what were good carriers of MAOA-L Friedman. It also may explain how such behavior - and the genes that shape it - could be selected
Women and the warrior gene
The results showed that women who had detected a certain copy of the gene MAOA low activity, feel much happier than those women who have this gene variant was not, as well as men, regardless of whether they are carriers of the gene, or no.
Junior Professor of the College of Public Health of the University of South Florida and the study's lead author Hamyan Cheng (Hamian Chen) said he was surprised the results of the study. Happiness - it's not the only condition associated with the action of MAOA gene. "I was surprised by the results, because the mild form of MAOA associated with some negative phenomena, such as alcoholism, aggressiveness and antisocial behavior. Some scientists even refer to it as "warrior gene". However, our research pointed to the bright side of this gene -. At least for women »
It remains unclear why the man, which is present in the DNA of the same type of MAOA gene, do not feel just as happy as women. According to Cheng, this can be explained by the action of testosterone. However, he also emphasized that scientists need to study the matter. In the end, social factors also may play an important role. Genetics - this is only part of the picture of happiness
Reining warrior gene
As you know, energy can not be bad. It is neutral, and the sign attached to her circumstances. You can send the same effect on samosovershenstvavanie and struggle with weaknesses. For example, scientists have found that Buddhist monks more common "warrior gene" than the athletes wrestlers.
Not all men with the "aggression gene" behave aggressively - the manifestation of aggression promoted by such factors as the cynical and hostile attitude towards others, lack of higher education from his father
Results of the experiment on the macaques are convinced that, even in genetically susceptible to the aggression of male aggression may not appear if they were surrounded by maternal love as a child. Scientists suggest that a similar pattern may occur in humans.
There are different types warrior gene that differ in the number of repeats in the sequence. There 2R (two repeats), 3R, 3.5R, 4R, and 5R options. 3 and 4 repeat more often in Europeans. Option two repetitions is usually dormant and is activated only when the experiences of childhood abuse. 3.5R and 4R options are more active than 3R and 5R. High testosterone levels, low intelligence, poor living conditions, maternal smoking contribute to the activation of the sleeping warrior gene.
Scientists say that the owner of such a gene does not necessarily fit into a fight, smashing furniture and beat up his wife and children. Such a person can become a successful businessman, going to the financial risks, the military or the swimming champion of the world. Choosing a calm, quiet way of life, it can educate themselves and their gene as monks, for example.
Effective means to reassure the gene - to give people a sense of social harmony and justice. That they have seen in your life purpose, meaning and order. To able to fight for and not against. That it was not in the universe once too cold. "Warrior gene", as opposed to other seed sprouts are not in heat and in the cold.
- Probably, the children of the Ice Age - teacher Ruslan Kulish said. — Когда температура общества ниже нуля, начинаются заморозки в мозгах, прежде всего – детских. А в заморозки ничего не растет. А если в голове ничего не выросло, то такая голова способна на все. Так и появляются они — отморозки.
Рисковый ли ты?
Один из самых простых тестов склонности к риску разработан К.Левитиным. Этот тест выполнен в форме опросника и имеет общую форму. В нем представлены различные жизненные ситуации, на которые человек может отреагировать по-разному.
На каждый вопрос можно дать один из пяти ответов, каждый из которых оценивается своим баллом:
— «да» — 5 баллов;
— «скорей да, чем нет» — 4 балла;
— «затрудняюсь ответить» — 3 балла;
— «скорее нет, чем да» — 2 балла;
— «точно нет» — 1 балл.
Сами вопросы теста на склонность к риску следующие:
1. Смогли бы вы превысить допустимую скорость на машине, чтобы спасти жизнь другому человеку (к примеру, при транспортировке раненого)?
2. Смогли бы вы попытаться остановить убегающего злоумышленника?
3. Решились бы вы проехаться на подножке вагона поезда, который движется со скоростью около 100 км/час?
4. Пошли бы вы первым переходить реку с холодной водой (к примеру, во время туристического похода)?
5. Решились бы вы зайти в клетку со львом при условии присутствия в ней укротителя и гарантий безопасности?
6. Решились бы вы без определенных навыков сразу управлять парусной лодкой?
7. Смогли бы вы забраться за высокую трубу завода при наличии руководителя?
8. Рискнули бы остановить лошадь на скаку, дернув ее за уздечку?
9. Поехали бы вы в путешествие с другом, который только недавно перенес тяжелую автокатастрофу (при условии, что он будет находиться за рулем)?
10. Решились бы вы прыгнуть с 10-ти метровой высоты на растянутый тент пожарных?
11. Смогли бы вы пойти на опасную операцию в случае серьезной болезни с постельным режимом при условии, что вероятность избавиться от недуга 50 на 50?
12. Решились бы вы стать седьмым при поднятии лифта, рассчитанного всего на шесть человек?
13. Взялись бы вы за высоковольтный провод, если начальник уверяет в отсутствии напряжения?
14. Решились бы вы после одного урока управлять вертолетом?
Такой тест позволяет приблизительно оценить, насколько высокой является склонность риска у человека.
Если число баллов от 60 и выше, то склонность к риску очень высокая.
Если 25 и ниже, то человек является очень осторожным.
Преимущество данного теста заключается в простоте, поэтому пройти его не составит труда. При этом с помощью опросника можно оценить свои личностные качества и отношение к риску.
Автор: Андрей Беловешкин