The first, and by and large, the only one who is engaged in the analysis of fairy tales, was a Russian scholar Vladimir Propp. He singled out the constant repetitive elements in the story and broke them on the features that made the protagonist. A total of 31.
Thus, the entire structure is built fabulous narrative and under this model fit all the fairy tales ever written, or those that are yet to be written.
We have also seen that all these functions are reduced to the more simple model of the fairy world. Moreover, this model illustrates the full model of human behavior. Consider this model in action.
In any fairy tale is the "protagonist" or protagonist. He, in turn, is on a certain path. This path can be positioned as a way of life of man and break it down into several stages.
1) Starting Point.
All the stories begin with the phrase "Once upon a time", "in a certain kingdom ...", "long time ago", etc. Such formulations give us some starting point from which events begin to develop.
2) Formation of the path.
The transition from the starting point of the path by means of several embodiments. First of all, it is noteworthy that the motive for the move may be two mutually exclusive factors:
• Internal Initiative (an initiative of the protagonist);
• External Initiative (Initiative intermediary).
By the initiative of the inner transition concerns the first version out of the starting point, this voluntary withdrawal.
The other three relate to external initiatives - this exile, commanded or requested. But in the future when passing tests hero external initiatives can be transformed into internal initiative by the appearance of the character's inner purpose in passing the way. Let us dwell on each of the transfer factors.
A. voluntary withdrawal (internal initiative).
a. avoiding anything
b. care for anything
The most striking example is the first motive-Russian folk tale "The Gingerbread Man." His motive was leaving home, so he was on the road.
An example of the second motive is the fairy tale "The three heroes," where heroes voluntarily go on a journey to rescue someone.
B. Expulsion (external initiatives).
This illustrates the way the protagonist's lack of choice and aborted their own motives, as he was on the road is not of their own volition.
An illustration of this factor of transition can be found in the tale "The Wizard of Oz" when the wicked witch by a hurricane suffered Alley house in fairyland.
C. The command or request (external initiatives).
In this case, for example, fit the fairy tale "The Scarlet Flower", "Golden Antelope"
Now consider the goals of the protagonist. The purpose of the path is always a search. It is caused by two factors:
1) search of the lost;
2) search desired.
Just having a goal involves the successful completion of the way and achieve results.
Here is an example. At Bun after performing maintenance motif does not form the theme of "what", or in other words the purpose of the test and, along the way, it does not pass.
Speaking of kolobok.
The tale is, of course, Russian-folk, but in almost all countries have their own bun. This may be a pie, who escaped from the two German aunts and pizza pans umahnuvshaya with Italian chef. And always flour products await sharp teeth fox, pig, possum, etc. pterodactyl
Then of course, you can argue about that flour products supposedly purpose is - to be eaten, and against fate not trample
But who said that the purpose can not lead? It is Patty attain the goal, so he immediately becomes the hero-lover and they will live with his girlfriend-roll in any evropechi.
Let us recall the tale of the famous Italian writer Gianni Rodari "Adventures Chippollino».
The hero of the revolution and the hope of all fictional Italians for a bright future had quite a specific purpose and not become part of a vegetable salad. Although the purpose of the bulbs we are quite clear.
As Ivan the Fool purpose, Tsarevna-laughing, and other stereotypical characters that way for still found the target and achieved results. In this note ceased to be fools and Nesmeyanov.
We return to our scheme.
3) Tests on the way.
Along the way the main character is tested.
4) The fee for the test.
Passing the test, the hero is rewarded, without passing, shall be punished.
We call this phenomenon - board
The theme is suitable board illustration fairy tale "Jack Frost." The old woman sends her stepdaughter firewood into a deep, cold forest. There, she meets Jack Frost, and, despite the threat of death, treats him with kindness and affection. Then, according to one version of the tale, she is in the house of his savior and brings order there, and then returned with the gold on horseback and in a fur coat! Here, the main character has a specific goal - to survive, and that is why overcomes all the tests on the way
After the incident, the old woman sends her own daughter in the same cold forest, but not firewood, and for dowry. As we know, the test does not pass the girl, and according to one version, Frost kills her, on the other - it comes back to the unpleasant "gifts". What happened here? It seems to be in one and in another case, objectives well defined?
Here we are faced with the problem of internal and external initiatives. The fact is that in the former case, the stepdaughter she knew what she needed to survive, in the second dowry was the desire of the mother, but not her daughter.
The daughter did not understand why her dowry. And this is the case, not that it bad character. After all, in the tale a lot of examples when not the goodies are on the right path. In this case, it did not happen, because the daughter did not answer the question why, which in turn is responsible for tselepologanie.
5) Bonuses and companions.
We have already said that the passage of the test hero is rewarded.
First of all, he is moving towards his goal, and secondly always gets a bonus.
The bonus can be in fairy tales?
Let sit for example.
Let us recall the fairy tale "Geese - swans»
After the disappearance of his brother Masha went, as usual, look for it in the darkest forest. There she met the three characters: Stove, apple trees and a river. All asked for her help and Masha agreed. Of course, she could not do this, but then, on the way back, they would not have hidden her brother from his pursuers. And in this case, all would be repeated again, while Masha did not understand that the people of the terrible and dark forests need help.
Here is an example from real life board. You sit at home, and you wanted a snack.
You get out of the starting point (from the bed, for example) and go to the refrigerator for a specific purpose. We got on the road, we have made efforts. What is not a test? Let's go further. For a start you remove all the necessary products for a snack. Let it be a sandwich. We get our bread, sausage, tomatoes. And now the fun! Suppose that the bread and sausage have been cut for you at the store.
It seems to save time and effort? Yes, but pay for it with money, ie you overpay for cutting. In general, to make up a sandwich and eat.
Test passed! It would seem a trifle! But in the process you have spent energy, time, money!
And if you decide not to make a sandwich and lazy, then sooner or later you still have to eat, but for the wasted time, you too will pay, physical pain, for example.
Ask, what about diet? You also only pay just physical discomfort for a beautiful figure.
Here, precisely, everything rests on the definition of objectives.
But here's what can happen. You observe the six-month program of diet for three days and then broke and began to eat normally. Accordingly, that the punishment you face three days of senseless suffering. In our view, we have come quite close to the thesis that should pay for everything.
Go back to the bonuses. When the test passes, as is evident from the above examples, we obtain a companion or gift. Gift equivalent difficulty passed the test. In fact, we get the properties of the object to which it was directed test. In the case of a sandwich, it is not only the satisfaction of vital needs, but also a great taste of juicy smoked svininki. And it is an axiom! When passing any test there is a bonus, but we do not always pay attention to it, while the tale exaggerate this aspect.
About inanimate bonuses all became clear, now we will deal with partners. Go back to the fairy tale "The Wizard of Oz».
Alley on the way to the Emerald City met the Scarecrow, Iron Man, and the Cowardly Lion. To all of them she was helping and then they have walked together toward a common goal and the subsequent trial were held together, in fact, sharing responsibility for three.
Let us return to the real world and imagine the following situation.
You left school and assume that they decided to go to college on their own. Well, or at the insistence of the parents with the command: "Go there, not knowing where, and bring it, without knowing it." Now it is not so important. Your task. And you, like in a fairy tale, you pass three tests in the form of examinations and ultimately meet a wise old man who hands you a ticket to the fabulous world of science. Passing the entrance exam, you, one way or another, meet on your way to unite allies common purpose. Advice with them, share your experiences, positive or negative emotions, so get your bonuses.
In the test, trial call completion is necessary to mention one more important thing. If we talk about the fact that bonuses and reward equivalent to the complexity of the test, it means that the effort must be equal to the complexity of the test. The test is considered failed not only in not applying of or applying of a lack of effort, but when the effort took too much.
For example, with a sandwich which may be reflected in the following way: you do not a sandwich, and 10, at the same time assume that this figure - more than you need to get enough. What to do with the remaining sandwiches? You can put them to better times, is already affected pork will not pass the second incarnation or in the next two days to eat is not the first freshness winded sandwiches. And all this is happening because of the lack of goal-setting. That is the answer to the question: "Why do you need so many sandwiches" - no
In order to confirm this assertion on the fairy tale turn to the example of "Golden antelope».
When Raja orders antelope give him gold, antelope asks: "How much do you want?". Raja responds: "Many" Bottom line, we all know. Gold turned into shards, and Raja suffocated in its own unnecessary wealth. Why is this exactly a fairy tale finale? Again, not because Raja is very bad and cruel man, but because he did not know why he so much gold.
There is a curious statistics: 20 people won the lottery, the big prize, a 2nd able to preserve and increase capital
So, all the tests are passed and you are at the finish line, we went to college, make a sandwich, rescued the princess and get all the bonuses! The tale is over, it remains only to draw from it the lesson.
Proceeding from the above material, it can be concluded that a person lives, repeating the fairy-tale pattern of behavior. Thus, a fairy tale, no more, no less - a metaphor of our behavior strategies
Any of our action in the past or future registered thousands of years ago.
In our lives, we, of course, there were also good fairies, and Snake-dragon, fairy princes and princesses, and fools Nesmeyana. We have wandered through the dark forest and find the magic ball, which brought us out of there. Some of the stories we were leaving the kings, and some never came, left Ivan the Fool.
Author: Eugene Lange