Human life is very complex and multifaceted. But if we consider it from a purely psychological point of view - even more so. Everyone has its specific features and unique qualities, inner peace, mental organization and specific properties of the psyche. Users interact daily with other people, and interact with society, engaged in any activity, perform certain functions and achieve results. And often, watching the process of life, can be seen in the life of man and society are some laws - social and psychological phenomena that characterize the features of the relationship between people. That these laws, and it is dedicated to the material presented.
In this article we will talk about what the psychological effects of reflection and what they found in the life of man and society. We will examine various features of the psychological effects of exposure through interpersonal communication and mass communication. We also learn about the many effects of perception, manifested in communion, during operation, gaming activities and other areas of people's lives.
So, what is this phenomenon - the psychological effects?
What are the psychological effects?
Psychological effects (psychosocial effects) are stable and easily detectable regularities, reflecting the characteristics of interpersonal relations between people in society and reveals the features of the processes that reflect the parameters of communication and interaction. Simply put, the psychological effects - it is repetitive phenomena that occur during human communication and human interaction with the public.
Below are examples of the best known and most common psychological effects.
The placebo effect
Generally, the term "placebo" refers to any substance that does not have medicinal properties, but used as such. A healing effect caused by the substance, linked to the patient's faith in the fact that he did not accept "dummy" and the real medicine. In psychology, the placebo effect is a perfect example of how what we tell people, affects their perception. After all, the placebo effect is based on suggestion. The man simply report that, for example, some kind of medication has a certain impact, and he begins to anticipate this impact. As a result, the result of suggestion, is happening and the expected effect.
Check how the given information is correct, you can from the experience. The simplest example is probably someone from your family or friends from time to time there is a headache, discomfort in the stomach or something like that. When the illness happens, tell the person that will bring the medicine in a minute - a tablet dissolved in water. Let the people will wait. Get away somewhere, pour a glass of water and pull the time, pretending to be added to the water cure. Then let the person drink this water, again reminded that the drug is very good, and very soon the condition is normalized. The probability that a short period of time, this person will be easier, 80%, despite the fact that he drank a glass of ordinary water.
Veblen effect - it's unreasonable from an economic point of view, the increased demand for high-priced products. And, the higher the price, the higher the demand for goods. This effect is characterized mainly for products that are not available to most people because of its high price. And this, in turn, emphasizes the social position of the owners of such things. Veblen effect is characterized mainly for people who appreciate the status of goods, committed to a specific mark or brand. Sometimes this effect is amenable to people passing on a step higher on the social ladder (career growth, a more prestigious place of employment, etc.). Also Veblen effect - is an indication that in the psyche of the people exposed to it dominated motives desire for luxury and prestige.
Visually see the effects of Veblen effect on the human psyche, you can, just pay attention to the people around you. Most of all, it is subject to the influence of the youth. Nowadays there are so many different companies, brands, trade marks. And each of them has its own army of fans. Please note that buying young boys and girls: shoes and clothing, which is quite simple in appearance, but is quite expensive. Or phone facing many thousands of rubles, although budget there are plenty of them unique. And, as a rule, the more expensive will be news, the more people will want to buy them. But nothing can be done, because it is the influence of fashion. Moreover, in our time, unfortunately, widespread misconception: the more expensive things a person and the more of them, the significance of his person. Good advice for parents: educate their children in a healthy attitude to material values.
Zeigarnik effect - is a psychological phenomenon, which is that people are more inclined to remember suddenly interrupted classes and assignments than those who managed to finish. Information to this effect have been obtained empirically: conducted several experiments, participants were schoolchildren and students. During these experiments, the subjects were finishing one job and interrupted the performance of others. At the end of experiments, summed up where the result has always been a greater percentage of the stored unfinished tasks than of completed.
Effect Zeigarnik you can even try out for yourself. Grasp the implementation of some not very easy for you to choose the job and bring the matter to an end. Make a small pause. Then take a sheet of paper and pen and write down all the details of the implementation process. Then choose for yourself another job. Bring his willingness to half and stop the execution. After a similar pause, record all the details of the process. You will notice that what you do not have time to finish, is recreated in the memory much easier and more clearly than the fact that you are finished. This, so to speak, the reception is very practical to use for monitoring the performance of any jobs and increase efficiency. If you are tired, doing something, pause, rest. After you will continue with renewed vigor and precision in remembering all the details of what they did.
Cold reading is called a certain set of methods that are used by psychics, mediums, fortune tellers, magicians, etc. Cold reading is used to create the impression that applies it knows about the other person a lot of information, despite the very short acquaintance. And practice really able to learn a lot. This is done by analyzing the data of physical person: gender, age, style of dress, racial, religious and ..., place of birth, education level and other data. In general, practitioners are using guesswork, if the assumption is expressed by verbal or non verbal confirmation, then continues, "sounding out" a person in the same direction. If there is no confirmation, the guesses are discarded and others. Skillful practice cold reading can have on people is very strong impression and influence.
A striking example of cold reading - a fortune-telling on the street. Many people fall into such a situation, when the street comes a man and says he can tell fortunes, to predict the future, remove the evil eye, damage, etc. Just pause for a moment, the man to whom addressed, begins to hear from quite a stranger parts of his biography, a description of some aspects of his life, and other personal events. Man is surprised, starts to feel a kind of awe and reverence for the "magician". Often, "The Reader" using cold reading skills with the aim of fraud and extortion. So if suddenly a stranger starts to amaze you with their "magical" abilities, do not succumb to provocations and remember that most likely this person is very good psychologist and "reads" you like an open book, and all of its "magic" - a sharp skill. Be vigilant.
Pygmalion effect Pygmalion effect, or - it is a unique psychological phenomenon, which is that a person, convinced of reliability of any information, unconsciously behaves in a way that this information is confirmed. The so-called "prophecy" determines the character of the man who believes in him. Pygmalion effect, by the way, often receives a confirmation to verify the paranormal: the supporters are convinced that these phenomena are, and opponents - that they do not exist.
Pygmalion effect is very effective to use. You can experience this, for example, their child, which should soon get into a new environment (new class, school, sports section, etc.). As a rule, many children experience discomfort from the fact that they have to talk to strangers, think about how they perceive, fear not like, etc. Tell your child that you have already talked with the people with whom he will meet, and they are set in relation to a very friendly, positive, friendly, and expect the same treatment in return. Once in the new environment, but being tuned in a positive way, your child will be involuntarily behave relying on what you told him. And this, in turn, will implement your prophecy. As a result, it is likely that the relations in the new team will be pleasant and fun for your child and to those who will communicate with him.
Barnum effect / impact Forer
Barnum effect (he same effect Forer or the effect of subjective verification) - another unique phenomenon, whose meaning lies in the fact that people believe in the description of their personalities, started, in their opinion, particularly for them, but in fact are generic in nature and They can be applied to other people. Barnum effect, along with a cold reading, we discussed before, is often used by various scams, positioning itself as astrologers, palmistry mediums. This is done in order to deceive them.
In our daily life we can see a lot of evidence Barnum effect. For example, you may notice that many people believe in the accuracy of horoscopes, horoscopes, descriptions of their personalities in various tests, etc. Try to write a generalized description of a few of his colleagues (all the same), using the most common description of personality traits, and allow them to read, saying that each characteristic for each of them individually written. Most people agree with this description of the "self." So, if someone suddenly tells you you is a lot of interesting things, think about it, most likely, only a set of common phrases, and you are trying to influence. Sami You can also use this technique to dispose of his people, to establish a trusting relationship, to cause certain emotions and reactions. But remember that you should not abuse it.
The effect of the audience
The effect of the audience referred to the influence exerted by the activities of human presence of other people. This influence can be both positive and negative. Through numerous studies, it was observed that if a person performs an easy and familiar to him working, the presence of other people improve the results, because stimulating the emergence of correct responses. If the work is difficult and unfamiliar, the presence of other people's results worsen, stimulating the wrong reaction.
You can see the effect of this effect in their daily lives, just paying attention to yourself and others. Athletes often perform better when they know that they are being watched by spectators. Employees faced with a new activity, make more mistakes if they are seen by other people (bosses, colleagues). Such analogies can result from any sphere of life. With this effect, you can learn how to influence people and their performance, just watching or not watching them. In the same way, you can work on your personal effectiveness.
The effect sequence
The impact effect of the sequence shown in the fact that people can react differently to the same conditions, if you change the sequence of tasks. If, for example, during a particular experiment, the researcher rearranges its components, and the adaptation of the test to this experiment will be better or worse. For this reason, in the psychology of scientists decided to conduct a lot of research on the most effective scheme.
In effect people's lives sequence often has an impact on their activities. Productivity of employees of the organization can raise or lower, depending on how their day is built daily. Various activities at the superiors may lead to premature fatigue or, conversely, a surge of activity of employees. An athlete exercising on a particular program, be able to improve their performance if the components of the process will vary your workout. Parents can influence the emotional and physical condition of their children during the day, making an individual routine or to develop its own unique approach to education. Teachers can improve student achievement by changing the learning process in terms of permutations of its individual components, etc.
Hawthorne Effect - a phenomenon that manifests itself in the fact that the realization of man's participation in any experiment leads to a distorted, mostly, the best results. A person participating in the experiment, and knowing about it, begins to act more effectively, focused and hard than in normal conditions. The human need for a sense of its involvement in some special "experimental" group causes a change in his behavior and, therefore, affect the results of its operations. Hawthorne effect is often referred to as a phenomenon in which every innovation leads to improved outcomes, as it makes people's enthusiasm.
With Hawthorne effect can influence student achievement and employee productivity in the organization. Options may be few. Firstly, you can tell people that held some important experiment on the basis of which improvements are made in this area. Second, you can simply enter in the processes of any innovation, so that people will carry out its functions with greater interest than usual. But there is another side to this issue: part of an experiment conducted to obtain data, the most relevant fact. In this case, the awareness of people about the experiment will have a distorting effect on the results. To avoid this, you need to make sure that participants in the experiment did not know about it or were not aware of what exactly will be installed in the course of the study.
Dr. Fox Effect
Dr. Fox effect is that the expressive and impressive person providing the information, be receptive to much more important than the information itself, which he presents. The talent of the narrator can disguise a poor quality, a fictional, the futility and emptiness of information.