Winston Churchill said: "Russia - it is a puzzle, wrapped in a mystery wrapped in a riddle." We can not agree! Russian history is full of mysteries. Website says the key.
1. What does the word "Rus»? H3> Yes, we still do not know for certain where it came from the word "Rus". According to one version of the place name "Ros" (the name of the river), on the other - from the words Ruotsi, Roots, Rotsi (so-called Swedish Finnish tribes). Lomonosov believed that the Russes were descendants of the Sarmatians, who called themselves Roxolans or rosomanami (these words allegedly mutated to the word "Russia"). More "Russia" (red, red) Byzantines called tribes raided Constantinople. Ibn Fadlan, met the Vikings in 922, said of them: "They are like palm trees, blush, red».
According to many, but they do not order.
2. Who was Rurik? H3> With regard to who was Rurik, historians, too, there is no consensus. Some relate it to Rauric Jutland, the Danish dynasty Skёldungov konung. Other historians believe that Rurik - a Swedish King Eirik Emundarson. There is also a version that Rurik was the leader of the Slavic Obodrits (Polabian Slavs), and a version that Rurik came from the Baltic island Ruyan, which today is called Rugen. It is believed that any of Rurik, and was not at all.
Until the XV century, none of the Russian princes, called himself "Rurik", and the dispute about the identity of Rurik started at all in the XVIII century. So it is not over.
3. Was the Mongol-Tatar yoke? H3> You can start with the fact that no Mongla Tatars never was. It is an artificial term invented in the XVIII century. The definition of "yoke" appeared in the XV century. For the first time it occurs in the Kiev synopsis, as Polish historian Jan Dlugosz translated Latin term jugum. Only after that of standing on the Ugra we started talking about how osovbozhdenii from the yoke. Later, the term was "mastered" by Karamzin.
Historians still not agreed on the yoke. Lev Gumilyov considered relations of Russia and the Horde vzimovygodnym Union. Horde unquestionable role in the rise of Moscow, noted that even Karamzin. Nosovskii and Fomenko in his research and did reach what Russia and the Horde - the same thing. They relate to the Batu Yaroslav the Wise, Tokhtamysh Dmitry Donskoy ... leave it on their conscience.
4. As in Russia appeared headed eagle? H3> As in Russia "flew" double-headed eagle? He first appeared on the state seal during the reign of Ivan III, so it is believed that he was "brought" in Russia Sophia Palaeologus. However, it is unclear why it has become state symbols only 20 years after the marriage of Ivan III in vizantiyke. In addition, the double-headed eagle on unused Byzantines gospechatyah.
But the Habsburgs used, even for half a century before the Russian press, and was also on some coins of the Golden Horde, and was one of the alchemical symbols. At the court of Ivan III had no shortage of visiting expats alchemist.
5. Where did the Cossacks? H3> That's really a matter of how unlikely when one will understand, so it is with those who are the Cossacks. Motherland and Cossacks are in the North Caucasus, and in the Sea of Azov, and West Turkistan. Cossack ancestry traced back to the Scythians, Alans, the Circassians, to the Khazars, the Goths, to the roamer. Supporters of all versions have their arguments. Today, the Cossacks - a multi-ethnic community, which entered the representatives of several dozen ethnic groups, some of whom are quite unexpected - Moldovans, Turks, Estonians, Tajiks. The question of who were the first Cossacks still remains unresolved.
6. Is Terrible killing his son? H3> Whether the Terrible killing his son? An open question. In 1963, when the tomb was opened by Ivan the Terrible and his son, the content of the poison in the remains of Tsarevich it was incompatible with life. Long before this examination, Constantin Pobedonostsev called the picture Repin painting fantasy. Version of the murder was based on the stories of the papal legate Antonio Possevino, which is hardly a disinterested person.
7. Why Terrible abdicated the throne? H3> In 1575, Ivan the Terrible abdicated the throne and put on the serving Tatar Khan Simeon Bekbulatovich. His contemporaries did not understand the meaning of venture monarch. It was said that the king was afraid of the Magi predictions that this year will die Moscow Tsar. They do not understand the meaning of this act, and modern historians. There is a version that Grozny feared uprising in the former Khanate of Kazan, where he, by the way, he was still the king. Almost a year Ivan the Terrible conducted his experiment.
8. Was the impostor False Dmitry I? H3> We have already accepted that the False Dmitry I - this fugitive monk Grishka Otrepyev. But the whole thing seems very surreal. First Dmitry (with the prefix "pseudo") is recognized when all honest people own mother, princes, nobles, and after some time - all of a sudden see the light.
Pathological situation adds to the fact that the prince himself was fully convinced of the genuineness of what one contemporary wrote.
By the way, the idea that "it was easier to save than to fake Dimitri" expressed even Mykola Kostomarov. But it is unlikely we will ever know the truth.
9. Why Zemsky Sobor elected to the role of the king, "the candidate-Go»? H3> When the Zemsky Sobor in 1613 elected Mikhail Romanov to the throne, he was 16 years old. At the same time it was not even in Moscow during the hot debates raging there. The main argument was that the supposedly deceased Tsar Fedor Ivanovich before dying wanted to pass the throne to his cousin Theodore Romanov (Patriarch Filaret). And since he was in Polish captivity, the crown passed to his only son - Michael. As a historian later wrote Klyuchevskii, "would not the ability to choose, and a convenient».
10. Why Alexis decided on a reform of the Church? H3> The split of the Russian Church was one of the most difficult episodes in Russian history turning. Alexis, philhellene wished to change the church ceremonies "that was how the Greeks" and not someone in that much. " This "upgrade" has led to the largest spiritual confrontation in the history of Russia. The reasons for the split, scientists still argue. Not least here, as apparently played ambitions of the Russian tsar to the Byzantine throne. In 1649, Patriarch Paisius at a reception at the king's right hoped that Alexis became king in Constantinople: "Will you let new Moses, so osvobodishi us from captivity».
11. Why Peter I Europeanize Russia? H3> In the years of his reign Peter the Great Russia has changed beyond recognition. After returning from the Grand Embassy of the King has changed so that people began to talk about what it replaced. According to one version, Peter "sacrificed on the wall", but instead sent to Russia face similar impostor. According to another - "the king of the Germans in the barrel mortgage and launched into the sea." Fuel to the fire added that returned from Europe, Peter began a large-scale destruction of the "old Russian antiquity." Why? The unequivocal answer is no.
12. Was Paul's son Peter III? H3> One of the main mysteries of Russian history - whether Paul's son Peter III? It was interrupted by the Romanov dynasty? Catherine and Peter III for a long time had no children, the Empress wrote that her husband suffered from phimosis. Empress mentions in his diaries, and that was fascinated Sergei Saltykov, presumably the father of Paul I: "I did not give the whole spring and part of summer ...».
There is a folk legend of the birth of Paul I: according to her, Catherine gave birth to a dead child of Peter and he was replaced by a "chuhonskim" boy.
13. Was Feodor Kuzmich Alexander I? H3> The son of Paul I, Alexander, also left to historians complicated puzzle. Legend has it that he left the throne, falsifying his own death and went to wander in Russia under the name of Fyodor Kuzmich.
There are some indirect evidence of this legend. So, the witnesses concluded that on his deathbed, Alexander was absolutely not like himself. In addition, for unclear reasons, the Empress Elizabeth A., wife of the king, did not participate in the funeral ceremony. Famous Russian lawyer Anatoly Koni conducted a thorough comparative study of handwriting and the emperor Fyodor Kuzmich, and concluded that "the emperor's letter and notes are written in the hand of one pilgrim and the same person».
14. Where did the money from the sale of Alaska? H3> Where did the money from the sale of Alaska is still unknown. Gold bars were taken from London on the barge "Orkney", but it sank. It was there really gold is unknown. But the famous document, which says that most of the money was spent abroad on equipment for railways: Kursk-Kiev, Ryazan, Kozlovsky, the Moscow-Ryazan and others. Is it, we hardly ever know.
15. Why shot the royal family? H3> Historians still no consensus as to who is authorized the shooting of the royal family and the Romanovs near Alapaevsk. They called the names of Lenin and Sverdlov, but the investigator Vladimir Solovyov, who dealt with the case of execution of the Romanovs since 1993 has repeatedly argued that the sanctions to be shot gave no Lenin. nor Sverdlov. According to the memoirs of another investigator, Nikolai Sokolov, who ordered an investigation Admiral Kolchak, Ekaterinburg and Alapaevsk murder - "the product of the will of one person." The question is only, on whose it was the will.
16. Where did the "gold Kolchak»? H3> The fate of "Kolchak's gold", most of the gold reserves of the royal Rosii is still unknown. It was about 490 tons of pure gold bars and coins valued at 650 million. According to one version, he stole the Czechoslovak Corps, on the other - it was hidden on the orders of Kolchak. Supposed place of burial: Gateway Marina Griva in the Ob-Yenisei Canal, Sikhote-Alin mountains, Baikal, Irtysh. None of nowhere gold was never found. There is also a version that gold "settled" in European banks.
17. What was the Tunguska meteorite? H3> Was the Tunguska meteorite is still unclear. Search expeditions to the alleged crash site of meteorite fragments are not found, and there was no crater. There are many versions of what happened: the explosion of a nuclear reactor interplanetary spacecraft, icy comet collision with Earth antimatter wave experiment of Nikola Tesla. More than a dozen versions, but none so far is not scientifically recognized.
18. Why did the Bolsheviks took power so easily? H3> Back in February 1917, the Bolshevik Party was 5,000 in October of the same year already 350,000 As it turned out, that the Bolsheviks, which until recently was not considered a serious force, came to power ? It is possible to explain this logical sum of the factors of German money to promote, but denied that the Revolution of 1917 was an unprecedented event in the history of the world, it is impossible. And irrational factor was no less important than the calculation.
19. Why did Stalin decided to repression? H3> There is no consensus among historians about the causes of Stalinist repression there. According to one version, Stalin struggled with the regional authorities partinyymi preventing elections to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. On the other hand, it was a means of repression of "social engineering", a continuation of collectivization and dispossession. Finally, there is a version that the Soviet Union, Stalin was preparing for war and eliminate the country's "fifth column».
20. Why did Stalin returned to service in the Church? H3> The dramatic change in the attitude of Stalin to the church after the war, historians can not explain clearly. Some say that it was a pragmatic course leader, who needed "buckles" for mobilization. According to another version, Stalin was secretly religious, his bodyguard Yuri Solovyov recalled that Stalin had prayed, and even confessed, and Artem Sergeev recalled in an interview that Stalin never House did not say anything bad about the Church, and even zhuril his son Basil for a disrespectful attitude toward praying.
21. Why Khrushchev denounced Stalin's personality cult? H3> Speech by Nikita Khrushchev at the XX Party Congress, where he denounced Stalin's personality cult, became a sensation. Why did this decided? According to some, Khrushchev thus "whitewash" themselves for participation in the repression, according to others - preparing the reorganization of the state apparatus. There's even a version that because he was "revenge" for the death of the son of Stalin. Given the long-term consequences of this step, some historians see here even the "hands of the West." Decline in the prestige of the USSR after the Twentieth Congress was enormous. An interesting and active part in the preparation of the report, Otto Kuusinen, according to some collaborated with the British and American secret services.
22. Where did Raoul Wallenberg? H3> The mystery of the disappearance of the Soviet Union diplomat Raoul Wallenberg is still not solved. He who saved tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews, was last seen Jan. 18, 1945. Later, there is evidence that he was seen in the Lefortovo prison. According to the version described in the memoirs of KGB general Sudoplatova, Wallenberg was arrested on the personal orders of Bulganin and killed in 1947 on the orders of Molotov. There is also a version that Wallenberg was still alive. He saw former prisoners Ozerlag Poles Tsihotsky and Kowalski on one of the transit points. According to other accounts, he was seen also in other camps and Vladimir Central. Poles also claimed that he was alive and in October 1959.
23. Was the "gold party»? H3> There is a version that hypothetical gold and foreign assets of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the early years of the 1990s, "left" in the European and American banks. Search for "gold party" a lot of public and political figures. According to the journalist Eugene Dodoleva writer Yullian Semenov was eliminated due to the fact that he was able to "open circuit terminals party millions." However, there is speculation that the notorious "gold party" - nothing more than a myth.
24. Did Gorbachev about the plot? H3> On August 20, 1991 Gorbachev was scheduled signing of the Union Treaty, which was to mark the new position of the Soviet republics. But the event broke the coup. Did Gorbachev about the plot? On this question there is still no clear answer, but the fact that the Emergency Committee and the coup - the project of Gorbachev - quite common version. He was back in March 1991 instructed the future participants of the Emergency Committee to draft a law "On the state of emergency." Former member of the Government of the Russian Federation Mikhail Poltoranin also argues that "the coup of 1991 was played by Boris Yeltsin, together with Mikhail Gorbachev." The official version is that Gorbachev did not know anything.