The abilities of the human brain is still higher than in many of today's computers. However, we strongly interfere with the traps of his own consciousness, which continually force us to make questionable decisions and making false vyvody.Vy not to blame for his irrational. And the site knows why.
1. Things get worse h2> noticed that every year around is getting worse and worse? It makes us think of the effect of negativity.
The fact is that we tend to pay attention to the bad news and ignore the good. Scientists believe that we subconsciously perceive as bad as more important.
That is why we think that the situation in the world is exacerbated by the day. Although, for example, a writer and psychologist Steven Pinker, in his book proves that crime, violence and war is becoming less and less.
2. The safety car h2> Almost everyone knows that the aircraft - the safest vehicles in the world in contrast to the car. Statistically, the chance to die in a car accident ten times higher than in an airplane. However, our brain refuses to accept this relationship, and we continue to confidently get behind the wheel, but to tremble like a leaf on board. The phenomenon of probability neglect makes us afraid to die at the hands of terrorists and not to think about much more real danger - falling down the stairs or accidentally poisoned, for example.
3. I am always right h2> We love to agree with people who agree with us. This is why we choose people with similar views, judgments and preferences.
We are unpleasant individuals, groups of individuals or sites that make us to doubt their own right. Psychologist B. Skinner called this phenomenon "cognitive dissonance».
This selectivity and leads to confirmation bias - we accept only the information that confirms our judgments. At the same time we ignore or reject everything that conflicts with our true and threatens to destroy the familiar image of the world for us. Internet, by the way, only reinforces this trend.
4. Heads or Tails h2> We often believe that the events of the past can somehow influence our present. This is called a bug player. A simple example - coin toss. If five consecutive falls tails, our brains are confident that the next time necessarily fall eagle. In fact, the odds are still 50/50.
Roughly the same runs trap "positive expectations" inherent gamers. They think that after a few losses luck just has to turn around to face them, and already next game will bring them huge jackpot.
5. It was worth it h2> Everyone can recall a situation when made unnecessarily expensive or unnecessary purchases. And, rather than to carry it back, you have persuaded yourself that "it was worth it».
So working postshopingovaya rationalization - brain is programmed for comfort when you make some obvious stupidity
6. Alien so bad h2> Our innate need - to feel part of the team.
It's all about oxytocin - the so-called molecule of love. On the one hand, this hormone helps us build close ties with each other, on the other - makes repel all who remained outside our circle. He makes us suspicious, inspires fear and even arrogance towards strangers.
In the end, we overestimate our own group of people and underestimate those of whom we are, in fact, have no idea. This is the effect of intra-group bias.
7. Why are all around pregnant? H2> It often happens that we suddenly begin to notice everywhere something new for us. We believe that this "something" at a certain point it became haunt us , while in reality we just do not pay attention to it. This is the effect of sample surveys.
Example: You buy a new car, and from that moment begin to see the same cars around and everywhere. Or the woman who found out about the pregnancy, he suddenly begins to notice around himself a large number of pregnant women. It can be anything: any song or rarely used expression.
8. Gregarious h2> We love to move along with the crowd, even though we may not be aware of. When people around us are choosing a pet, be it a sports team or a singer, then our personality is disabled. We fall into a state of a kind of "groupthink", which is generated by the effect of the craze.
For example, the thing that your colleagues will consider steep likely to seem cool to you. Or in sport: if most of your surroundings is a fan of any team, it is very difficult to resist the craze.
9. Silence gives consent h2> The tendency to assume that other people think the same way as we do, the effect is caused by the transfer. , for example, often members of radical organizations believe that the entire world shares their position. Although so can not at all be.
Since this effect is related similar - false-consensus effect - unfounded confidence that surround the default agree with us.
10. Discounted - so cheap h2> We draw attention to the difference between the numbers, but not their size. This is called "anchor effect" or the "trap of comparison." This focus actively use sellers.
A classic example - the goods on sale. We see two prices on the label and appreciate the difference between the two, not the price. If the discount is significant, it makes an impression on us, even if the goods are in fact too expensive even with a discount.
This technique used and restaurants - they include menu prohibitively expensive meals to other price seemed quite reasonable. For the same reason, we often choose something in between - not too expensive, but not the cheapest.
11. Think about it tomorrow h2> In 1998, we conducted a study on the effect of the moment. 74% of buyers choosing food for a week, chose healthy fruits. And when they were asked to make a choice for the day, then 70% of the participants in the experiment were drawn to chocolate.
Often we behave frivolously today without thinking about tomorrow. The fact that we subconsciously we throw the responsibility on someone who we will be tomorrow. And it is difficult to understand what it will be once again we are