Chinese ID-card. From shabby pieces of paper to card "all in one"

History identification documents in China has always been particularly acute. Huge population has always forced the government to this issue with great care. Due to the fact that for four years as pursuing an active ID-card replacement card on the third generation, which include bank card, transport card, health insurance, information on fingerprints, etc. I would like a little highlight what are these documents represent.

Official photo ID-card of the third generation as it tells us the basic functions - bank card, store prints, ID i>

So, the official name - the identity card of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国 居民 身份证).

The situation with identity cards in China for all the efforts of the authorities remained catastrophic. A huge number of different types of certificates made the situation even more difficult - identity Republic of China (1911-1949), certificates of loyal citizens, issued by the Japanese government during the occupation, many different documents of different provinces (primarily separatist-minded western provinces, especially Xinjiang, Tibet, Ningxia, etc.). All this made the identification of the normal citizen, in principle, impossible. What kind of identification and standardization of document and records management, taxation may be involved, if at the same time in the country are valid for more than 20 types of identity?

The identity card of the Republic of China (1911-1949). By its number can be judged on how "common" identity cards were at the time. №5757 document with a population of several hundred million ... i>

Again, the solution dawned on the horizon only during the presidency of Deng Xiaoping - truly legendary personality who gave the country to fall into the abyss, where she confidently led Hu Yaobang and others like him and pulled her out of cesspools, where she drove the Great Helmsman. The fact that Mao for all the decades of rule have not even managed to introduce a single identification card, speaks for itself. And until 1984 as the identity Chinese citizens used all that happens - until the registration documents at a specific address.

On the influence of the dwarf (an increase of Deng Xiaoping - 157 cm) for life in China is the fact that when he retired and was only the chairman of the All-China Federation of the bridge, all the Chinese elite, according to the writer, "caught his every sneeze and every movement of your finger. " Anyway, the topic is not about that.

Anyway, April 6, 1984, the State Council sent a Ministry of Public Security issued a notification to the "standards and regulations on identity cards in China." July 1, 1995 a new identity entered the phase of operation. Already by the time it took to take photographs of all citizens endemic countries, changing regulations, preparation of technical support, we can judge how tremendous work has been done. Were "odokumencheny" All citizens, and on 1 January 2004, with the acceptance of the ID-card of the second generation, they began phasing out.

So he looked. Name, nationality, date of birth, place of issuance, registration, duration and number. I>

Their importance, again, it is difficult to overestimate. For the first time in the history of China the opportunity to create a common database of the country's population, standardize workflow, lead a normal population census and other and other. Although they are taken out of service, they are valid, and anywhere - from the ticket office at the station and to the tax, you can select either 1st or 2nd generation ID cards.

In the second generation, I would like to stay a little bit more, because now it is the main valid document in the PRC. The first generation was almost completely out of service, and the third is just beginning to be put into operation.

So he was put into operation (in the future, I'll call him in the masculine, as shenfenchzhen (身份证) transcribed into Russian in the masculine) January 1, 2001. At first glance, it contains the same information as the previous generation.

姓名, 性别, 民族, 出生 日期, 住地, 公民 身份证 吗 - nothing superfluous i>

The main difference from the previous generation is integrated IC-card (Integrated Circuit Card). It contains all the same information as the presentation of the text, but in electronic form that can be read by special devices. This is a huge step forward - at the ticket at the train station cashier is not necessary to type all those numbers and names - enough to put the card in the reader. Get a printout of your tax return to the tax office in the self-service terminal, just attach it to the reader. Generally, in all cases where the required data of the citizen - the organization is enough to get yourself a device you want.

At any site, you can buy it, if you have permission to use from the Ministry of Public Security i>

In practice, this means that where spent a minute now spent a couple of seconds. Given China's population - it saves millions of man-hours and a myriad of nerve cells.

Yes, damn it, when I pick up the child from kindergarten, I just need to attach it to the reader at the entrance - and I will tell who his parents are.

Multifunction upon entering kindergarten.谢 乐乐 96th year of birth, probably glad to get to the Habr ... i>

Naturally, I can not talk about the technical details. Which data transmission technology is used as a memory card, encryption etc. In China, many turn a blind eye, even though it is prohibited by law (the same prostitution, the same gambling, etc.), but there are three types of crimes, which is better not to make here. Fraud identification cards - one of them.

Anyway, I digress again. The third generation of the ID-card contains:

1) textual information about the name, nationality, date of birth, residence
2) photo
3) fingerprint
4) a bank card
5) any other information on the requirements of the citizen.

That is most impressive is the fact that it can be added to anything. Discount card your fitness center? Yes please. Medical card with all your diseases - so no problem (ZY This is the miracle of miracles, when the doctor just put your shenfenchzhen to your reader and the story of your sciatica is written there. Come to another hospital - the doctor is reading, what happened to you. Map get on a bus \ metro - yes for God's sake. Pokupochny certificate, travel ticket - yes anything, Apple with its proposal to integrate all into the phone and not standing next to the Chinese government, which can order the SDK provide specific network and integrate it into shenfenchzhen. One and a half billion potential users, and your service is integrated in their passport \ bank card - so many dream about. Of those intrigues, which are now wrapped around these agreements, we can write a whole bunch of exciting detective.

In fact, the third generation of cards, even though it is running in the official operation, at the hands of yet no one has. Is now undergoing a process of gradual integration of the main additions - fingerprint various devices, alpha testing, etc. The main requirement for certification by the Ministry of Public Security is a two-factor user authentication - himself IC-chip in the card, which must be applied to the reader and fingerprint reader as the second stage of the authorization. In the future, to pay for a pack of cigarettes in a stall under the house will be possible, putting his finger to the terminal in a stall. And that's cool.

1) Lined picture ID-card completely legal to 中华人民共和国 居民 身份证 法 - is public information shenfenchzhenya number, sex of the owner, date of birth and place of issue, available at 全国 公民 身份证 号码 查询 服务 中心 - popularly database numbers of ID cards. Shenfenchzheni first generation (and their image as well) are invalid from January 1, 2004.
2) Scold Mao Zedong - this is normal. Carry out manipulations with the ID-card (and pictures) - including the death penalty.
3) Fans Tin foil hat is not exactly a place in China. When I had a problem with the counterintelligence (purely because of my irrepressible curiosity, do not ask me about anything), I looked into his own business, which is available in two clicks to any police - there was everything from the moment of crossing the border. From the hotels where I stayed when he went somewhere and a bus ticket to the history of phone calls with a button «Play" every
4) In addition to paragraph 2. I sincerely admire China, I sincerely admire the way of the slurry pit in 1949 they were able to reach the peaks and today I really want to live in this country and contribute to its prosperity. I admire the fact that the illiteracy rate has decreased from 96% in 1949 to 6% in 2014. I admire the fact that where once (in 2004) went to the locomotive, now flies CRH on the speed of 300 km \ h. I admire the fact that since 2000 have been put into operation power plants with aggregate capacity of 150 GW. I admire the construction of thousands of kilometers of high-speed roads in places where were previously primer. I admire the fact that this is the third country that has its own space station. And so on and so and the other without end ...
According to statistics, out of 100 visitors to China, 90 of his dislike, 9 are neutral or positive. I am one of those who are imbued with her completely and was ill for a lifetime.
5) Thank you for 薛志 呜 that before surrender his shenfenchzhen 1st generation, he was not too lazy to do his photo.
Thank you for your attention. I hope it was interesting.



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