Legendary 'Horch' '
Few people know that the warriors with 30 years, the future founder of the leading German companies working just as a mechanic in the company of the famous Benz. After that young and purposeful Horch founded under the name the world-famous enterprise which engaged in production of sports cars.
August Horch (August Horch) was born October 12, 1868 in Winningen on the Moselle, the son of a blacksmith. The family lived a wealthy life. At thirteen years old boy was forced to quit school to help his family. At sixteen, he entered the car-building factory in Heidelberg, where are pressed steel bands on the wheels. Subsequently replaced a few more jobs. It was during the years of work on the wagon factory developed such traits August Horch as dedication, perseverance, and quarrelsome disposition. Only twenty years, he finally got a chance to study seriously.
In the fall of 1888, passed examinations and entered the Saxon Engineering College in Mittweida. By the way, there was educated and Jorgen Rasmussen Skafti - engineer, entrepreneur and "father" of the company with which the DKW Horch many years fate has brought to the management of the concern "Auto Union". After graduating from college, Horch worked at the foundry in Rostock, and then - in the design office Leipzig shipbuilding firm, where he powered torpedo boats. It was here, in Leipzig, Horch in 1896, first saw the car - "Benz Velo». [Next]
It made such an impression on him that he had sent a letter to Karl Benz with a request to take him to work, and to his surprise received an invitation in Mannheim as head of production. However, quarrelsome character Horch made itself felt. "Papa Benz" (so called him Horch) was for the young chief of production is too conservative. He wanted to try his hand, especially in the background has been the experience gained under the supervision of the inventor of the car. Horch decided to start "their work." He enlists the financial backing of a wealthy industrialist and founded in Erendfelde, near Cologne, a company «A. Horch & Co ». The company initially worked eleven people. Already in 1900 the company went out of the gate of the first Horch automobile.
It was equipped with a two-cylinder engine capacity of 4.5 hp The engine was placed in front and have quiet and smooth operation. Drive to the rear wheels carried a leather belt. Very bold and revolutionary for that time, the decision was to unite the gearbox with final drive in one unit. Body manufactured in Cologne workshop "Utermol." This started life later famous brand.
Two years later, the new model was released. "Horch Model 2" is now equipped with a propeller shaft with a pinion of chrome-nickel steel. Two-cylinder engine developed 10-12 hp in its creation Horch helped engineer Fritz Seidel (Fritz Seidel). After the birth of the second model, the company moved to Reichenbach. The number of employees reached ninety people. A Horch meanwhile hard at work on the next "model 3" four-cylinder engine with a capacity of 16-20 hp
In 1903 the company moved to Zwickau. Horch found additional funds, the company's authorized capital has reached 140 thousand. Brands - at that time a large sum. Factory released "Horch Model 4" four-cylinder engine with a displacement of 2600 cm3 and a power of 14-17 hp The car is fully compliant with the beginning of the century - the dual magneto ignition and battery, a three-stage gearbox,
Pneumatic tires. Construction August Horch in those days were very daring. In 1906-1909 gg. success enjoyed "Horch-Z» 22-hp (2725 cm3) engine: it was issued only 307 pieces.
Horch was not only a designer but also a talented businessman. He methodically increased its capital, which in two years has grown to 525 thousand. Reichsmarks. The plant operated the most severe penalty system. Missing from five to fifteen minutes "worth" 25 pfennig, and before half an hour - already 40. The working day at the factory lasted ten and a half hours. In 1906, Horch exhibited at the Berlin and the Paris Motor Show. A year later was presented the first six-cylinder "Horch" with engine capacity of 8 liters of 60 hp Horch was one of those who knew the value of a real racing. In the race behind the wheel of the car sat a famous German motorist Dr. Shtess (Stss) and the designer himself. When in 1906, a model with four-ZD (5800 cm3) engine producing 40 horsepower, its chassis built sports car body dash. The car raced on the Prize Heinrich of Prussia, but, alas, failed. This failure increased the already accumulated differences Horch with shareholders, declares that its design "adventurous».
Horch even in those years, advocated the establishment of the monocoque, citing body horse-drawn carriages, many of which were really carrying. But in the beginning of the century, this idea was absolutely fantastic. But compromise stubborn, proud Horch could not. And June 19, 1909 the founder of the company had to leave. The designer paid ridiculous compensation - 25 thousand. Reichsmarks, while the "Horch-ZD» worth 15 thousand. But he had to know Horch. Within four weeks in the same Zwickau, he founded a new company - «August Horch Automobilwerke Gmbh»!
But first he founded the firm had the name "Horch»
Naturally its owners filed a lawsuit in court and won. We had a different company name.
One legend says. In the house of one of the companions Horch were heated debates about the name. At this time, in the next room the son of the owner taught Latin. And when one of the shareholders said: "Listen to the other side!" The boy whether in jest, whether seriously loud translated this phrase into Latin: «Audiatur et altera pars!» Surprised debaters realize that «horch» (in German, language - "listen, listen") is translated into Latin as a «audi». The new company is called «Audi Automobilwerke Gmbh».
The second legend has it that August Horch left the factory itself, "Horch", because they do not get along with the new, more conservative, and his leadership has created a new company, and it is also called the "Horch", saying that his name was transferred along with it. A trial on the case of two companies of claiming for the title of the name "Horch", and at a meeting when all noisy and loud talking. The judge called to express opinions in quieter and said the word "heren" (listen), and one of those present at once pronounced the word in Latin, "audio". It is pleasant to the audience and it was decided to name the new name of this plant. "I am in all circumstances strive to build only the big and good cars of excellent material," - said Horch, turning the case in the new company. The plant began c pretty solid and powerful machines. Since 1910, he produced "Audi A10 / 22." The cylinders have been accepted at the time, were interlocked in pairs. The four-cylinder engine displacement of 2612 cm3 developed 22 hp The company advertised itself a large poster with the word «Audi» and the image of a huge ear. So there was one of the most famous and still brands of cars.
Already in 1910 he was released the first car "Audi B". It was not a pure sports car, is already present characteristics inherent in the recreational mode of transport. It should be noted that at the time this car was one of the most comfortable. Cars brand "Audi" have become increasingly gaining popularity among Germans.
Idyll violated the First World War. The company, headed by Horch, was on the verge of bankruptcy. Design capacity of August was not enough to get out of this situation, and in 1928 the owner of the "Audi" was Jørgen Skafte.
Going back to the first activity of the company, Horch founded at the beginning of the last century, it is worth noting that the hardships of war walked by her side. Cars "Horch" very popular, due to the transition from the production of sports cars to luxury car. One of the most famous cars of this brand was "Horch B12" class "luxury».
It is equipped with 12-cylinder engine capacity of 120 hp With this engine the car for a minute could develop a speed of 145 kilometers per hour. In all there were 80 such vehicles. Talking about the quality and comfort of the car, it is worth saying that it is "Horch" was the favorite car of Adolf Hitler.
The crisis of the early 30's made a few German companies to create concern "Auto Union", which included DKV, "Wanderer", "Horch" and "Audi". "Founding father" of the last two, of course, could not stay away. August 23, 1932, after twenty-three years, Horch, as a member of the Supervisory Board of "Auto Union", entered the gates of the plant, still bears his name.
29 April 1933 he became the director of the plant. True to its design did not allow. In the Third Reich, with its jingoism, Horch was quite to the court. To him, as one of the patriarchs of the German automotive industry, sympathetic Nazi elite. He still sits on the board of the Ministry. Skillfully playing a role, Horch, in particular, lobbied for the restriction of the importation of American cars.
In 1942, Horch semidesyatichetyrehletnego elected vice-president of the supervisory board of "Auto Union", but concern as to the Reich, the time left to live not for long. With that Horch in Hitler's Germany was in sight, he held important positions, he joined the
National Socialist Party, and apparently it saved him from persecution after the war. Quiet resigning, Horch nevertheless until the last days differed cantankerous, quarrelsome character.
August Horch - a talented engineer, entrepreneur and racing driver died on February 3 1951 in Myunberge in Bavaria.
Both brands owe their birth Horch, is not forgotten. Cars "Horch" stand alongside the most famous car 30s. Make "Audi" is alive to this day, although it is not building cars in Zwickau and Ingolstadt. Modern "Audi" has an excellent reputation around the world - and this is the best memory of Horch - a talented designer, whose name will forever remain in the history of the automotive industry.
The idea of creating a car with four-wheel drive there in winter 1976/77. during test drives on the prepared army SUV VW Iltis. Excellent behavior of the vehicle when driving on ice and snow has led to the idea to introduce four-wheel drive VW Iltis in serial Audi 80. In January 1978, Ferdinand Peha (at that time - the chief engineer of Audi) first demonstrated a prototype all-wheel drive folksvagenovsky superiors Project Al, the prototype of the future coupe Audi Quattro. Then the experimental vehicle with bodywork Audi Coupe, with a 180-strong overpressure "five" and a modified transmission from a small army SUV Volkswagen Iltis, stormed the pass Tyuraher Hoe - the most slippery road Alps. In the eyes of the astonished VW sales director Dr. Schmidt prototype with the free center differential can easily climbed the snow-covered 23-percent rise - and it is on summer tires without chains!
The official premiere took place Audi Quattro at the Geneva motor show in 1980, and noted appearance in the Audi is not the specific model, and the concept of quattro all. After all, "4x4" for Audi - is not just a wheel formula, and the formula for success of the company. For a quarter century quattro brand has become the most promoted in the world of four-wheel drive cars. In this sense it can not compete either "X» BMW, nor mersedesovsky "firmatik." And by the way, quattro brand might not be. Originally planned for the coupe another name - CARAT. It is an abbreviation of the German word capacious Coupeallrandantriebturbo, which means "all-wheel drive turbokupe» ...
The idea of the creation of all-wheel drive passenger cars, competitors laughed at first, considering the classic rear-wheel drive layout of the most successful. However, success in sport brought the Audi Quattro in popularity after the first stage performances at the January European Rally Championship 1981 in Austria. Interest in it and warmed up a publicity stunt when the car went up the ski jump!
Quattro went on to win stages as the World and European championships. The reason for yet another victory celebration served as Michelle Mouton Rally Sanremo in 1981 - it was the first victory for women in the International Rally Championship. Season 1982 was a continuation of the demonstration of superiority over rivals Audi Quattro. But despite the obvious superiority of Audi, the car had a lot of shortcomings. Quattro is much heavier than their rivals, the front of the engine and chassis makes the car bulky clumsy, besides the technical problems are constantly made themselves felt. Quattro won the Constructors Championship in 1982, but won the championship Walter Rerl after Quattro Michelle Mouton went with a broken transmission on the last race of the championship.
1983 season was not a cloudless for Audi; "Newly created» Lancia 037 promised to create fierce competition, in spite of its rear-wheel drive layout. The first pilot of Audi, Hannu Mikkola won the championship in 1983, but the pilots Lancia - Markku Alen and Walter Rerl won the Constructors Championship.
1984 was the most successful year for Audi in their "rally life". Unusual driving style Stig Blomqvist, short wheelbase, more powerful motor of over 450 hp, Kevlar body and a new six-speed transmission - have done their job and brought victory to Audi in the drivers 'standings and in the constructors' championship.
However, in 1984 I put forward a new candidate for the championship title - Rally of Corsica was presented the newest French arms - Peugeot 205 T16.
The new 205 was different from the Quattro. Peugeot engine was rear engine, space frame, and the car was much smaller than the Audi in size and weight. Pilot Peugeot - Ari Vatanen nearly won the first race, but in the end had an accident. ... This success was cause for concern in the leadership of the Audi team managers instructed the engineers to improve the car from Ingolstadt since the car did not satisfy them with its technical data.
But engineers do much with the car did not, and "crown rally Empire" in 1985 went to Peugeot. Quattro proved slower Peugeot and break more often .... Audi still has not stopped improving their offspring, even though the superiority of Peugeot 205.
The result of the engineers from Ingolstadt was the Audi Quattro S1, which appeared on the 1000 Lakes Rally in 1985, it proved that Audi is not going to back down and wants to regain its former shape.
S1 had the most powerful engine in the history of the rally - the power was about 600l.s. and huge wings and spoilers, which were to provide the confident behavior on the road. Excitement in Group B only increased, but the S1 won only a single victory in the Rally of San Remo in 1985.
Sunset Audi career in Group B began after the death of Henry Toivonenna Rally of Corsica in 1986. Immediately after his death, Audi and Ford discontinued their participation in the Group B Quattro in its various versions, has participated in various races around 4 years old, but it was the private teams. Win 4 more Audi Quattro Cup has written, probably one of the most prominent names in the list of racing cars century.
While Quattro attacked the World Rally Championship, Audi decided that you want to propel the car in America. They were sent to the US pilot John Baffama to participate in the annual race to raise the hill (Pikes Peak). The first pancake was not lumpy: Buffy has shown time, which until then were able to show only 8 riders! The result of the race in 1983 has been as successful as in 1982, Buffy finished sixth. In 1984 and 1985, Audi sent Michelle Mouton to America and in 1985 it established an absolute record for lifting up the mountain! 1986 - First Audi invited the American rider Bobby Ansera to participate in mountain races, and he won! In 1987, Walter Rerl again brought victory for Audi, by setting a new world record. But in 1988, Peugeot once again chipped in from the top of Audi: Ari Vatanen on the Peugeot 405 T16 won, he broke the record Rerlya less than a second! Record Vatanen lasted several years, until he beat Rod Millen on a specially prepared to take part in mountain racing Toyota Celica. Group B cars were suitable not only for participating in the rally, mountain races, probably have been adapted even more!
Immediately after the prohibition of group B in 1986, Audi introduced the engine capacity of over 1,000 hp. !!! But the rally with engine part was impossible ... The engine tested in several mountain races and the pilots unanimously recognized that such motor car becomes unmanageable, they said that with the help of the most difficult was to keep the car on the road and not slip turn that mountain